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Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project Restored and Preserved

27 Oct

The Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project is back online, thank you for your patience while the website has been restored!  The project was served by a temporary website on the 123host at http://skschool.site123.me/ during the crash.

wood houses school old

The new content submitted to the Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse project between December 2017 and September 2018 was posted at http://skschool.site123.me/ during the offline experience.  This new content will soon be appearing at the original Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project http://sites.rootsweb.com/~cansk/school/  

Thank you for your patience, and your guidance as the Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project provides an online history for current generations to enjoy, preserve, and experience, our historical educational, architectural, and cultural, heritage.

Moose Jaw Normal School ~ Endless Echoes

26 Jun
Strength by Gentleness by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Strength by Gentleness by Julia Adamson

Moose Jaw Normal School ~ Endless Echoes.

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“The Normal School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan” circa 1930 University of Alberta Libraries

As immigration came west in Canada pioneers settled on their homesteads with young families. Families, with young children in need of schools and teachers. The Council of the Northwest Territories made set out guidelines to establish school districts. Moose Jaw had the dubious distinction of pressing forward in applying for their school district, being the first in the Territories to have their petition to the Government approved. The one room schoolhouses, initally staffed by teachers recruited from Eastern Canada and overseas, or teacher appointed by the school district superintendent. The Northwest Territories Council made provision initiating Normal Training Sessions for teacher training. Permanent Normal Schools were established in Regina, Saskatoon, and Moose Jaw, with classes held in any Union School where demand warranted a special session. The Department of Education (now the Ministry of Education) continued regulating education after 1905 when Saskatchewan became a province.

The city of Moose Jaw began when two explorers, James Hamilton Ross (1856-1932), Hector Sutherland along with a couple of other homesteaders searched land suitable for settlement that would also make an excellent railway divisional point. In the summer of 1881, the forks of Moose Jaw and Thunder Creeks was chosen as this site, and by July 1882, the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) arrived connecting the settlement with Winnipeg, and Portage la Prairie. Six months later, Moose Jaw was connected with Calgary via the CPR. As settlers arrived, families realized a there was need to educate their children. In 1880, a federal government grant was available which paid half of a teacher’s salary if there were fifteen pupils in attendance at a school. A Provisional Board was appointed to establish public education in a school. This civic-minded board with John Gordon Ross (1891-1972), son of Senator James Hamilton Ross, at its helm soon had Moose Jaw incorporated as a town in January of 1884.


“As for the need of a school, let me say that education is one of the most sacred responsibility entrusted to parents. Government schools will soon lead to government control of what is taught. Education is a matter for the home, and when more formal instruction is required it should be a matter of choice. Many citizens are willing to share that responsibility with the church, but not with the government.~John Gordon Ross nomination speech for mayor of Moose Jaw February 1884.”Brown, Page 18.

The Northwest Territorial Council passed the very first school law, Ordinance No. 5 on August 18, 1884. Lieutenant-Governor E. Dewdney put this act into effect, sowing the seeds for the Department of Education. Ten Protestant schools and nine Roman Catholic schools in the territories had received payment for half teachers salaries since 1883. “School District of the Town of Moose Jaw Protestant Public School District No. 1 of the North West Territories” was the first school district organized under this ordinance. The temporary location of Moose Jaw’s first classroom is under debate, although it was used for both classes and the aforementioned political assemblies and speeches.

Brian A. Brown reports that the Moose Jaw Public School was located in the Brunswick Hotel, then the Foley Block (later the Churchill Hotel). Classes relocated to a lean to addition on the Moose Hotel (later the Bank of Commerce). Between 1886 and 1889 students were taught in Mr. W.R. Campbell’s building (later the Walter Scott building).

A permanent eight-room school house was built and opened in 1890 under principal Mr. William Rothwell, and Mr. J.N. MacDonald, teacher. The following year Mr. Calder was appointed principal of the Moose Jaw Union School District Number One, with two teachers serving in the newly constructed permanent school location.

“Kind words are short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless”~ Mother Teresa of Calcutta

J.A. Calder began teaching near Portage La Prairie, and other rural schools, landing a position as Moose Jaw High School principal in 1891, and school inspector in 1894. Calder returned to school studying law, following this he was Deputy Commissioner of Education in the North-West Territories (1901-1905) and Commissioner of Education beginning in 1905. (The position, Commissioner of Education, is currently referred to as “Minister of Education for the Ministry of Education”)

The naming of the school as a Union school was significant as it “A Union School could be protestant, public, separate or private. This was a common designation to set apart schools of a certain standard in which teachers could be trained in the absence of any other training facility, university or Normal College.”Brown P 45.


In 1888 provision was made in the Northwest Territories ordinance for the establishment of union schools. These schools combine the teaching of a high school curriculum, a teacher training curriculum, and a public school curriculum.
“The principal was required to be a graduate of some university in her Majesty’s Dominion, or in the opinion of the Board of Education equivalent thereto.”He was required to satisfy the Board of Education of the Northwest Territories that he was qualified by knowledge and ability to conduct such a school (union) and to train teachers according to the most approved methods of teaching.”-Department of Education recordsBrown p. 46.

By 1901, the school is referred to as Victoria School, and in the spring of 1903, Dr. J.W. Sifton becomes principal of Victoria School taking over from Augustus H. Ball. To further growth and development in Moose Jaw, the Soo Line reached town in September of 1893 connecting Moose Jaw with Chicago and Minneapolis. The population grew to 1,558 residents by 1901, only Prince Albert and Regina are larger centres at the turn of the century. Moose Jaw achieved city status on November 20, 1903 and at this time Moose Jaw was the “leading industrial centre of the provinceSaskBiz. (Regina incorporated June 19, 1903; population 2,2491901 and Saskatoon on May 26, 1906, population 311 1901.) Construction began on Alexandra school in 1905 and the school opened in the spring of 1906. The primary grades remained at Victoria School, and the older students attended the new Alexandra school. Short sessions for teacher training were held at Alexandra School as well. The population continued to swell, Moose Jaw recorded 6,249 residents in 1906, the largest urban centre of the newly formed province of Saskatchewan (September 5, 1905). Regina was enumerated at 6,100, Prince Albert 3,011 and Saskatoon 3,005 in 1906.

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“Alexandra School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan circa 1910” University of Alberta Libraries

In 1908,the governing body of the University was established under President Walter Murray. Moose Jaw assembled a petition of 2,217 persons with their claim to establish the provincial University in Moose Jaw. Premier Scott placed the decision with the board of governors to recommend a site upon deliberation and examination of all options and information available. In the following year a site in Saskatoon was chosen after surveying Moose Jaw, Prince Albert, Saskatoon, Battleford, Fort Qu’Appelle, Indian Head.

Moose Jaw continued to grow as the third largest city in the province, showing a population of 13,823 by 1911. Regina was the largest urban centre with 26,127 residents, Saskatoon 12,004. In 1911 Dr. Angus A. Graham, United Church minister, arrived in Moose Jaw and erected the Moose Jaw College. The Moose Jaw College was a boys Christian Residential College offering public school, and high school courses. The college also offered short commercial courses over the winter term when demand warranted. Complete commercial courses were offered, as well as high school classes up to the completion of first year University. Special courses were also arranged for student requests. Due to the depression and drought in the 1930s the Moose Jaw College closed its doors in 1931 and students transferred to the Regina College.

Planning of Ross Collegiate School began in 1913, becoming ready for classes until the spring of 1914. Moose Jaw’s growth reached 16,934 in 1916 third largest in the province; Regina came in at 26,127 and Saskatoon 21,048. During the Great War (1914 -1918) Ross School was converted to a military hospital, and resumed secondary high school and Normal School classes in the fall of 1920. Teacher training for 45 pupils was also undertaken at Alexandra school under the tutelage of principal, W.J. Hawkins, B.A. who happened to be also the Moose Jaw Rural School Inspector. N.L. Massey and S.G.M. McClelland also taught normal school classes alongside Hawkins. These student teachers earned their third-class teaching certificates, and were able to teach for three years under this designation.

A fifteen week teacher training session was made available in Moose jaw under school inspectors as teachers. 62 students applied for normal school teaching, and the call was answered by Inspectors Griffin, McClelland and Keith in the fall of 1923. Additionally, a sixteen week winter normal school sessions was proposed at Prince Albert, Moosomin, Moose Jaw, Weyburn, Swift Current and Estevan facilities if twenty-five students enrolled. A facility was looked at in Yorkton as well for the same extra Winter session. This session was out of the ordinary, as traditionally sessions began in January, however it was thought that teachers could make use of the normal school winter session while the rural schools were closed during the winter vacation period.

The Department of Education needed to meet the increasing demand for teachers, so the Moose Jaw Normal School was opened in 1927. There were now three normal schools in Saskatchewan, Moose Jaw, Regina and Saskatoon. Eastern Canada adopted the French term école Normale which gave rise to the term Normal School where teachers learned the “norms” in school education methods.

“The rewards of teaching do not at present encourage the expenditure of time and money in professional preparation. So long as a third class teacher is paid the same salary as one holding higher qualifications, there is no inducement for a young man or woman to spend an additional year at high school and an additional term at the Normal School. Salaries have not kept pace with the increased cost of living. Teaching is so poorly paid in comparison with other lines of work that it has suffered by competition. The teachers’ services are too often regarded as a commodity to be purchased at the cheapest obtainable rate in the open market. Until the public realizes that there is a close relation between the kind of education available and the price actually paid for it, we cannot look for any improvement in the quality of our teachers or any permanency in the teaching profession. …The best teachers will gradually drop out and the rising generation will be handicapped through life because inadequately qualified “permit” teachers were in charge of their early education, ” said J.F. Bryant, President of the Saskatchewan School trustees, “Another matter which demands our serious consideration is the lack of men in the teaching profession…Since 1906 the percentage of male teachers in the province has dropped from 43.4 to 16.7 per cent. The majority of the men are to be found in urban districts where they carry on as principals and high school masters.The Morning Leader. Feb 26, 1920.

The Moose Jaw Provincial Normal School opened in 1927. “In reference to the selection of Moose Jaw for the location of the third normal school, Mr. Gardiner [acting minister of education] stated that a large majority of the students who presented themselves for normal school training lived in the more settled parts of the southern part of the province.”The Morning Leader 1927. During the first term, some 300 students were in attendance at the new normal school in Moose Jaw.

“The best of a book is not the thought which it contains, but the thought which it suggests; just as the charm of music dwells not in the tones but in the echoes of our hearts.”~ John Greenleaf Whittier

Upon establishment of the Normal School at Moose Jaw, the staffing at all the normal schools were re-arranged. Dr. John Samuel Huff, (1905-1959) M.A., D. Paed., commissioner of education was appointed as president of the new Normal School in Moose Jaw by the Honourable S.J. Latta, Minister of Education. Previously principal of the Saskatoon Normal School (1924-1927) Regina Normal School (1915-1924), Doctor of paedagogy (1919)Inspector of schools (1911-1915), Principal North Battleford High School (1908-1911) he brought with him a wealth of experience following his graduation from the Regina Normal School in 1907 with a first class certificate.

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Regina Normal School 1914 Postcard credit Postcard 12856 Lovell & Co. New Normal School Regina (cca. 1911) Peel

…..
Honourable James G. Gardiner, Premier and Minister of Education laid the corner stone for the Moose Jaw Provincial Normal School on Tuesday, October 2, 1928 before a crowed of about one thousand. The cost of completion came to $500,000. Richard Geoffrey Bunyard, the first practicing architect located in Moose Jaw, supervised the construction of the Normal School. The Morning Leader recollected that the Regina Provincial Normal School was established in 1912, and the one located in Saskatoon in 1921. ( Moose Jaw Normal School was located where the Moose Jaw SIAST Palliser Campus now stands. )

During the early years of operating normal schools, short-term sessions were held proffering third class teaching certificates to turn out a larger number of teachers for the burgeoning population of Saskatchewan. Even though short term sessions were used to a great extent in the early 1920s and discontinued in 1926, a four month course offering a third class certificate was revived in 1929. In 1928, a short term second class session lasting 18 weeks was held at the three normal schools, and an 18 week short first class session was offered at the Regina and Saskatoon Normal Schools. However, if demand warrants it, a short first class session was available in Moose Jaw for an enrollment level of 40 students. These classes short term classes were made available to those teachers possessing a third class certificate who wished to upgrade to an interim second class (of first class) teaching certificate by taking an additional four month training course.

Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask.. Montreal: Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd. Montreal, Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd (Publisher) .  c1939.

Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask.. Montreal: Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd. Montreal, Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd (Publisher) . c1939.

Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)

Robert Whiting Asseltine (1870-1953), Bachelor of Arts, teacher at both the Saskatoon Moose Jaw normal school was appointed principal of the Moose Jaw Normal School between 1929-1930. Following his tenure as principal of the Moose Jaw Normal School, Dr. Huff went on to become deputy minister of education for Saskatchewan which he held until 1934 when he retired.

“Looking forward into an empty year strikes one with a certain awe, because one finds therein no recognition. The years behind have a friendly aspect, and they are warmed by the fires we have kindled, and all their echoes are the echoes of our own voice.”
~
Alexander Smith

The brick building constructed in Moose Jaw for the Normal School classes was officially opened February 26, 1930 by the Honorable J. F. Bryant, minister of public works. An invitation was extended to the members of the Saskatchewan legislative assembly by the City of Moose Jaw to attend the grand opening on Wednesday afternoon. Premier Anderson, Sir Frederick Haultain and Dr. J.S. Huff, Principal also addressed the gathered crowd at the opening ceremonies. Premier Anderson related that the normal schools in the province were over-crowded. Between the three normal schools, 1,500 teachers are trained each year.

Alexandra school in Moose Jaw, the previous home to teacher training “short courses” opened its doors to the newly established permanent Normal School, offering practicum experiences in the field for the student teachers.

“These teachers [at Normal School], it must be explained, were not so much engaged in teaching, as in teaching how to teach. It was their task to impart to the young men and women in their care the latest and most infallible method of cramming information into the heads of children. Recognizing that few teachers have that burning enthusiasm which makes a method of instruction unnecessary, they sought to provide methods which could be depended upon when enthusiasm waned, or when they burned out, or when it had never existed. They taught how to teach; they taught when to open the windows in a classroom and when to close them; they taught how much coal and wood it takes to heat a one-room rural school where the teacher is also the fireman; they taught methods of decorating classrooms for Easter, Thanksgiving, Hallowe’en and Christmas; they taught ways of teaching children with no talent for drawing how to draw; they taught how a school choir could be formed and trained when there was no instrument but a pitch-pipe; they taught how to make a teacher’s chair out of a barrel, and they taught how to make hangings, somewhat resembling batik, by drawing in wax crayon on unbleached cotton, and pressing it with a hot iron. They attempted, in fact to equip their pupils in a year with the skills which it had taken them many years of practical teaching, and much poring over Department manuals, to acquire. And often, after their regular hours of duty, they would ask groups of students to their homes, and there, in the course of an evening’s conversation, they would drop many useful hints about how to handle rural trustees, how to deal with cranky parents, how a girl-teacher of nineteen, weighing one hundred and ten pounds might resist the amorous advances of a pupil of seventeen, weighing one hundred and sixty pounds, how to leave a rural classroom without making it completely obvious that you were going to the privy, and how to negotiate an increase in pay at the end of your first year.” Martens. (R. Davies, The Salterton Trilogy (Tempest-Tost), 79).

Upon reflection, Dr. James Balfour Kirkpatrick, Dean of the College of Education said that during the pioneering days in the province, “schools had just whoever they could get to do the teaching, and teaching wasn’t considered a very viable profession. Teaching was regarded as a stepping stone into something else like law or medicine.The Phoenix. 1984.

During the depression years, school enrollment was capped at 800 students for the three provincial normal schools, rather than train a full complement of 1,200 teachers. This decision to limit attendance was considered more advantageous in 1931 rather than closing the Moose Jaw Normal School. Statistics Canada recorded a population of 20,753 for Moose Jaw during this year, Moose Jaw’s sister cities for the other two normal schools, Regina was at 53,209 and the city of Saskatoon 43,291.

The Normal Schools published year books, the book in Saskatoon for the Normal School was termed The Light, Regina Normal School published The Aurora, and the Moose Jaw Normal School had the “Normal Echoes“.

“What is history? An echo of the past in the future; a reflex from the future on the past.”
~
Victor Hugo

In 1933 enrollment at the provincial normal schools was open to graduates aged 18 years of age or older and holding either a grade 11 or a grade 12 certificate with no difference being made for the applicants attending the normal school. Saskatchewan Normal Schools would accept graduates of Canadian or British Universities as approved by the department. By 1936, enrollment standings required a grade 12 diploma, and the normal schools would only choose applicants with a grade 11 standing to meet a minimum enrollment quota, if a shortage of grade 12 applicants presented themselves.


“When there is an original sound in the world, it makes a hundred echoes.”

~John A. Shedd

The school was organized under Principal G. Allen Brown in the late 1930s. Brown had been the “Principal of the Collegiate Institute at Prince Albert and superintendent of schools at Prince Albert. He is a graduate of the University of Toronto, holds a permanent high school certificate, has specialist training in mathematics and has been teaching in Prince Albert for over a dozen years.” before being a teacher at the Moose Jaw normal school before his posting as principal. The Morning Leader, 1927. Principals of the Normal Schools reported to the superintendent of education (this title later changed to the Deputy Minister of Education). It was during this era, that the department of education set out a higher pre-requisite for student applicants applying for entry into normal schools. Intelligence, aptitude and vocational testing were set before applicants who had attained at least a grade 12 standing along with a complete medical examination. Additionally, student teachers needed to attend specific university classes following graduation at normal school to attain a “permanent teaching certificate”. Teachers generally attended summer school at university in order to complete this additional requirement.

“In 1921, when 595 certificates were issued and 889 teachers trained, salary paid a first class male teacher was $1,452…in 1935, when 1,326 certificates were issued and 911 teachers trained, salary for the same teacher amounted to only $523.The Leader Post. 1937. ” Due to the drouth and depression of the 1930s, salary arrears for teachers in the province “were reported totalling $777,380 at Dec. 31, 1934; $964,149 at Dec. 31, 1936.The Leader Post. 1937. ” Though Saskatchewan schools experienced a shortage of teachers during the Great War, the depression years of the dirty thirties showed an oversupply of teachers. The difficulties during this era saw former teachers re-applying to the teaching profession. Desperate for a job, residents turned to normal schools and teacher training colleges. Academic and professional qualifications were raised by the normal schools in response to the high number of applications for teacher training, and enrollment levels were capped.

This situation changed following the second world war. Regina Normal School closed after World War II due to declining enrollment. In the fall term of the 1944 school year, enrollment for all three provincial normal schools came to only 321 applicants, and the previous year, 1943-1944 there were only 450 enrolled. In comparison, the 1939-1940 school term had an enrollment of 820 with 211 attending the Moose Jaw Normal School, 344 Saskatoon, and 272 attended the Regina Normal School. Between 1943 and 1948 short courses were again offered, however this brought down the number of full time students. The pre-requisite for normal school applicants was a grade 12 diploma, Saskatchewan residence, medical examination, and successful completion of normal entrance examinations through grades nine, ten and eleven. 877 students were in attendance the next year, and by the 1941-1942 school term 950 were enrolled in the normal schools across the province.

Mr. H.C. Andrews, B.S.A., B.Ed, principal of the Moose Jaw Normal School reported 146 graduates at the 1946 spring convocation. “Teachers must act as pivots, in a community around which education is interpreted to the people there, and prime essentials required are that the young teachers starting out must have faith in the future and faith in the youth, with whom they come in contact,” the Honourable Woodrow S. Lloyd, Minister of Education said, “Teachers in beginning their careers, must develop an ability to interpret that which they read and hear, must have good health, a good background of learning and especially be civic minded.The Leader-Post, 1946.

A new curriculum along with re-designed entrance requirements were both introduced for the fall of 1945. Normal school applicants required a letter from their high school teacher or principal attesting to the students aptitude for teaching. The first two weeks of Normal School consisted of medical and intelligence testing and staff interviews to procure students suited for the profession of teaching.

“Poetry is an echo, asking a shadow to dance.” ~
Carl Sandburg

The Regina Normal School had been taken over by the Royal Canadian Air Force (R.C.A.F.) during the war years (1939 to 1945), and it was unknown how long the R.C.A.F. would require the building. The Moose Jaw institution, being newer, was in better condition. The Department of Education weighing these options decided in favour of keeping the Moose Jaw normal school open.

The University of Saskatchewan accredited the Normal School teaching program as a year of University work in acquiring a Bachelor of Education degree. Normal schools were junior colleges of the university in 1946.

“Teaching is the most important business on earth, ” said Dr. S.W. Steinson of the Moose Jaw Normal School…” After determining the aims [of every lesson], you must choose the tools and techniques with which to work, and, lastly, evaluate the extent to which you have achieved your aims.Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Oct. 14, 1950.

In 1951, members of the legislative assembly (MLAs) discussed re-opening the normal school in Regina, in addition to the Moose Jaw and Saskatoon normal schools. (Moose Jaw had a population of 23,069 in 1951; Regina 60,246 and Saskatoon 46,028) It was during this debate that it was “pointed out that the northern part of the province was more heavily populated than the south…and Moose Jaw didn’t have a full complement of students” at that time. Students enrollment across the province dropped from 894 students to 745 enrolled in the fall of 1951. The Normal School at Moose Jaw saw an enrollment of 225, 49 less students than the previous year, Saskatoon Normal School was down 31 students, and the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education saw a reduction of 69 students as well.

Entrance exams in 1952 consisted of basic language, mathematics and general intelligence tests. “Even our Normal School students agree that one year training is not sufficient, and there are only hurried discussions during the semester,” explained Marion Scribner from the Moose Jaw Normal School, “with an inspired teacher, the ideal school could become a realty.”Saskatoon Star-Phoenix 1952 Though it was felt that Saskatchewan had the “most advanced system of practice teaching in North America”, a teaching certificate was offered after a one year Normal course.

“When the school existed mainly to develop skills and to impart information, the teacher, to be successful, required to be master of his subject and drill techniques, and able to keep order, either by strength of personality or muscles. Beyond this little more was essential.Today aims of a different curriculum made greater demands on the teacher, Mr. Lewis [Normal School teacher] declared.

To train pupils to think, the teacher must himself possess this somewhat rare ability. To teach pupils to enjoy beauty he must have the soul of the artist. To develop good citizens he must have at once the attitudes of a good citizen, a thorough understanding of its benefits.

To deal with many types of children and help those who are maladjusted he must have an understanding heart.

Many young men and women who obtain a high school education do not have the other qualifications necessary to make such a teacher.

They can be obtained only if young people of high ability, steeped from the earliest years in our culture, enter the teaching profession.The Leader-Post, 1948.

The Moose Jaw Normal School was renamed the Saskatchewan Teachers College as of 1953 and opened with an enrollment of 229 student teachers that fall. Andrews, principal of the Moose Jaw Teachers College reported 215 graduates in the spring of 1954, speaking at the convocation; “The sound thinker will examine all ideas carefully and methodically and will discard those that are not well founded.The Leader Post, 1954

During the 50th provincial anniversary celebrations, Robert Kohaly, MLA said that “teaching has possibly become the most important of all professions…members of the teaching profession have the responsibility of seeing that 50 years from now, the residents of Saskatchewan will be as proud of the present generation as we are of the pioneer residents whose memories are being commemorated this year.The Leader-Post 1955.

A three year study to clarify the quality of teacher education and define who was responsible for teacher education curriculum. The study began in 1955 according to Balfour examining whether

  • a) teachers colleges should be kept, but the courses expanded into a two year session;
  • b) teachers colleges become federated colleges;
  • c) or all colleges come under the University.

Though the government’s Department of Education made plans to withdraw from teacher education in 1958, the decision to place teacher education under the jurisdiction of the University of Saskatchewan came about in 1964. “there was a realization that if you expected a teacher to know the subject, the pupils, the technique and all that a teacher needs to know to do a job well, then one year wasn’t nearly enough time,” explained Balfour.” The complete move to the contemporary four year degree program achieving a bachelor’s degree in education did not become fully established until the 1970s.

A ten per cent salary increase was offered to those teachers with teacher’s college training in 1957. The “minimum salary for teachers with teacher’s college training is $2,400, reaching a maximum of $4,00 in nine years.The Leader-Post 1957.” Gib Eamer, Executive secretary of the Saskatchewan Teachers Federation spoke to the success of the salary increase in retaining teachers in the province.

The Moose Jaw Normal School closed its doors in 1959. Moose Jaw normal school student year books were published under the title; “Normal Echoes.”

“The sound of a kiss is not so loud as that of a cannon, but its echo lasts a great deal longer.”
~
Oliver Wendell Holmes

Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) Palliser Campus made its home in the Moose Jaw Normal School building. Operations of the Moose Jaw Normal School resumed at the Saskatchewan Teachers College, Regina. Provincially teacher education was provided by the Saskatoon and Regina Teacher Colleges. in the early 1960s, all the education of teachers in the province was under the jurisdiction of the “University of Saskatchewan” – Regina Campus” and “Avenue A Campus” until buildings could be built for the College of Education in both cities.

The Honourable Woodrow S. Lloyd, Minister of Education, announced that the Provincial Technical Institute will open in the Moose Jaw Teachers College building. The province, in 1958 had only two Teachers Colleges, one located in Saskatoon, the other in Moose Jaw. With the opening of the Provincial Technical Institute in Moose Jaw, the Teachers College will re-locate from Moose Jaw to Regina. The former Regina Normal School building (after renovations amounting to about $400,000) was used again to provide classrooms for teacher training for the Regina Teachers College. In the fall of 1959, the Regina Teachers College opened to an enrollment of about 400 student teachers. Principal H.C. Andrews speaking to the new students said that they faced a “great responsibility and you must be ready to accept it. Never let it be said that you came to the stairs of learning and refused to ascend.The Leader-post Sept. 8,1959.” At the time of the transfer, the Moose Jaw teachers college was under the head of H.C. Andrews, principal along with 15 staff.

“Before a teacher can obtain a permanent certificate in Saskatchewan, two years of study after Grade XII are necessary. The first of these is usually taken at a Teachers College; the second must be at the University. If a two year course is to be a minimum requirement, or even if it is to be provide for effective coordination between the University and department, the problem of proximity of institutions is important….Teacher training will then be carried on, still at two centres in the province, but at those centres in which the University also operates, said Wilson.Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, 1958.

Moose Jaw not only said farewell to its Teachers’ College, but also the Soo Line, when ran its last passenger train in the spring of 1961. The CPR Moose Jaw – Macklin 480 kilometer branch line also ceased services. A once busy divisional point, with trains arriving continuously all day, Moose Jaw rail traffic was reduced to two cross country trains daily.

“Ennui is the echo in us of time tearing itself apart.

~
Emile M. Cioran

The last year the Teachers College, Moose Jaw opened, the 1958-1959 session, enrollment increased to 350 students, over 237 from the year before. The new Technical Institute will move into the college building, after being used for teacher training for 30 years, it will continue its service in education. Following its first year, the Saskatchewan Technical Institute, received an enrollment of 1,500 students. Construction of a new building pegged at $2,2500,000 on the Teacher’s College site, began in 1958, with the official opening on January 11, 1961. The construction added a new gymnasium-auditorium, two storey classroom wing, kitchen, and dining room wing. The Teachers College building remained at the heart of the new institute, housing administration offices.

Moose Jaw’s population on the 2011 census was 33,274; Saskatoon 222,189, and Regina 193,100. Once the province’s largest industrial city, Moose Jaw rings out her proud heritage. Reaching through time, reclaiming hundreds of unique memories, they truly live up to their new slogan, “Moose Jaw: Surprisingly Unexpected.” (Placing a spotlight on their old slogan, “the Band Capital of North America” a story in itself.)

“Most of your reactions are echoes from the past.

You do not really live in the present.”
~
Gaelic Proverb

The Regina Normal School was established first in 1893, followed by the Normal School in Saskatoon in 1912, and then demand warranted as well, the Normal School in Moose Jaw by 1927. The Regina Normal School building was used for teacher training opening in 1914, closing between 1944-1960, when it reopened to serve until 1969, with a total teacher training facility era of 76 years. The Saskatoon Normal School building opened in 1923, and was used until 1970, its era serving teacher education covering a total of 50 years. The Moose Jaw Normal School building, opened in 1930, and closed in 1959 when classes continued at the Regina location. The Moose Jaw Normal School building had a lifespan of 30 years as a teacher training facility before being used by Saskatchewan Technical Institute.

From humble beginnings, the echoes from the Moose Jaw Normal School ring out. Friendly fires are re-kindled, looking at the reflections of history. Through time, hundreds of student teachers passed through Normal Sessions carrying with them lasting memories.

Article written by Julia Adamson

BIBLIOGRAPHY
________________________________________________________________________________________

Additional Reading:

  • Regina Normal School~ a History ~ From potential to realty
      • North-West Territories Normal School 1893-1905
      • Regina Provincial Normal School 1905-1927
      • Regina Normal School 1927-1953
    • Regina Teacher’s College 1953-1961
    • University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus 1961-1969
    • Faculty of Education USRC 1969-1974
    • University of Regina 1974-

________________________________________________________________________________________

 

The Moose Jaw Standard

The Moose Jaw Standard (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan Location

Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan Location (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: A small grain elevator on a farm near...

English: A small grain elevator on a farm near Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Mac the Moose stands on the edge of Moose Jaw.

Mac the Moose stands on the edge of Moose Jaw. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Welcome to Moose Jaw

Welcome to Moose Jaw (Photo credit: jimmywayne)

 

PC002590: "The Normal School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan" is licensed by University of Alberta Libraries under the Attribution - Non-Commercial - Creative Commons license. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/permissions/postcards.html.

PC002590: “The Normal School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan” is licensed by University of Alberta Libraries under the Attribution – Non-Commercial – Creative Commons license. Permissions

 

Saskatoon Normal School ~ Education is the movement from darkness to light.

30 May

Naturally Fresh ~ Spring LIlac by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Naturally Fresh ~ Spring Lilac by Julia Adamson

Education is the movement from darkness to light.

The Saskatoon Normal School (1912-1953)

The Saskatoon Teachers’ College (1953-1964)

University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus (1964-1970)

University of Saskatchewan College of Education (1927-present)




E.A. Davies Building, Saskatoon Normal School, Saskatoon Teachers College, University of Saskatchewan Avenue A Campus



Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)


“Undoubtedly there should be a very close relation between the kind of training pursued in a Normal School and the philosophy of education upon which the institution is based. Bismarck is reported to have said, “What you would have appear in the life of the nation, you must first put in your schools.” Might I add that what you would have appear in the life of your pupils, you must first put into your teachers.” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, Saskatoon
The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

The historical account of certifying teachers in Saskatoon has grown and developed over the course of the last century. Teacher training began where classrooms and instructors were available, and the first permanent building for teacher training, the Saskatoon Normal School, was opened in 1923. Saskatchewan saw rapid growth and expansion in the early 1900s. Pioneering homestead families with young children created a dire demand for teachers in communities.

Saskatchewan’s pioneer slogan, “A new school every day for twenty years,” is paralleled by the need to staff these new schools. To keep these schools open, the Department of Education desperately required teachers.

From these humble beginnings teacher training programs were developed and refined. The one room school house gave way to the consolidated school. Classrooms and educational trends diversified to meet the changes in society through the twentieth century and into the twenty first. From the early beginnings when the Normal Schools provided teacher training, now the College of Education maintains a professional academic curricula on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon.

During these early years of settlement in the Northwest Territories trained teachers were recruited from overseas, and eastern Canada normal schools. When there was no teacher available, local pioneer residents with education were requested to provide education services in public school classes.

Fledgling school districts relied upon their school inspectors to aid them in procuring a teacher. Additionally, in the late 1800s and early 1900s the community could place a request for a teacher who could provide instruction in a foreign language.

Union schools provided early teacher education classes. “The first such classes were offered as “The Science of Teaching” and “School Law”” Horseman Under the 1888 Ordinance of the Northwest Territories, classes were provided wherever there was a two room union school and ten or more pupils desiring teacher training relates Ken Horseman in his article written for the Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Teaching inspectors were called upon to provide teacher training, and early union schools in Estevan, Moose Jaw, Moosomin, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon, Yorkton, and Weyburn offered classes to obtain a third class teaching certificate.


“A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.” said G.R. Anderson, Principal of the Normal School, quoting Henry Brooks Adams. “

Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 20, 1946.

The early history of the city of Saskatoon began when the scouts for the Temperance Colony Settlement arrived on the shores of the South Saskatchewan River in 1881. Colonists from eastern Canada began settling in 1883. The first permanent school was ready by 1887, and was known as the “Little Stone School”, though classes had begun in temporary locations as early as 1884. This was the beginnings of the village of Saskatoon.

In 1891, the Qu’Appelle, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railway Company bridge and railway station on the west side of the river saw the start of a settlement across the river from the original Temperance Colony Settlement. In 1901, this growing community was large enough to incorporate as a village, and took the name Saskatoon. The pioneers on the east side changed the name of their settlement to Nutana.

Another group of pioneers settled down also on the west side of the South Saskatchewan River, but across the tracks from the village of Saskatoon. This new community incorporated as Riversdale.

By 1896, 258 students were taking Normal School classes in the Northwest Territories, and the first official Normal School was established at Alexandra School on Hamilton Street (the Red School) in Regina, provisional district of Assiniboia, Northwest Territories. Teaching classes moved out of the Regina Union School on Hamilton Street and 11th Avenue (the White School) at this time.

“The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges” ~New York’s Teachers College, 1888, later the Columbia University, 1893

The number of public schools established by the turn of the century was 574 which were served by 592 teachers. According to Statistics Canada, the population of The Territories was booming, growing from 56,446 persons in 1881 to 66,799 in 1891, and more than doubling to 158,940 by 1901.

In 1905, there were 869 school districts in operation according to Ronald A. Manzer. It was in this self same year, on September 1, that Saskatchewan became a province. Until this date, Saskatoon lay within the provisional district of Saskatchewan, in the Northwest Territories.

The growing communities of Saskatoon, Riversdale and Nutana merged together as the city of Saskatoon in 1906. It was during this year, that the number of schools in the province nearly doubled since 1900 coming to a total of 942 schools in existence, with 1,193 teachers serving these schools.

Saskatoon was chosen as the site for the University of Saskatchewan in 1909. The initial buildings were contracted out in 1910, the College Building, Saskatchewan Hall student’s residence, Agricultural Engineering, Stock Pavilion, barn and Poultry Science building.

In 1909, Deputy Minister of Education, W.P. Bate published an article in The Daily Phoenix (Saskatoon’s Newspaper) urging students to send in their applications if they desire training at a Normal School in Saskatoon. Applications were received, however the number was below the needed ten applications to warrant local sessions.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Saskatchewan would boast that new schools were forming at the rate of one for every day of the year ( not including Sundays and holidays ). 1909 figures showed 1,958 public school districts serving the province, with an additional 31 Roman Catholic Public school districts, twelve Roman Catholic Separate School districts, and two Protestant Separate schools. These numbers rose in the 1910 school year, in 1911, there were 2,251 school districts in the province of Saskatchewan served by a corresponding increase in teachers who now number 2,973.

There was a tendency of the one room school house to expand. Communities rebuilt older schools or moved in additions forming two room union schools or three room consolidated schools. The number of schools in the province climbed to 2,468 school districts by June of that same year. The growth and prosperity of the province showed the rise in population which was seconded by the increase in school districts needed by the burgeoning population. Such an increase in population and the education of its children demanded, as well, an increase in the numbers of teachers available.

The population of Saskatchewan was mainly of a rural nature, Statistics Canada recording 73,739 persons residing rurally in 1901, and 361,067 by 1911 increasing 390%. The urban population increased from 17,550 persons to 131,365 an increase of 649 per cent. The population of Saskatchewan had an increase in population of 401,153 or 439 percent jumping from about 91,279 in 1901 to 492,232 by 1911. (Saskatchewan populations were estimated for 1901 when it was part of the Northwest Territories.)

Nutana Collegiate Institute.  In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes Nutana Collegiate Institute.  In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes

Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate)

In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes, this was a temporary location. On August 20, 1912, the Saskatoon Normal School began, with twelve second class student teachers and fifty third class students. In 1912, the University of Saskatchewan also rented rooms from on the third flow of the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute.

In 1913, Dr. J.A. Sneel presided as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School.On Campus News  A.J. Mather was principal of the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute between 1908-1915, followed by A.J. Pyke. The Saskatoon Collegiate was erected in 1910, and gave up the name Saskatoon Collegiate when Bedford Road Collegiate was constructed in 1923 on the “Saskatoon side” or west side of the South Saskatchewan River according to Eric O. Burt. 55 students from were enrolled for the first session held between August to October, 1912. During this time, President Murray of the University of Saskatchewan provided lectures on the philosophy of education, and Normal School students attended lectures offered to the agricultural students at the U of S as well.


“There is one thing lacking in this country … I would like to see some way to make the teaching profession a real profession – a profession that a man or a woman can spend his or her life at – giving sufficient returns for the labor and brains demanded, and the time and money spent in preparation for it – carrying with it the honor that attaches to other professions, not the mere unwritten honour of work well done, but something tangible and recognized.

” ~ Chief Justice Haultain May 31, 1913. Bocking. 1979.

Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914 Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914

Buena Vista School

When Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914 for two years. The Saskatoon Normal School began as did the Regina Normal School utitlizing temporary locations until a permanent building could be built. It was May 30, 1913 when the cornerstone was laid by Haultain for the permanent location of the Regina Normal School on College Avenue and Broad Street, Regina. It would be another ten years before the Saskatoon Normal School held classes in the Saskatoon Normal School building.

Construction began in 1914 on Student’s Residence No. 2 in the University Campus. When the building was completed by 1916, it received the name “Qu’Appelle Hall.” The University of Saskatchewan converted dormitory rooms on the first floor to house the Saskatoon Normal School. Classes commenced in the new location in 1916.

By 1916, the minimum number of persons applying for normal class rose from ten students to 25 persons who indicated a desire to attend third class school sessions. Only fifty students were to be accepted for third class classes in Regina and Saskatoon, however first and second class sessions were also offered in both Provincial Normal Schools in Regina and Saskatoon.

St. Thomas Presbyterian Church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms. St. Thomas Presbyterian Church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.    Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.

St. Thomas Presbyterian church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.

Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School moved again in 1919, St. Mary’s separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church provided space for classrooms. St. Thomas Presbyterian church was constructed at the intersection of Avenue H and 20th Street in 1908, and expanded in the fall of 1911. In 1934, the Riverside Methodist Church on Avenue G and 19th Street (later named Wesley Methodist Church) and the St. Thomas Presbyterian Church both united and became known as St. Thomas Wesley United Church. St. Mary’s Community School, now demolished, was designed by David Webster in a Collegiate style in 1913.

St. Mary's School built 1913. now demolished.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.
St. Mary's School built 1913. now demolished.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.

St. Mary’s Separate School

If 25 students submitted applications for Third Class sessions, then centers at Regina, Saskatoon, Yorkton, Estevan, Prince Albert, Moosomin, Weyburn, Swift Current, North Battleford and Moose Jaw would establish classes for teacher training in addition to classes held at the Saskatoon and Regina Normal Schools. This was a change from the earlier minimum of ten students required to mandate a class at a Union or Normal school.

In 1919 discussions arose to the permanent location of the Normal School site, whether the teacher training school should be located on the University of Saskatchewan campus grounds or elsewhere. Discussions ensued between Walter C. Murray (President of the University of Saskatchewan 1908-1937), the Government of Saskatchewan Department of Education, University of Saskatchewan architect David Brown, Saskatoon Normal School board trustees especially Dr. J.L. Hogg, and Dr. George M. Weir Principal of the (Saskatoon Normal School 1918-1924).

The first option offered on the University campus consisted of four acres, however, ten acres were requested by the Saskatoon Normal School. At this same time, the University of Saskatchewan was considering requests by the government for a tuberculosis sanatorium and a School for the Deaf.

By the spring of the following year, 1920, the decision was made after consideration of several sites, to construct the Saskatoon Normal School of brick and Bedford stone in the gothic architectural stylings overlooking the west side of Saskatoon atop the hill on Avenue A North.

While the Saskatoon Normal School building was under construction, the teacher training sessions were held at St. Paul’s school on 22nd Street. St. Paul’s School had constructed a temporary building on the corner of 22nd street and 4th avenue in 1913 which was replaced by a permanent building in 1926. Prior to this, St. Paul’s school held classes in St. Paul’s church basement which had served since 1911.



E.A. Davies Building, Saskatoon Normal School, Saskatoon Teachers College, University of Saskatchewan Avenue A Campus



Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)


The Saskatchewan provincial population continued to swell, reaching 757,510 by the time of the 1921 census count showing an increase of 265,078 persons since 1911, or 54 per cent growth. At this time, there were 538,552 persons residing rurally in Saskatchewan compared to 218,958 in urban centres. This represented an increase of 49 per cent in the rural population since 1911 and showed 66 per cent in urban growth.

It was February 12, 1923 when the Provincial Normal School was officially opened in Saskatoon. The cornerstone was laid on May 24, 1921 by Lieutenant Governor, The Honorable H. Newland following architectural plans drawn up by the provincial architect, Maurice W. Sharon. The Saskatoon Normal School was one of the projects undertaken by Saskatoon architect David Webster under the supervision of Sharon. The building opened March 1922 at 1030 Avenue A North (now known as Idylwyld Drive North).

Dr. George M. Weir, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School between 1918 and 1924, went on to become the “first professor of education at the University of British Columbia, first director of the UBC Department (later School) of Education, and co-author of Survey of the School System.”Lord p. 8

The provincial normal schools sought to increase the understanding the realities of rural life and teaching in a rural setting. To this end, Normal School students were offered opportunities to practice teaching under the watchful eye of their fellow normal school classmates and instructors. Weir was followed by Dr. J.S. Huff as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, for a time period between about 1924-1927 which was actually Dr. Huff’s second term as Normal School principal.

Table Showing Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools 1904-1920 in Saskatchewan, Canada
Table Showing Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools 1904-1920 in Saskatchewan, Canada

Student enrollment during the 1923 school term showed 404 student teachers at Regina Normal School and 335 enrolled in the Saskatoon Normal School. This trend of a higher student teacher population in the southern portion of the province continued in 1924 with 466 student teachers enrolled in the Regina Normal School, with 381 in Saskatoon. The Saskatchewan Correspondence School arose in 1925 to offer classes for secondary schooling supplementing the province’s seven initial collegiate institutes.


“The purpose of education is to fit the soul of the child. No system of education can give an education to a child. He must get it for himself. All we can do is to provide the facilities for so doing and we never must lose sight of this fact; that the purpose of education is not to make people farmers or mechanics, not to keep them in any particular walk of life. The objective is to see the boy and girl gets the facilities for the development of his moral nature, intelligence and physical nature. Let him develop his intelligence so he may know; give him the moral training so that he can do properly; house that spirit in a body that is clean and sound. This is just as good for the non-English speaking people as it is for the English speaking people.” ~ Honourable S. J. Latta Minister of Education
The Morning Leader. Jan. 15, 1926.

The large number of students applying to the Normal School for admission resulted in additional criteria for acceptance and a higher competitive admission standard. To be accepted in 1926, students applying for classes must submit diplomas and certificates from Saskatchewan institutions attesting to their standing. The Moose Jaw, Weyburn, Estevan, Moosomin, Yorkton, and Prince Albert centers were to provide special sessions for third class teacher training if there are a minimum 25 students registering at each local rural center. In 1927, the Moose Jaw Normal School opened for teacher training sessions.

The staffing at the normal school consisted of permanent teachers along with school inspectors during the winter months. The school inspectors brought practical lessons and how to overcome problems faced directly in the country school. Serving at the Normal school, the inspectors kept in touch with the latest advances in education which they shared on their visits to the one room school districts. Following Dr. Huff, Principal Joseph A. Snell, M.A. LL.D. was appointed the principal of the Saskatoon Normal School serving the years around 1927 and 1929.


“I am not properly qualified to advise farmers as to the education of their sons, but being country born and bred I sometimes date to think what I should like my school education in the country to be if I had the privilege of living my life over again….I should like that there should come to me a leader or teacher – call him or her what you will – who could lift me out of my littleness, my narrowness of vision, my wrong conceptions, my crudeness in thought and manner, and make me able to appreciate the true, the beautiful and the good, make me able to understand the beauty and opportunity in my own environment and, above all, anxious to live and serve with the great and good of all time as my models and inspiration. I should not care to hear about crops and stock and poultry all day long. Virtue is more to be desired that prize stock and a happy home than a good bank balance. ” ~ A farmer’s letter quoted by the Honourable S. J. Latta Minister of Education
The Morning Leader. Jan. 15, 1926.

According to Karen Briere, “the College of Education with practice schools became a realty in 1927 when a School of Education was established under the College of Arts and Sciences.” In 1928, the University of Saskatchewan established the College of Education. The Saskatoon Normal School remained under the jurisdiction of the provincial Department of Education.

Mr. R. W. Asseltine as the Principal of the Saskatoon Normal School was quoted for his memorable speeches during his tenure 1930-1934. Saskatchewan recorded a growth in population in the decade 1921-1931 of 24.33 per cent reaching a population count of 921,785. The rural population was enumerated at 630,880 persons, with the urban centres at 290,905, over this decade, the rural areas showed a growth of 17% and the urban centres of 33%. Over the year of 1928, there were 4,489 more students enrolled in primary and secondary schools over 1927. Elementary schools grew from 211,599 pupils to 215,968, an increase of 4,369, high schools increased by 120 pupils. 51 new school districts formed over the 1927-1928 school year bringing the total to 4,826 in the province, (this number includes the eight Protestant and 24 Roman Catholic separate schools).

In response to this growth, 1,866 teachers received licenses in 1928 for Normal School Training. In the field there were 8,397 teachers and of these 7,192 were trained with higher than a third class certificate, or 86% of the teachers in the 4,826 school districts. The Department of Education’s Report dated December 31, 1928 urged increased Normal School accommodation, with the possibility of opening a fourth Normal School. “At the present time our Normal Schools at Regina, Saskatoon and Moose Jaw are overcrowded and yet we are scarcely training a sufficient number of teachers to supply the demand.”The Morning Leader. Feb. 17, 1930


“Twenty years is a long time in the life of an individual; it is infinitesimal in the life of an institution. The life of either, however is important not so much on account of the number of years each has lived as it is for what each stands.” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, Saskatoon
The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

Estimate of Population of Saskatchewan 1931-1950 Chart
Estimate of Population of Saskatchewan 1931-1950 Chart

As the new year began in 1931, 7,619 pupils were recorded increasing by 140 students over the previous year. The enrollment broke records held for student population in Saskatchewan.
Principal C.P. Seeley served around the years 1935, 1937 and 1938.


The development of character is the supreme task and privilege of the training school of today. The future of civilization will depend upon human beings who know social righteousness as well as scientific truth. Enlightenment without ethics is a social menace and an educational fraud.” Dr. G.M. Anderson, Principal Saskatoon Normal School.
Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 22, 1951.

The number of school districts increased rapidly across the province with the influx of settlement. By 1937 Manzer reports 5,146 school districts, an exponential increase of 590%.

Examination results following the Normal School sessions were published in the local newspaper announcing the names of those students who successfully earned their interim first class teaching certificate, second class certificate or Third Class Licenses.


“The ideal of the Normal School…was to give the students some idea or ideal of the teaching profession and to help them build up the correct professional attitude.”
Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 15, 1933.

Seeley spoke to the advantages of converting rural one room school houses into larger school units enumerating several benefits; among them, the “ability to adjust teachers more wholesomely to the life of the community; elimination of the “army of amateurs” who experimented on the lives of children and provision for the possibility of better supervision.”Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 4, 1938.

The school term over the years 1939-1940 included 344 student teachers enrolled for teaching sessions at Saskatoon, 272 at Regina and 211 at Moose Jaw. In the summer of 1940, classes were relocated to Lakeview School in Regina, as the Regina Normal School was taken over for military purposes. However, classes proceeded as usual at Saskatoon and Moose Jaw Normal Schools.

Over the school term 1940-1941 there were 877 student teachers enrolled for teacher training classes. The decade of 1931-1941 showed the first signs of a dramatic population shift from rural areas to urban centres. Rurally, 600,846 were enumerated, compared to 995,146 representing a negative trend of 5 per cent rurally since 1931, and a huge 242 per cent growth to the urban centres over the decade. To compare the rural and urban populations since the beginning of the century, rurally Saskatchewan expanded from about 74,000 persons in 1901 to about 601,000 in 1941 a growth of 715 per cent, whereas, the urban centres swelled from 17,550 to 995,146 showing an increase of 5,570 per cent over this same 40 year time period.


Teachers according to Salary Received in Saskatchewan 1969
Teachers according to Salary Received in Saskatchewan 1939

“We can’t afford to neglect our children, …They are our greatest natural resource and we neglect them at our own peril and the peril of the future.” ~ Professor Carlyle King. Saskatoon Star Phoenix Dec. 2, 1942.

According to Professor King, there were five problems in the educational system, “the inability of many school districts to finance rural schools on a decent educational standard, inadequate facilities and rapid deterioration of rural schools, inadequate teachers’ salaries and scandalous arrears of those salaries which were forcing teachers to other fields, inequality of educational opportunity and the hopeless inadequacy of the present course of studies, particularly in high schools, to fit the student for modern living.” Saskatoon Star Phoenix Dec. 2, 1942.

In the summer of 1941 the Saskatoon Normal School officials surveyed vacant public school space for the continued operation of the teacher training classes in the event that the Normal School building is given to the Defence Department.

The Normal School gave up its building on Avenue A North (Idylwyld Drive North) to the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, and the first class of the Initial Training School (ITS)#7 were held December 8, 1941 in Bedford Road Collegiate. The Normal School location was chosen as the site of the ITS administration office and Royal Canadian Air Force R.C.A.F. recruit dormitories. The Normal School and Bedford Road Collegiate were supplemented by new buildings beside the Normal School for additional training purposes.

Enlistment in the war effort drained the provincial educational staff of personnel. Summer teacher training classes were offered to address the teacher shortage. A huge enrollment of 800 students registered for one of these sessions.

During this time, Lorraine Blashill, relates that the School Board made accommodations at Wilson School for the Normal School sessions offered by the Department of Education. To further accommodate the war effort, students from Wilson School were then themselves relocated to North Park or King Edward Schools. Wilson school, in a new 8 room building, had opened for classes in the fall of 1928 had served the City Park area. Erected on Duke Street and located between Seventh and Eighth Avenue Wilson replaced wood frame school houses. North Park school was located on the corner of Balmoral Street and 9th Avenue. King Edward school built in 1904 by R.W. Caswell was located in Saskatoon’s down town (on 25th Street at the corner of 6th Avenue) six blocks from Wilson School. Used for public school classes, King Edward School was sold in 1911 and served as Saskatoon’s city hall, and the second Kind Edward built.

Even in these new temporary accommodations, the school year of 1941-1942 showed an enrollment of 950 students taking normal school sessions in the province of Saskatchewan, and 486 the following year, 1942-1943. The next school term showed a drop in student teachers electing to take teacher training with only 450 student teachers attending classes.

Education Minister Woodrow Lloyd announced that the Regina Normal School was to close in the fall of 1944 due to declining student enrollment. The Saskatoon and Moose Jaw normal schools remained open to continue teacher training services. In the 1945-1946 school term, the Saskatoon Normal School had an enrollment of 617 student teachers, 76% were women. During this time period, it was estimated that there were in excess of 2,500 teaches with temporary certificates teaching in the province of Saskatchewan.

During the second world war, a four-year undergraduate program was designed by the College of Education. Although teacher-training was conferred to universities across Canada, the declaration of war in 1939, put many educational policies and procedures of advanced education in the background. Military training, scientific developments and research into social problems were brought to the forefront for post-school education.


“Education….is not for ourselves. It is for the training of human personality to serve the community….You will by your example, create the moral force of human character, the basis of society.” Reverend A.B.B. Moore Principal-elect of St. Andrew’s College at the 1946 Saskatoon Normal School graduation.
Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 20, 1946.

Teacher training standards were raised to a two year minimum to receive certification, the classes could be taken at either of the Normal Schools or the University of Saskatchewan, College of Education. Classes could be shared between the two institutions, with a year taken at the Normal School, followed by a year at the University.

In the fall of 1948, the Moose Jaw normal school had 220 enrolled, and the Saskatoon normal school 280. Students were trained for the 38 week course rather than the six week short course, as there were already study supervisors in the school districts filling in for the teacher shortage. Students graduating from the 38 week course earned interim first-class certificates. In comparison, the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education showed an enrollment of 400 students, 20 per cent less than the previous year.


“The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires. ~William Arthur Ward.
Edudemic 2012.

Dr. G.R. Anderson served as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School until June 1954. Dr. Anderson noted that between the two provincial normal schools and the University education department 750 students would graduate in 1951. However, an estimated 2,000 places were expected to be vacated by beginning of the fall school term. The teacher’s shortage arose from matrimony, economic and social conditions. At this time, “500 rural schools in Saskatchewan were staffed by student supervisors, with limited academic and no professional training. Still another 400 to 500 classrooms were staffed by teachers holding temporary and conditional certificates. Worst of all, 1,000 of the 7,2000 teachers now teaching in Saskatchewan Schools [1951] did not intend to continue in the profession next fall.” Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 22, 1951

At the Saskatoon Normal School convocation in 1951, 75 percent of the graduates were women of the 348 receiving graduation certificates. Concern was raised over the number of teachers available in the teaching profession, if the shortage was due to matrimony along with social and economic conditions.


“You need never apologize for being a teacher. You have set your feet on the path chosen by many of the world’s truly great men. … The teacher takes the living mind and moulds it.” ~ Lorne F. Titus Chief superintendent of Saskatchewan schools.

“Teacher’s College” was the new name given to the provincial normal schools in 1953. Students received teaching education rather than teacher training. There was much call to re-open the Regina Normal School to assist the Moose Jaw and Saskatoon Teacher’s Colleges with teacher education classes. The Regina Normal School building on College Avenue and Broad Street re-opened its doors in 1957 under the new name, the Regina Teacher’s College, however this same year, the Moose Jaw Teacher’s College closed its doors.


“You are handling the most precious commodity in the universe, human personality.” ~ Premier T.C. Douglas.

By 1960, the Saskatoon Teacher’s College recorded an enrollment of 523 student teachers. Even though there were more stringent enrollment requirements for students registering due to the high numbers of students submitting applications, 584 students attended the Saskatoon Teacher’s College during the 1961-1962 school year. Across the province, the larger consolidated schools with many classrooms had replaced the rural one room schools serving districts approximately an area four miles square.


It is essential for the children to get better education, and we adults must practice what we preach, otherwise, no change will take place in our society.” ~ Dr. W. Steinson, principal of the Saskatoon Teacher’s College.

In 1964 both the Saskatoon and the Regina teacher’s colleges closed, and all teacher education came under the jurisdiction of the University of Saskatchewan. The architectural design for the original Normal School building accommodated 360 students. And although the Saskatoon Teacher’s College now came under the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education, classes continued in the building at 1030 Avenue A North. The new name of the Saskatoon Teacher’s College became University of Saskatchewan Avenue A campus and the Regina Teacher’s College became University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus. The building on Avenue A in Saskatoon remained in use until the University of Saskatchewan constructed an education building on campus.

The 1964-1965 school term received 8,070 registrations at for classes at the University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus compared to 1,840 students expected at the University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus. A quota was set at accepting a maximum of 450 students because of space available at the Avenue A Campus. “In 1964 the program of the normal schools was accredited by the University of Saskatchewan as a year of work toward the bachelor of education degree, and the institution became recognized as a junior college of the university.”

University of Saskatchewan College of Education
University of Saskatchewan  College of Education University of Saskatchewan  College of Education
College of Education University of Saskatchewan

The August 22, 1964 Saskatoon Star Phoenix reported that student teachers wishing to teach grades one through nine could achieve their Interim Standard “A” certificate after one year of education at either of the two campuses which were now amalgamated under the University of Saskatchewan. Certification of teachers remained with the Department of Education, and teacher education was placed in the domain of the University of Saskatchewan.

During the 1964 school year, 396 students received classes from the Avenue A Campus, and 6,927 applicants applied for classes in the 1963-1964 school term. During this same year, 1,003 students were expected.

Between 1967-1970, the Education Building was constructed on the University of Saskatchewan campus, with the first classes held in the spring of 1970. This new building was constructed to serve “2,500 university students, 200 graduate students, and 120 faculty members.”The Phoenix Sept 22, 1984 Teaching requires a post-secondary Bachelor’s Degree, such as a Bachelor of Education to be qualified as a teacher.

It was in 1986, that the building used by the Saskatoon Teachers College was re-named E.A. Davies building to honour Fred Davies, principal of the Canadian Vocational Training School, the precursor training institute of Kelsey Institute of Arts and Sciences (Now Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology SIAST.)


“This building was named the E. A. (Fred) Davies Building on February 10, 1986 by the Honorable George McLeod, Minister of Advanced Education and Manpower.
This building is dedicated to the honour of E.A. (Fred) Davies, pioneer of technical education in Saskatchewan since 1941. In 1947, he became the principal of the Canadian Vocational Training School, an early vocational centre located on the present campus of Kelsey Institute. In 1963, Mr. Davies accepted the position of Consultant to the Principal of the newly opened institute. After his retirement from post-secondary education at the age of 71, Mr. Davies was ordained as a deacon and served for another twelve years as the priest of St. Luke’s Church in Saskatoon.

In 1975, Fred Davies was honoured as Saskatoon’s “Citizen of the Year” in recognition of his outstanding contributions to education, community organization and church activities. This building, appropriately renamed in his honour, has served Saskatchewan residents since 1923, first as the Normal School and later as the Teacher’s College.

Government of Saskatchewan

Premier Grant Devine.”
~Plaque installed within the E.A. Davies Building along with the portrait of E.A. (Fred) Davies.

A reflection on the progress of teacher training and teacher education in Saskatoon, honours the era of the Saskatoon Normal School, and embraces the remarkable journey to the College of Education at the University of Saskatchewan. As Dr. Fast, Director of Education says, the schools of today are building on the tradition of excellence begun by those of yesterday, preparing new generations for the challenging and changing world they will soon enter.”Blashill p. 155 Every generation, since time immemorial, has passed on its knowledge, traditions, values, skills and beliefs its stock of values, traditions, methods and skills to the next generation. The role, curriculum, and course of study for the teacher varies, however the main thrust; to facilitate student learning by a method of instruction remains the same. The normal schools provided the pioneering rituals, traditions and standards, nay the “norms” for teaching behaviours, specialized education, values, and code of ethics to maintain the teacher in good professional standing. Teachers colleges provided teachers with the ability to successfully meet or exceed the public expectations to educate the nation’s children. “The College of Education is the second largest college at the University of Saskatchewan and has graduated over 30,000 students in its 80-year history. To become an educator through the U of S College of Education is to join a tradition of excellence in teaching and learning.”~College of Education 1994-2009.


“In the long story of the struggle of mankind to fit its youth better for the activities of life, there has been a great variety of aims, and that the most common characteristic in all these was the tendency to throw the whole emphasis on some one factor. At oem time it was the acquisition of knowledge and information; at another the supreme importance lay in the development of the individual, then the welfare of society and the production of workmen skilled in some particular vocation by means of some specific study.
 

Probably a more fitting comparison could not be found than in the fable of “The Six Blind Men from Hindustan.” Like the elephant in this fable, education has many parts, many factors, none of which we can afford to neglect; and like the elephant, too, doubtless there are some of them of greater importance than others. The tail, the trunk, the leg do not constitute the elephant; it is something vastly more important than one of these or all of them put together. How much truer is this of the individual whom we wish to educate, and of the idea which we call education.

” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, SaskatoonThe Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

Article written by Julia Adamson

Note the majority of sources gave the name Asseltine in this spelling, though it was given as Asselstine as well.
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Bibliography

Mirror Webpage on Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project


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Education is the movement from darkness to light. quotation Allan Bloom

Saskatoon Normal School ~ Bibliography

30 May

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Naturally Fresh ~ Spring LIlac by Julia Adamson

The Saskatoon Normal school (1912-1953)

The Saskatoon Teachers’ College (1953-1964)
University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus (1964-1970)
University of Saskatchewan ~ College of Education (1927-present)
“Education is the movement from darkness to light.”
~Allan Bloom

Bibliography: Saskatoon Normal School History

11 x 17 Heritage Sites City of Saskatoon. Community Services. Planning Department. Documents. Mapping. Quote“City of Saskatoon heritage Properties: …Holding Bylaw Properties. The Normal School. 1030 Idyylwyld Drive North.” unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

1910 started boom years. Page 6 and 17. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013

200 New Schools in last 129 Days. Saskatchewan Now Boasts of 2,468 School Districts – 1300 Since 1906. Page 4. The Morning Leader. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013

Adamson, Julia. From potential to realty ~ The Regina Normal School. With additional notes regarding the Regina College. University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina campus. University of Regina. May 9, 2013. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. The Drastic Shortage of Teachers in Saskatchewan’s History. A small sampling of Teacher wanted ads. Saskatchewan One Room School Project. Saskatchewan Gen Web. September 28, 2012. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. Schools Close. Lack of Teachers in Saskatchewan’s History. September 29, 2012. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. Saskatchewan School Inspection of the One Room Schoolhouse. September 2012. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

American describes Teaching Conditions in State of Kansas. Less Training needed, hence wages are relatively low in rural districts, visitor in Saskatoon declares. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 29, 1939. Page 9. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Appointed. Charles W. Downer. (Saskatoon Normal School Librarian) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. July 4, 1931. Google News Archive. Page 7. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Asks More Stress on Culture Values. Seeley Suggests Way in Which Youth Can Get Increased Joy From Life. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 29, 1937. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Author Bio. Asseltine, Robert Whiting. 5663: story of Lodge Progress, no. 92, G.R.S., A.F. and A.M., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, April 15th, 1912, April 15, 1933 The . [1933]. Quote“Asseltine, Robert Whiting (1870-1953). Teacher in Ontario; to Saskatchewan, 1911; inspector of schools at Rosetown; on staff of Saskatoon Normal School, 1918-1927; principal of Moose Jaw Normal School, 1929-1930; principal of Saskatoon Normal School, 1930-1934 (Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, March 24, 1953).” unquote 2003-2009. University of Alberta. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Attendance is up at Normal School. Accommodation taxed to limit as 325 begin training for teachers. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. September 4, 1934. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Applicants to Normal School Turned Away. Students refused for first time in history – record number in history. The Morning Leader. September 24, 1924. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16,2013

Blashill, Lorraine (1982). In Lorraine Blashill. From a little stone school… A story of Saskatoon Public Schools. Modern Press Ltd. p. 40, 68, 99986-87.

Bocking, D.H. for the Saskatchewan Archives Board. Saskatchewan A Pictorial History. Western Producer Prairie Books. Saskatoon, SK. ISBN 0-88833-017-0 BD ISBN 0-88833-042-1 pa. page 83. r
Books and Authors. More Success come to Frances Shelley Wees, To Whom Saskatoon is “Home-Town.” Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. January 30, 1954. Quote“She came back to Saskatoon for a year at the Normal School which was held for the first few months in St. Paul’s School until the new building was ready…” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Building Progress in School District. The Saskatoon Phoenix. June 30, 1927. Page 82. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Charyk, John C. The Little White Schoolhouse. Volume 1. Western Producer Prairie Books. Saskatoon. ISBN 0-919306-08-X. Pages 100, 170, 193, 228-229 237. 1977.

Briere, Karen. College of Education established in 1927. The Phoenix. September 22, 1984. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Burt, Eric O. Saskatoon Schools: What’s in a Name? Schools Recognize Civic Personalities. Teacher arrived with harvest. Public school draws name from war hero. Vanier School departure from Tradition. The Phoenix. September 8, 1984. Page 63. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Certificates Given 365 New Teachers. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 13, 1958. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

City of Saskatoon Municipal Elections, 1959. [school addresses] Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 29, 1959. Page 31. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

The City of Saskatoon – Municipal Manual 2011 Compiled by the Office of the City Clerk. 2011. Quote“1910 Nutana Collegiate was erected…1921 May 24 Cornerstone Provincial Normal School was laid by the Lieutenant Governor, The Honorable H. Newland…1923 February 12 Provincial Normal School was formally opened…1931 Technical School was completed… 2004 June 15 Demolition work began on the Gathercole Building (originally Saskatoon Technical Collegiate) as part of the new South Downtown riverfront development…” unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

City school names represent policies. The Phoenix. October 20, 1979. Page 83. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013

Clark, Greg. Jean Stangoe on Saskatoon Normal School Team (second from rt seated) 1928-29, Stangoe family photos. Flickr photo sharing. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Classrooms in Lakeview School Made Ready for Normal School. The Leader-Post August 5, 1940. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

College of Education ~ University of Saskatchewan. Prospective Undergraduate Students. 1994-2008. Date accessed May 26, 2013.

College Principal Guest Speaker. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 15, 1961. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Colleges turning away applicants. The Leader-Post. September 9, 1961. Page 32. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Delainey, William P., JOhn D. Duerkop, and William A.S. Sarjeant. Saskatoon, A Century in Progress. Western Producer Prairie Books. Saskatoon. ISBN 0-88833-090-1 bound, ISBN 0-88833-089-8 (pbk.) Pages 69, 72, 107. 1982.

Dr. Huff Heads Normal School in Saskatoon. Appointed in Succession to Dr. George M. Weir, who has gone to British Columbia. The Morning Leader. December 13, 1923. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Dunn, Jeff. Brief History of Teacher Education. Edudemic. November 16, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2013.

École St. Paul School: History/L’histoire Archives Greater Saskatoon Catholic Schools SCS. Quote“The original St. Paul’s School was opened in the basement of St. Paul’s Church in September 1911. By 1913, enrolment had reached 240 students and classroom space was a problem. A temporary building was erected near 22nd Street and 4th Avenue and finally in 1926, St. Paul’s School was built on the 22nd Street site. This school continued to grow and it eventually became a collegiate for Catholic boys. In 1954 with enrolment growing, St. Paul’s North was built on our present site, 1527 Alexandra Avenue….” unquote Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Education absorbs 66 per cent of taxation dollars. Saskatoon’s original school now permanently located on university campus (image.) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 37. May 19, 1966. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Educationists Present Views to Commission. Thomson, Seeley and Quance all in favor of Large Units of School Administration. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 4, 1938. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Education thought everybody’s business. Saskatoon Educational Centre of Province: University City’s Biggest Industry: School Construction Persists. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 4, 1960. Page 70. Quote“No wonder education is big business in Saskatoon and the favorite slogan of a well-known educator, Dr. S.R. Layock, former dean of the College of Education, “Education is Everybody’s Business” is as timely today as it was years ago. unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Educationalist got start here. Saskatchewan Men among winners and losers at coast. Provincial Treasurer Beaten, Once of Wolseley, Pooley of Grenfell. The Leader Post. November 3, 1933. Page 2. Google News ARchives. Date Accessed May 20, 2013.

Emphasizes Great Task. Teachers will determine future of society, says Lazerte. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 8, 1938. Google News Archive. Quote“The teacher must be afforded security of tenure together with a salary commensurate with the task….Teachers…were the people who could be trusted to form educational policy and to carry that policy to a successful conclusion. In Alberta, … minimum salary for teachers had been arrived at and compulsory membership in a strong organization provided.” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Enrollment in Schools Falling Off. October Sees 368 Fewer Pupils than Same Month in 1941. Oulton Reports. Figure, However Shows Increase over Sept.; One Truant Case. Carlyle King Finds Five Faults in School System. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 2, 1942. Page 3. Google News Archive. May 20, 2013.

Enrolment up for January. Superintendent’s Report Shows New Record Created for Attendance. The Leader-Post. February 11, 1931. Page 6. Date accessed May 24, 2013.

Examination Results of Normal School. The Morning Leader. July 19, 1921. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Expect 450 to Enrol in 1st Year Education. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Final Function at Normal School Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 4, 1935. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Foght, Harold W. A Survey of Education, 1918. The Province of Saskatchewan Canada. A Report. Government of the Province of Saskatchewan. Regina. J.W. Reid King’s Printer. 2005. Transcribed online by J.D. King 2008. Quote “The normal school is housed temporarily in one of the residences on the grounds of the University of Saskatchewan, at Saskatoon. Several converted dormitory rooms. In Saskatchewan, … the normal school term ranges from 10 weeks for Third Class teachers to 16 weeks for Second and First Class teachers…The number of classroom periods per week for each instructor average 19.9 at Regina but only 13.8 at Saskatoon. This is because all “first class” and “second class’ students recite in their original groups. There may be thus 9 or 10 in the “first class” and 50 or more in the “second class.” The average number of students per class in the two schools is 50 and 42 respectively.”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Gallen, V. The Development of the Teaching Profession in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “The establishment of a four-year Bachelor of Education program at the University of Saskatchewan in 1946 was recognized as the STFs [Saskatchewan Teacher Federation] “baby”….However, …even then it was possible for individuals to enter teaching through a six-week “short normal course” offered by the department of education….The dozens of normal schools that operated around the province in the first half of the twentieth century were slowly consolidated into larger institutions that produced teachers on a provincial rather than a regional basis. In 1959 a major step towards consistency was taken when entrance requirements were standardized for the province’s normal schools and colleges of education…”unquote Page 150. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

The Glenbow Museum > Archives Photographs Search Results. Quote “Normal School students teacher’s residence, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Date: [ca. 1930]…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Education Building Campus Buildings University of Saskatchewan. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Education of Teachers. Edmonton Journal. July 19, 1961. Page 4. Quote  “Politicians who imagine they are meeting their responsibilities by filling classrooms with short-course trainees form one obstacle. Officials of departments of education, who follow the instructions of such political superiors without protest, form another. ” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Fall Normal Term opens on Sept. 3. Sessons will be held at three centres until June 5, 1931. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 7, 1930. Page 7. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Gidney, R.D. and W.P.J. Millar. How Schools Worked: Public Education in English Canada, 1900-1940
Volume 224 of Carleton Library Series.
Authors R.D. Gidney, W.P.J. Millar.
Publisher McGill-Queen’s Press – MQUP, 2012.
ISBN 0773587306, 9780773587304. Quote“In 1930, for example, at the Regina and Saskatoon normal schools, 30% of the students were of non-British origin, and at Moose Jaw normal school in 1929, the figure was 39%. By 1937 the principal of the Saskatoon normal School was reporting that 45% of the students were of non-English origin….Some returns from the Saskatoon normal schools during the interwar years, which reveal that a majority or near-majority came from farm families and many of the rest from small shopkeepers, skilled artisans’, and even labourers’ families. Take for example, the Saskatoon normal school in 193:0: 49% of its 383 students’ fathers were listed as farmers, 11% as “skilled mechanic”, 10% as “storekeepers”, 9.4% as “executive,” 6.5% as “unskilled labourer,” 5% as “professional,” and 6% as “deceased.”…Fifteen years later[1929] the principal of the Saskatoon normal school estimated that “over 40% of the teacher’s – in – training had no experience of rural schools.” He went on to point out, moreover, that of those who had attended rural schools, larger numbers had received only a part of their schooling in ungraded classrooms and at ages where the experience would leave few impressions. ” unquote Page 140, 141 Digitized online by Google Books 2012. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Graduation Staged At Normal School. Seeley Sees Indication of Sound Foundations of British Empire. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 3, 1939. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Hallman, D. Telling Tales in and out of school: Twentieth-century Women Teachers in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books.Quote “Rudimentary teacher training was first conducted in union schools and gradually became formalized in normal schools in Saskatoon, Regina, and Moose Jaw… An increasing demand for secondary school education facilitated the eventual establishment of the College of Education at the provincial university in 1928. The mandate of the college was to prepare its students for teaching in the high schools and collegiates, and to conduct research in education. The program of the college was open only to students who had undergraduate degrees. In 1946-47, the College of Education developed a four-year undergraduate program. However…the government insisted that intending elementary teachers take their first year of training at a normal school. …The names of the two remaining normal schools were changed in 1953 to teacher’s colleges, and “teacher training” became “teacher education.” Eleven years later both teacher’s colleges closed, and all teacher education moved to the University of Saskatchewan….Ina Jones Jorstad remembered her preparation at the normal school in Moose Jaw in 1930, as consisting of classes in “reading writing, literature, math, geography, health, home economics, physical education, psychology, drama the arts and…The Regina Normal School closed after World War II. It re-opened as Regina Teacher’s College in 1957, the same year the Moose Jaw Teacher’s College closed (from Campbell, Reflections of Light, 107-109; 151-2.”unquote Page 150. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Heide, Rachel Lea and Ross Herrington. British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. Quote No. 7 ITS [ Initial Training School had its living quarters and classrooms in the Saskatoon Normal School and Bedford Road Collegiate. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

History of Education, of Teacher Training and Teaching.
Educational History of Teacher Education and Training of Professional Teachers. Mirrored October 2009. Oocities. Date accessed May 26, 2013.

A concise Western history of education, educational reforms and training of qualified school teachers Philosophies, theories, systems-methods of teaching professional educators -social status of a teacher
History of Nutana Nutana Collegiate. Saskatoon Public School Division. Quote “In 1912, The Public School Board rented two basement rooms and the Normal School also rented a room, to be used for teacher training. In January 1913, Principal Mather wrote to the Collegiate Board that the entire school was needed for collegiate students. He reported that he had to convert the Reading Room into a classroom and one of the cloakrooms into a typing room. The four classrooms being used by the Normal School would be needed by September to accommodate an anticipated enrolment of 400 students. The Normal School was asked to vacate, but remained for another year because of difficulties in finding an alternate location.”unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Homeroom Timeline 1920s Edited by Patrick A. Dunae. Vancouver Island University VIU history department. April 3, 2011. Quote “The University of British Columbia establishes a Teachers; Training Course “for the purposes of giving professional training for students intending to become [secondary] school teachers.” Dr. George M. Weir, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, is appointed professor of education and director of the new pogramme.”unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Honeywood Heritage Nursery. Dr. A.J. (Bert) Porter. Quote “They homesteaded south and west of Parkside in the Honeywood school district. Bert, as he was known, attended public school in the Honeywood rural school house, high school in Moose Jaw and took a 6 week course in the first class of the new Saskatoon Normal School in 1919. He went back 3 years later for a 6 month course and graduated from Normal School in 1922” unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Horsman, Ken. Education The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. Quote The 1888 Ordinance that provided grants for Union high schools also permitted Union Schools to set up Normal departments for the training of teachers. The Moose Jaw Normal School opened in 1927.”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Howe, Constance Nina and Laurence Wayne Prochner editors. Early Childhood Care and Education in Canada. Edition illustrated.
Publisher UBC Press, 2000. ISBN 077484129X, 9780774841290. Quote “Saskatoon Normal School Founding Date 1912. In 1952, while the province still retained its normal schools, a four-year undergraduate program for elementary and secondary teachers was opened at the University of Saskatchewan. …Initially, normal school admission standards included a minimum age requirement (sometimes as young as fourteen, but generally sixteen years) and the successful passing of an entrance examination, rather than the completion of a particular level of prior schooling. A large proportion of the normal school curriculum was devoted to upgrading student knowledge in the subjects that they would be expected to teach, such as grammar, mathematics, geography and science.”unquote Page 69. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Education in Moral Values Stressed to Normal Students. School Board Adopts Policy on Classroom Collections. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 22, 1951. Page 3 and 6. Google News Archive. Principal G.R. Anderson. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Fall Sessions Normal School Are Announced. Courses Open in September for Training First, Second Class Teachers. The Leader-Post. April 22, 1933. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Ingles, Ernest Boyce. Bibliography of the Canadian Prairies to 1953.
G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series.
Editors Ernest Boyce Ingles, Bruce Peel, Norman Merrill Distad.
Contributors Ernest Boyce Ingles, Bruce Peel, Norman Merrill Distad.
Edition 3, illustrated, revised.
Publisher University of Toronto Press, 2003.
ISBN 0802048250, 9780802048257. Quote“Biography of Bruce Peel. Peel spent a year in 1936-1937 earning a teacher’s credential at the Normal School in Moose Jaw. This was a reliable choice to guarantee a career, or at least a job to fall back on in those hard times….Author index Asseltine, Robert Whiting 1870-1953 Teacher in Ontario; to Saskatchewan, 1911; inspector of schools at Rosetown; on staff of Saskatoon Normal School, 1918-1927; principal of Moose Jaw Normal School 1929-1930; principal of Saskatoon Normal School, 1930-1934. Saskatoon Star Phoenix March 24, 1953. The Story of Lodge Progress No. 92 5663. ” unquote page xxv. Digitized online by Google Books 2012. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Initial Training School is Opened Officially Today. First Student Group Marches from Quarters in Normal School to Classes at Bedford Road Collegiate. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 8, 1941. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 4 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… The Normal School on Avenue A (now known as Idylwyld Drive) in Saskatoon opened in 1912 and a third opened in Moose Jaw in 1929. By 19646, student teachers were learning their profession at university.) ” unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 61 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… Exterior Rear Saskatoon Normal School; Temporary Certificate; ” unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 18 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… Junior Literary Executive Saskatoon Normal School; Second Class students and staff, Saskatoon Normal School; Graduating Class, Saskatoon Normal School ” unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 48 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… Copy of blueprint showing front elevation of Saskatoon Normal School at 1030 Idylwyld Drive North. Designed by provincial architect Maurice W. Sharon, building was officially opened in March 1922. Blueprint circa 1920. ” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher:73 records Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote” Normal School location of Initial Training School No. 7. …British Commonwealth Air Training Plan operated two schools in Saskatoon during World War II. #7 was housed in the Normal School on Avenue A…#7 I.T.S. operated from December 30, 1941 to June 30, 1944… ” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Interesting Exhibits of Work Displayed by Normal School Pupils. Teachers of West Saskatoon Inspectorate in Convention; Many constructive addresses by members of staff. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 15, 1933. Google News Archive. May 15, 1933. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Interim Report of the Superannuation Committee, Normal School, Saskatoon, April 4 1919, (microform) Normal School (Saskatoon, Sask) Superannuation Committee: Free Download and Streaming: Internet Archive Date accessed May 15, 2013.

JMU – What’s a Normal School? Quote ” …What’s a Normal School?
…it means normal in the sense of setting an excellent model – or “norm” – for other schools. ‘Normal Schools derive their name from the French phrase ecole normale. These teacher-training institutions, the first of which was established in France by the Brothers of the Christian Schools in 1685, were intended to set a pattern, establish a “norm” after which all other schools would be modeled.’ …”unquote
James Madison University. May 24, 2011. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Kelly, Brendan. A City Reborn: Patriotism in Saskatoon During the Second World War. University of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon. April 2008. Quote ” …W C. P. Seeley,
the principal of the Normal School in Saskatoon, … Speaking to a large crowd at the Vimy Memorial in Kiwanis Park in May 1941…”unquote
Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Kerr, Don. University of Saskatchewan Archives. Building the University of Saskatchewan. The Beginnings. 1998. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Kerr, Don and Stan Hanson. Saskatoon: The First Half-Century. NeWest Publishers Ltd. Edmonton, Alberta. ISBN 0-920316-35-2 (bound), ISBN 0-920316-37-9 (pbk.) Pages 231, 241-2, 244, 246. 1982.

King Edward School closure to be studied further. The Phoenix. March 14, 1979. Page 5. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Last course for teachers. Normal School in Regina to close. The Leader-Post. September 1, 1944. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Latta Replies to Critics on Schools Policy. And Dr. C.E. Tran, Progressive Leader, Admits He Can’t Find Fault with Curricula. The Morning Leader. January 15, 1926. Page 33. Second Section. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Life Member 2013.
Lucienne Déschaine. Quote ” …She went to Normal School in Saskatoon in 1943. Classes began in early July. School board trustees began recruiting prospective teachers by the end of July and throughout August….The Saskatoon East Unit was looking for teachers to supervise Normal School students. She applied and was assigned to Blackstrap School, a rural school in Dundurn. The job was quite demanding. Three groups of two student teachers arrived in the fall and again in the spring. The students were expected to observe in the fall and to do some planning as well as teaching in the spring. “unquote James Madison University. May 24, 2011. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Permanently Settled in Saskatoon. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 9, 1959. Page 12. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

The light Saskatoon Normal School, The light (Peel 10193 Provincial Normal School (Saskatoon, Sask.). Provincial Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask.: 1931-1932. [Saskatoon: Provincial Normal School, 1932]. Complete yearbook online. Physical description: 24 p. : ill., ports. ; 27 cm. Language: English On cover: “Souvenir.” Content is similar to a conventional yearbook, but seems likely to have been issued as a separate commemorative item. The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light, [Saskatoon]: [Saskatoon Normal School], [19–?]- – is described separately in the bibliography. 2003-2009 | University of Alberta. Date e 15, 2013.

Local Normal School. Several Desire It – Other Applications Should be Sent in Now. The Daily Phoenix. August 20, 1909. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Look Over Public School Property. Education Heads Here in Regard to Proposed Transfer of Normal School. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 23, 1941. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Lord, Alexander Russell. Alex Lord’s British Columbia: Recollections of a Rural School Inspector, 1915-1936.
Pacific Maritime Studies Series / University of British Columbia.
Recollections of the pioneers of British Columbia.
Volume 9 of The Pioneers of British Columbia, ISSN 0847-0537.
Editor Calam, John.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher UBC Press, 1991.
ISBN 0774803851, 9780774803854. Page 8. Digitized online by Google Books. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Lyons, J. The Saskatchewan Way: Henry James and Curriculum Reform in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “The province [was kept] in a state of teacher shortage until the mid-1970s. Because the government continued to issue temporary certificates to applicants who had completed one year of normal school, many high school graduates saw the profession as a convenient short term job prior to marriage or another career. In 1947, for example, 1,264 students were enrolled in normal school, but there were only 5,869 students in grade twelve…Although the provinces’ Normal Schools in Regina, Saskatchewan and Moose Jaw had been renamed Teachers’ Colleges, they had remained under Department of Education jurisdiction. In 1964 all teacher education was consolidated at the University of Saskatchewan campuses in Regina and Saskatoon…”unquote Page 56 and 60. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Manzer, Ronald A. Educational regimes and Anglo-American democracy.
Volume 18 of G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series.
Volume 18 of Studies in comparative political economy and public policy, ISSN 1714-9339.
Edition 2, illustrated.
Publisher University of Toronto Press, 2003.
ISBN 0802087809, 9780802087805. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “George Weir, minister of education in British Columbia from 1933 to 1941 and again from 1945 to 1947, had been principal of Saskatoon Normal School, director of teacher training at University of British Columbia, and joint director of teacher training at University of British Columbia, and joint author with J.H. Putman of the seminal survey of British Columbia education in 1925.”Unquote Page 97, 221, 426 Date accessed May 15, 2013.

March, Ann. Webster, David (1885–1952). The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. QuoteBorn in 1885, David Webster was one of Saskatoon’s first architects… Post-war projects included the …. Saskatchewan Normal School, “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal Schools – ca. 1900-1947 – Saskatoon Normal School Photograph SAIN Photographs. Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Date  May 15, 2013.

Maurice W. Sharon Family, 1875- SAIN Collections. Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Quote Sharon remained in private practice until 1916, when he was appointed Provincial Architect with the Department of Public Works. Sharon prepared plans and specifications and supervised the construction of many of Saskatchewan’s public buildings, including the Provincial Normal School in Saskatoon. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

McCarthy alarmed over teacher shortage. Regina School should be used. The Leader Post. February 14, 1951. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Miss Wynona Mulcaster Appointed Art Teacher at Normal School here. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. April 7, 1945. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

M.L.A.’s discuss teacher problem. Normal School Discussed Again. The Leader-Post February 22, 1951. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

More than One New District per day formed. Thirty Two school Districts were Erected in Saskatchewan During March. The Morning Leader. April 7, 1914. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Must Raise Standards of Service. Seeley Gives Address on Citizenship to United Club Group. Over 400 present. Essential Canada Control Problems of Economics, Creed and Race. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 2, 1937. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Next Normal School to be in Saskatoon. Premier Scott States this as his personal opinion. The Saskatoon Phoenix. May 3, 1913. Google News Archives Search. Quote” “At Regina, where a normal school has been conducted for ages, there is no building yet; but one is now being erected. …My impression is that the next normal school will be in Saskatoon. That is a certainty,” said Hon. Walter Scott, premier of Saskatchewan. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

New Normal School Staffs Are Announced. Many Changes in Personnel Necessitated by Establishment of School at Moose Jaw. The Morning Leader September 24, 1927. Page 17. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Accommodation. The Morning Leader. September 12, 1927. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Normal Students Hold Interesting Debate on Friday. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 7, 1931. Page 8. Google News Archive. Names of debating club are recorded. Date access May 20, 2013.

Normal Schools – ca. 1900-1947 – Saskatoon Normal School Photograph SAIN Photographs. Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal School Results. The Morning Leader. July 5, 1920. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Site The Saskatoon Phoenix. April 5, 1919. Google News Archive. Page 6. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask. 5 December 1950 postcard photograph circa194os- Wish You Were Here Saskatchewan Postcard Collections University of Saskatchewan Archives. 2010. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal School Appointments are Announced. Principal at Saskatoon Will Be Replaced by Public Schools superintendent. The Morning Leader. September 12, 1927. Page 10. Google News Archive Search. Quote Dr. J.S. Huff, principal of Saskatoon Normal School, has been appointed principal of the new Normal School at Moose Jaw….Dr. J.A. Snell, superintendent of public schools at Saskatoon, has been appointed to succeed Dr. Huff as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School…In 1915 he became principal of the Regina Normal School…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Enrolment 500. The Leader Post. October 19, 1948. Google News Archive. Page 2. Date accessed May 24, 2013.

Normal School Here Jan. 5 to be Largely Attended. Sessions Open to Teachers who have completed Third Year Course in Normal. The Morning Leader. December 26, 1919. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Planning Another Short Session. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 18, 1929. Page 3. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Results. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. July 19, 1932. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Session Begins January 3rd. The Saskatoon Star-PHoenix. November 30, 1916. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Session Dates Are Announced. The Second Normal School Sessions for First, Second, and Third Class will commence Jan. 6 The Saskatoon Phoenix. October 25, 1919. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Sessions Open September First. Bona Fide Saskatchewan Residents and University Graduates Only Accepted. Training will be Given in Saskatoon, Regina. The Morning Leader. June 19, 1926. Page 17. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Staff and Students Hold Memorial Service for the King. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. January 21, 1936. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Staff to Hold Meetings. Schedule Drawn up Starting May 15 at Rosetown for Teachers in Rural Districts. The Saskatoon Phoenix. May 2, 1913. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School, Saskatoon Sask. circa 1922-1932 Postcard. – Wish You Were Here Saskatchewan Postcard Collections University of Saskatchewan Archives. 2010. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal School Work Extending. Training for First Class Certificates to be Given – Advantage of Having University Here. The Saskatoon Phoenix. December 18, 1912. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal Students Choose Officers. Seventeen Nominated Friday for Four Vacancies on Assembly Executive. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. January 12, 1935. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Normal Students Plan Activities. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 6. September 12, 1939. Quote “The 355 young men and women registered at the Saskatoon Normal School heard the constitution read and the nature of activities outlined at the first meeting of the Students Assembly Friday after noon in the auditorium…”unquote Google News Archives.

O’Brien, Jeff; Ruth W. Millar and William P. Delaney. Saskatoon: A History of Photographs
Edition illustrated.
Publisher Coteau Books, 2007.
ISBN 1550503669, 9781550503661. Page 72. Digitized online by Google Books 2012. Quote “A second BCATP (British Commonwealth Air Training Plan facility ` the NO. 7 Initial Training School – opened in 1941 next to the Normal School on Avenue A on the site of the present Kelsey Campus of SIAST. …New hangars and barracks were built at the airport and next to the Normal School to accommodate the BCATP trainees. …With university residences overflowing, the barracks of the former BCATP schools at the airport and by the Normal School on AVenue A accommodated the expanded student population….the Normal School (now the A.E. Davies Centre) on Avenue A…”unquote Pages 50, 72, 74 Date accessed May 15, 2013.

One New School District a Day. That was Record  That was Record of education Department For September”. The Morning Leader. October 2, 1913. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Only Yesterday. Thirty Years Ago (1935) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 15. Google News Archive.
Quote “C.P. Seeley, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, said probably 25 percent of those students wishing to enter the teaching profession were not fitted to the job and would be well advised to seek some other line of work….”unquote
Date accessed May 20, 2013.

In Ontario…Friends of Dr. G.R. Anderson and Mrs. Anderson will be interested to know that they have taken up residence in Madoc, Ontario. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 14, 1954. Page 8. Google News Archive. Quote “ADr. Anderson was principal of Saskatoon Teacher’s College until his retirement in June, and Mrs. Anderson was active in women’s organizations..”unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Opening of Normal School Suggested. February 24, 1951. Page 7. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Outstanding educational facilities abound in Saskatoon. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 43. May 19, 1966. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Phillips, John M> Saskatoon Hub City of the West. First Edition. Windsor Publications (Canada) Ltd. Canada. Page 37, 47, 66. 1983.

Postcard 2891: Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd, Souvenir Saskatoon, Sask., Canada (c1939) Specifically: PC002891.6. Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd (Publisher) . Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask.. Montreal: Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd. Montreal, c1939. PC002891: “Souvenir Saskatoon, Sask., Canada” is licensed by University of Alberta Libraries under the Attribution – Non-Commercial – Creative Commons license. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/permissions/postcards.html. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Provincial Normal School, Saskatoon Staff, and exterior views of the Saskatoon Normal School 1030 Avenue A North (now Idylwyld Drive) constructed between 1920-1922 by A.W. Cassidy, contractor. Normal School used to train military personnel, cadets and officers in flight courses for the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II, during this time Governor- general Viscount Alexander of Tunis and his wife, Lady Margaret Alexander visited the Normal School at the time when Mayor Angus Macpherson was installed for the city of Saskatoon. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Saskatoon Library. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Provincial Normal School Examination Results Announced. Regina, Saskatoon, and Moose Jaw Students to Get Interim Certificates. The Leader-Post. July 13, 1934. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

R.R.
Knight Gives Advice to Normal School students.
Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 5. November 22, 1947. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Regina Normal School Will Be Closed Soon. September 1, 1944. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Russell, E.T. Pete. The history of North Park : circuses, railways and the vanishing prairie. Saskatoon : Modern Press, [c1975].

Saskatchewan Settlement Experience. Saskatchewan Archives Board 2005. Quote “The Yorkton and Regina Normal Schools were the precursors to the Colleges of Education that were eventually established at the Universities. With such a high demand for teachers, the Normal Schools were used to give a basic amount of training in the shortest time possible before the teachers were dispersed to the many rural areas of the province…..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

St. Mary’s Community School | The Heritage Canada Foundation. 2012. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

St. Thomas Wesley United Church – Our History 2010. St. Thomas Wesley United Church. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatchewan Teachers’ College Gave Last of 20,588 Certificates. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 20, 1964. Page 13. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatoon Briefs. The Leader-Post. September 21, 1932. Page 6. Quote“Students of Saskatoon Normal School to the number of 285 Monday studied agriculture at the University of Saskatchewan…” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Saskatoon has builded wisely. Metroplis of Central Saskatchewan Contains Modern Structures of Every Type- In Architectural design and Finish they will compare very favorably with the older cities in Canada – is a city of homes. The Saskatoon Phoenix. December 4, 1913. Page 18. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatoon Panel “Takes a Look at our High Schools.” Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 24, 1955. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatoon school to use TV aid to teacher training. The Financial Post. April 11, 1964. Page 53. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Sass, Sean editor. Community. Buena Vista School History. Quote“The School is Opened: 1913 – 1914. The cornerstone was laid by school board secretary W.P. Bate on June 9, 1913. The cornerstone contains copies of the two daily newspapers of the time, the Daily Star and the Phoenix, as well as photographs of the city. Six rooms opened in the school on April 1, 1914 and six more rooms opened in September of that year. Four of the rooms were rented to the Normal School, the teacher’s college….” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Scharf, M.P. An Historical Overview of the Organization of Education in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “The selection of textbooks, enforcement of regulations, school attendance, teacher certification, normal schools, teacher institutes, examinations, inspection of schools, and curriculum, however were matters left under the authority of the Council of Public Instruction. In 1901 the Council of Public Instruction was abolished and the Department of Education was established with responsibility with the control and management of all kindergarten schools, public and separate schools, normal schools, teachers’ institutes, and the educations of the deaf and blind persons….”unquote Page 5. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

School Enrolment For January Biggest Yet in History of Regina. During Past Month 6,616 Pupils were enrolled, an increase over January 1927, of 323 students. The Morning Leader. February 14, 1928. Page 24. Date accessed May 24, 2013.

School Enrolment for Saskatchewan Increases Rapidly. Elementary Schools Show Greatest Growth, Education Report Shows. The Morning Leader. February 17, 1930. Page 3. Google News Archive.

School Inspectors Holding Convention Saskatoon, Easter. The Leader. February 18, 1918. Page 8. Google News Archive. Quote “The following topics will be discussed at the convention:
Languages in the Public School, Inspector Anderson;

Placing all Schools Under the Regulations of the Educational Department as to the Course of Study, Teachers and Inspection, Inspector Cram;

Public School Course of Study, Inspector Marshall;

Importance of Games on the Playground, round table discussion;

Water Supply for School, Inspector J.G. McKechnie;

Schools Plans, inspector Asselstine;

Regulations Governing Noon Hour and Noon Lunch in Schools, inspector Hawkins;

Placing Teachers on a Civil Service Basis, Inspector Hjalmarson;

The Training, Crediting and Certification of Teachers, Inspector J. Arch, McLeod, Dr. J.A. Snell.
…”unquote Page 5. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Scholarship Winners at Teachers College. (image) Saskatoon Star Phoenix. June 12, 1958. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Student Teachers Get Scholarships. (image) Teachers Meeting Here on June 25. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 14, 1956. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

School Inspectors Holding Convention Saskatoon, Easter. The Leader. The Morning Leader. February 18, 1918. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Secondary Sources about U of S History:: University of Saskatchewan Archives. Selected Bibliography. Affiliated Institutions. QuoteCampbell, Eleanor. Reflections of Light: A History of The Saskatoon Normal School (1912-1953) and The Saskatoon Teachers’ College (1953-1964). Saskatoon: College of Education, University of Saskatchewan, 1996.”unquote University of Saskatchewan Archives. 07-Apr-2013 Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Social and Personal. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 7, 1946. Page 8. Google News Archives. Quote“Ferns and flowers decorated the Saskatoon Normal School auditorium Friday evening when students gathered for their second large social of the year.”unquote Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1905. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 11. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1912. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 19. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1916-1917. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 74. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1919. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 128. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. QuoteIn general there are two fundamental systems of education throughout Canada, one that of the Protestant communities, free from the control of religious bodies, and the other that of the Roman Catholic French and Irish communities in which education is united with the religious teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.”unquote Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1931. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 124. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1941. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 48, 879 Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1951. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 112, 121, and 122. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1961. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 340. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Steffenhagen, Janet. Enrolment, tax benefits seen if King Edward School closes. The Phoenix. March 18, 1978. Page 61. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Student Teacher Executive (image) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 21, 1964. Page 22. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

STF Day – Saskatoon Teachers’ College 1962-63 – Audience – SAIN Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Study Curriculum At Sessions Here. School Superintendents and Normal School TEachers Attend Conference. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 27, 1941. Google News Archive. Page 3. Date Accessed May 20, 2013.

Success after much opposition. The Saskatoon Star Phoenix. April 12, 1928. Page 11. Google News Archives. Page 11. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Successful Students in Normal School “Exams” for Third Class Licenses. The Morning Leader. February 11, 1926. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Tenders Being Called for New Normal School. Cost of the Building Estimated at about $500,000 – A Magnificent Site. Will Overlook Saskatoon City from West Side at Top of Avenue A. The Morning Leader. June 7, 1920. Page 17. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Teachers Affect Eternity Anderson Tells Graduates. Not Merely Livelihoods. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 20, 1946. Page 3 and 5. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Teachers college ceremony Monday. The Leader-Post. January 27, 1960. Page 12. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Teacher’s College Graduates. “You are handling Most Precious Commodity” Douglas tells Teachers College Graduates. Saskatoon Star Phoenix. June 12, 1959. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Teachers college renamed. The Phoenix. February 11, 1986. Page 34. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Teachers Graduate Next Week. Largest Class Ever. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 3, 1960. Page 19. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Tests to Weed Out Teachers. Twenty Five Percent Starting Normal Courses Unfitted, Says Principal. The Leader-Post. August 7, 1935. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Third Avenue United Church
History of Third Avenue United Church. Dec 16, 2012. Quote “Over the years many graduates of the University of Saskatchewan, the Normal School, and City Hospital nurses’ training program convocated here.”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

To Change School Boundaries [reference North Park and Wilson Schools] Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 25, 1954. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Third Class Normal School Session Opens Jan. 3 The Saskatoon Phoenix. November 20, 1916. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

University of Saskatchewan Archives – Building the University of Saskatchewan.  Campus Buildings. Qu’Appelle Hall. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Vintage Saskatoon Quote Cone Patricia. “We called it “the Teacher’s College”. It became officially “The Avenue A Campus of the U. of S.” sometime before the Education Building was built and opened. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

University Registrations Rush Expected on Monday. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. September 12, 1964. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Varsity View History – Varisty View Yesterday and Today draft City of Saskatoon, Community Services, Planning Department, Neighborhood Planning, Varsity View. September 30, 2011. Quote Cone Patricia. ” 1110 Elliot Street: Teacher’s Hostel. The teacher’s hostel located at 1110 Elliot Street was built prior to 1913 by Thomas E. Farley and designed by Thomson and Crockart. The structure was built near the university to house young female teachers who were from out of town and were attending Normal School. When the Normal School opened a
new building on Avenue A (now Idylwyld Drive), the residents of the hostel were relocated to be closer to the school. From 1925 to the mid 1970’s, 1110 Elliot Street
served as a lodge for the staff of Emmanuel College and the hostel was renamed the Emmanuel Annex. Today, the house is a private residential dwelling and an integral part of Saskatoon’s history” unquote
Date accessed May 16, 2013.

WDM Prairie Gamble – Family History Album – WHEATON family. 2001-2013 Western Development Museum. Quote “The Wheaton Electric did the electrical work ni many buildings including the Saskatoon Normal School 1924…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

WDM Prairie Gamble – Family History Album – MARTIN, John Russell and Janet Mabel (Wilson). 2001-2013 Western Development Museum. Quote “During the Second World War many teachers had enlisted for active war duty, which resulted in an acute shortage of qualified teachers. To alleviate this shortage, short courses at the provincial normal schools were organized, sometimes just six weeks in length. For some “study supervisors”, as the graduates were called, this became their only training…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

WDM Prairie Gamble – Family History Album – PODILUK, Walter, Family. 2001-2013 Western Development Museum. Quote “In September 1945, I enrolled in the Saskatoon Normal School to commence my training to become a teacher. The Normal School academic year extended from September to June inclusive, which resulted in one gaining an Interim Standard Teaching Certificate. However, partly due to the drainage of young people into the armed forces there was a pronounced shortage of teachers in rural schools. As a result some students were selected to go teaching in January 1946 to fill vacancies, which existed in rural schools. Those that left in January could come back in July and August and complete their program for their Interim Certificate. ..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

When Saskatoon Was Younger. From the Files of the Phoenix and the Star. Twenty Years Ago. February 24, 1919. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 24, 1939. Google News Archive. Quote “G.M. Weir, Principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, said the location of the new normal school would be decided in a few days.~ ..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

When Saskatoon Was Younger. From the Files of the Phoenix and the Star. Twenty Years Ago. August 16, 1924. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 16, 1944 Google News Archive. Quote “August 15, 1925 Work was progressing on the new Teacher’s hostel on Avenue A. near the Saskatoon Normal School.~ ..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Work on Display at Normal School. Extension Service in Evidence; Teachers Addressed by Dr. Anderson. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 12, 1933. Google News Archive Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Walter Murray; The Lengthened Shadow. Applications and Appointments – J.A. Snell Correspondence relating to Joseph A. Snell of Macdonald College, Quebec, seeking employment at the University. In 1914 Snell was appointed Lecturer on Education. University of Saskatchewan. 2011. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Weir Leaves Trustee Body. Former Saskatonian Directs Rehabilitation Group of Federal Department. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 3, 1942. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 20, 2013.

What Makes Saskatoon Grow? Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. September 28, 1946. Page 13. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Wilson School Grounds Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 29, 1931. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 20 2013.

Women’s Page. Some Progress in Education.  Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 28, 1949.  Page 9. Quote“Dr. G.R. Anderson, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School gave a most interesting address…under the title, “What Progress Education in Our Society?” He traced briefly how great incidents and great thinkers had gradually moulded a line of thought in education….” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Worden, Dan. An Apple for the Teacher (William Holliston) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. April 8, 1950. Page 17. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Article ~ History of the Saskatoon Normal School. written by Julia Adamson

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From potential to realty ~ The Regina Normal School

9 May

From potential to realty

The Regina Normal School

With additional notes regarding the Regina College

University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina campus

University of Regina


History tells us where we come from and where we are going. Paradoxically, it is about the future as
much as it is about the past. Historical commemoration has always been about identity building, taking pride in past accomplishments and projecting forward a sense of purpose and mission. As individuals, we give our lives meaning by telling stories about ourselves and then living out the narratives. The same is true of institutions. “
~James Pitsula Realize. It starts with you

…..
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas E. Perrett in reminiscing of the “early days” of the Normal School related tales of the very “early efforts to obtain an education act and this was given in 1883 but assented to in 1886. In 1890 in the training school then existing, six third-class teachers were trained. From that small beginning the figures rose to 1,162 teachers trained this year (1922)”Morning Leader 1922

…..
During these early days Mr. Frederick William Gordon Haultain was the President of the Executive Council, or Premier of the North-West Territories, as well as Commissioner of Public Instruction and Commissioner of Education, with Mr. David James Goggin appointed first as Director of Normal Schools then as Chief Superintendent of Education. Both Goggin and Haultain did not support the denominalisation of the North West territories school system aiming instead towards a unified nondenominational school system.

“Education among the people is the best security of a good government and constitutional liberty; it yields a steady, unbending support to the former, and effectually protects the latter. An educated people are always a loyal people to good government; and the first object of a wise government should be the education of the people. An educated people are always enterprising in all kinds of general and local improvements.“  Egerton Ryerson Putman 1912

…..
Sir Frederick Haultain, “father of Saskatchewan’s Educational System” said that in 1888, there were 96 teachers for 90 schools and 2,409 pupils across the entire North West Territory.The Morning Leader Feb 26, 1920 The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan places early classes for teacher instruction beginning in 1890. Short training courses offered as set out by a School Ordinance of 1888 provided for Normal Departments with the objective of teacher training. Norman Fergus Black writes that Mr. A.H. Smith, B.A. principal of the Moosomin Union School offered the first classes informally between 1889 and 1890.

…..
“The first authorized Normal sessions were given by the Board at Regina and Moosomin schools beginning in the fall of 1890” Irene A Poelzer Whenever there were ten pupils wishing Normal training, sessions to obtain a third class certificate were established at any Union School ie Prince Albert, Saskatoon, Yorkton, Moosomin, Moose Jaw, Weyburn and Estevan. H. W. Foght named the two teacher schools a farm community union school, whereas a three or more teacher school was termed a farm community consolidated school.

….. School Inspector John Hewgill taught at Moosomin in 1890 with six in attendance, and William Rothwell, B.A. offered teacher training classes through 1892 and 1893 in Regina. These inaugural classes were “invitational”. James Grassick, pupil of Regina’s first school presented the first teacher’s certificate issued, January 20, 1891 at the Regina school district No. 4 50th re-union in 1935. Ken Horsman relates that Dr. David J. Goggin, former principal of the Winnipeg Normal School in 1884 was the inaugural principal of the North-West Territories Normal School in the spring of 1893 operating out of Regina’s Union School.

…..Before the Normal School is formally established under Goggin, fifty five teachers were provided with teachers training by school inspectors in the North West Territories. “The Regina Normal School was initially housed in the Regina Union School at Hamilton Street and 11th Avenue, (also known as “The White School”). Later the teaching college relocated to South Railway Avenue in the “Second Glasgow House”.

By 1896, there were 258 students enrolled in the Normal School programme, necessitating a move to Alexandra School according to a report prepared by Allan Duddridge. Goggin, born in Ontario, studied under Egerton Ryerson, an advocate of public education for all.

” On the importance of education generally we may remark it is as necessary as the light – it should be as common as water and as free as air. “  Egerton Ryerson Putman 1912

…..Teaching certificates and teacher training was compulsory for teachers in the North West Territories as of 1893 school legislation. Teachers hired came from Eastern Canada with teaching certificates if they were not trained at the superintendent classes.

…..
Goggin was followed by D.P. McColl in 1903, the second principal of the Regina Normal School. According to the City of Regina archives, classes were held in the attic of the Union School on Hamilton Street and 11th Avenue as early as 1903. Erected in 1890, it was more commonly known as “The White School.” The Union School closed in 1905. It was torn down and replaced with Simpsons Department Store. Presently the Canada Trust Building is located on the old Union School site. Allan Duddridge states in his report, The Old Normal School: Heritage Assessment of Building and Site in Regina in comparison with Saskatoon and Moose Jaw that Normal School classes were held at Alexandra School on Hamilton Street in 1896 with an enrolment of 258 students, and the Union School was used before this time.

…..

Alexandra School 1909 Postcard 13097: Rice Lewis, Alexandra School, Regina, Sask. (c1911)
Credit: Postcard 13097: Rice Lewis, Alexandra School, Regina, Sask. (c1911) PeelD.P. McColl was soon appointed the Deputy Commissioner of Education under J.A. Calder Minister of Education who then called upon McColl to assume the role as registrar of the newly forming University of Saskatchewan. Lieutenant Thomas E. Perrett became the principal in 1905 having joined the teaching staff in 1904.

…..The year that Saskatchewan became a province, ” 1905 there were 1,011 teachers employed in Saskatchewan; when Mr. Scott retired 5,677 were engaged in the teaching profession and today (1923) the number is over 7,000. In teacher training work, the province has also shown remarkable growth. In the year in which the province was formed 187 teachers were trained in the normal schools; 911 received training 11 years later, and 1,574 last year. [1922]” reminisced Premier Dunning, “the number of pupils grew during Mr. Scott’s Premiership from 25,191 to 125,590, or multiplied five times during the period. The number of pupils enrolled today (1923) is 183,329.”The Morning Leader 1923

…..
It was in 1906 that the controversy began regarding the location for the University of Saskatchewan. Moose Jaw, Indian Head, Saskatoon, Prince Albert, and Regina each brought forward their case before the University committee to have the provincial University located in their locale. The University Act of 1907 passed by the legislature enabled this body the right to confer degrees in Saskatchewan. The vote on April 7, 1909 was cast in favour of Saskatoon.

…..

The Regina Normal school was housed in Alexandra school / the Red School in 1909 when Perrett left to serve with the armed forces. Alexandra School, erected in 1896 was named the Red School, a moniker taken on from its red brick construction. The name changed to Alexandra School in 1906 according to the Regina Public Library. In 1914 it moved again as neighbours to the Regina College site at Broad Street and College Avenue, occupying the space now held by the Fine Arts Building of the University of Regina. Regina Heritage Walking Tours mention that the Regina Police Department was housed in the old Alexandra School in 1921.

Regina Normal School 1910 Post Card 2662 Normal School Valentine & Son's Publishing Co. Ltd. Normal School, Regina, Sask. (1910)
Credit Post Card 2662 Normal School Valentine & Son’s Publishing Co. Ltd. Normal School, Regina, Sask. (1910) Peel…..

The construction of the Regina College was completed before a permanent building was established for the Regina Normal School. Separate locations, scope and purposes were established for both of these institutions ~ the Regina College and the Regina Normal School ~ which grew and evolved next door to each other on College Avenue. Students at the Regina College who had received their high school matriculation there may choose to pursue teacher training courses at the Regina Normal School.

…..The Methodist Church applied for a provincial charter to establish the Regina College in 1911 with Reverend Dr. Wilbur Williams Andrews set up as the first president of the college. The Methodist Saskatchewan Conference did not have its own Theological College, being served by the Wesley College in Winnipeg.

“Public spiritedness and unselfish aims are demanded by the very conditions of our social and national life.” Reverend Wilbur W. Andrews. Heritage and Hope

…..
Until money could be raised for the Regina College, the city of Regina offered the use of the old Victoria Hospital built in 1901 on Hamilton Street as the new and larger Regina General Hospital was ready to open in 1911. The Regina College opened at 2240 Hamilton Street for classes September 5th 1911. The college buildings were located between Hamilton and Scarth streets and fourteenth and fifteenth avenues.

…..
The Regina College built as a residential school for 200 students offered a ladies college, commercial study courses, music academy, collegiate courses encompassing second year university classes, and adult general education classes. According to the “Committee on Education of the Saskatchewan Conference, Methodist Church”, the institute was intended as a residential school offering preparatory classes for Grade XII or first year university, music, business and classes to upgrade public school instruction for high school work.Mombourquette 1986.

…..
Francis Nicholson Darke financier, alderman, MP, and Regina Mayor contributed $85,000 towards the Regina College, and was a leading force in raising the remainder of the money to buy land north of Wascana Lake and west of Broad Street for the college building. The Regina College administration building cost $275, 000.

…..The Methodist Church received a gift of $100,000 from the Massey estate of Toronto towards the Regina College in 1910. Construction began for the Regina College building on 16th Avenue in May of 1911, and the cornerstone was laid by Lieutenant Governor Brown in the fall of 1911. This building complete with piano practicing rooms, conservatory, dining room, kitchen and classrooms was designed by Brown and Vallance. The exterior was to feature two towers at each end of the building and was designed in the Queen Anne style of architecture.

Regina CollegeLaying of the cornerstone for Regina College, October 25, 1911. (Photo # 80-2-1). credit University Regina Digital Collections
…..The Fairbanks – Morse Building (1911), Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Office (1913), University of Saskatchewan, College Building (1912 ), Canada Life Building in Regina in 1914 were all designed by prominent Montreal firm Brown and Vallance, followed by the
The Regina College featured a musical conservatory and provided preparatory and industrial work while serving as a residential college. The Regina College opened for classes September 5, 1911 with about 200 enrolled.

…..
On October 13, 1912, His Royal Highness, the Duke of Connaught, the Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Dominion of Canada, was present at the official grand opening of the Regina College. The college chose “Ut qui ministrat” Gospel of Luke Chapter 22 verse 27 as its motto, translated to “As One Who Serves”. Rev. Robert Milliken, B. D. succeeded Andrews as president of the Regina College in 1913.

A posse ad esse” translated from Latin as “from potential to realty” became the motto of the Regina Normal School. A more literal translation would be from “being able to being” interpreted as “from possibility to actuality” or “from being possible to being actual”. For teachers and students at the Regina Normal School, they adopted this belief that any possibility could become a realty.

Official opening of Regina College buildingOfficial opening of Regina College building credit U of R Digital Collections

We believe an intelligent citizenship with high moral and social ideals is the only true wealth and strength of any nation, the only assurance of prosperity and permanency. For the purpose of assisting to raise up such a citizenship we open the halls of Regina College without religious test to the young people of the Province of Saskatchewan.” D.J. Thom secretary of the BoardMorning Leader Oct 14, 1912

Official opening of Regina College building
Official opening of Regina College building credit University Regina Digital Collections…..The provincial Normal School had an attendance of over 350 during the 1911 school year. The initial costs for the new Normal School for Regina were pegged at approximately $300,000.

…..The Regina Provincial Normal School was under construction in 1913 on College Avenue and Broad Street upon the old jail grounds. (As noted by the City of Regina archives 16th avenue was renamed College Avenue.) A small section of the school was completed in 1912 comprising administration offices, dining room, chapel, student residences, and library. Thusly, a permanent location for the Regina Normal School was established in 1914 serving the province as the sole teacher training institution until 1922.

…..The teacher training institution received its name as a “Normal School” from the French education system Ecole normale superieure.” Designed in 1913 by the architects Storey and Van Egmond using a Collegiate Gothic style, the cornerstone was officially laid by Chief Justice F.W.G Haultain on March 30, 1913. This ceremony was chaired by Premier Scott. A notice dated November 28, 1913 was placed in the Morning Leader regarding the Alexandra school; “the Alexandra School, now occupied by the Normal School, will be to rent from January 1, 1914”. Classes opened for the winter session in the new Normal School building on January 5 of 1914 with 165 students enrolled. At this time a few classes were “still held” outside the building: Manual Training took place at Strathcona School and Domestic Science at Victoria School.

 Regina Normal School City of Regina Archival Records Collection : CORA-A-2132
Credit: Regina Normal School under construction ca 1913 City of Regina Archival Records Collection : CORA-A-2132…..The first Regina Public library built in 1912 in Regina (demolished in 1961), Eddy Apartments (1914), Saskatchewan Cooperative Elevator Building (1914), the Traveller’s Building (1929), Balfour Apartments (1929) were also designed by the prominent architects Storey and Van Egmond.

Regina Normal School 1914 Postcard 12856 Lovell & Co. New Normal School Regina (cca. 1911)
Regina Normal School 1914 Postcard credit Postcard 12856 Lovell & Co. New Normal School Regina (cca. 1911) Peel…..
Upon reviewing Wascana Centre Authority plans for the current Regina College building, the Conservatory Building and West Tower were constructed together between the years 1914 to 1916 after the main building was erected. The design plans of Brown and Vallance called for a symmetrical design with both east and west towers, however the east tower was never constructed. The College Building has a variety of styles, shapes and roof forms divided into the west Tower, Conservatory North Block, Conservatory South Block, and Gallery Building. Darke Hall was erected as a separate building adjacent to the College Building. The Regina Normal School was another separate building located near the intersection of College Avenue and Broad Street.

Regina Normal School / Darke Hall / Regina College
Regina Normal School / Regina College / Darke Hall
adapted from Wascana Centre Authority University of Regina (with permission)…..Dr. R.A. Wilson held the post of principal of the Regina Normal School while T.E. Perrett was serving in World War 1, and Perrett resumed his post in 1915 after being wounded and permanently blinded during his service of duty.

…..

Early advertisements announced that the residential school students at the Regina College were prepared for Grade VIII, Junior and Senior Matriculation, and offered classes in household science and dressmaking, business, art expression, music, and agriculture. [ Satisfactory completion of grade 12 was considered junior matriculation, and satisfactory completion of grade 13 was senior matriculation.] Whereas, the Regina Normal School provided teacher training courses.

…..
After eleven or twelve years of schooling, a junior matriculation exit examination could be taken indicating completion of high school work. Following twelve or thirteen years of school, a senior matriculation exit examination was written for completion of an additional year of study generally considered a college work. Matriculation examinations admitted graduates directly into university, normal schools or faculty of education. The high school department examinations encompassed Standard V, VI, VII (later referred to as grades 9 through 12) whereas the public school department included Standard I, II, III, IV, IV (later termed grades 1 through 8). Class I designated 66 per cent or higher grade achievement, Class II certificates were awarded for grade scores of 55 to 66 per cent, and class III below 50 per cent.The Leader Post 1894

…..Due to the drastic shortage of teachers in Saskatchewan’s history provincial, and temporary teaching certificates were issued in order to prevent school closures. The salaries of teachers in English Canada, 1900-1940: a reappraisal states that a third class certificate was less than a complete high school education. Provisional certificates were those issued when requirements fell short of provincial regulations. In the early 1900s teachers could be hired with a first class, superior first class, second class, provisional, or third class (provincial) teaching certificate.

Regina College
Regina College, Women’s residence is under construction, ca. 1914. (Ph…..oto # 80-2-5) credit U of R Digital Collections…..By 1918, there were 150 enrolled at the Regina Normal School. During the 1920s a “short course” lasting four months was offered by the Normal Schools whereby, a student could upgrade their third class certificate to second class. By 1920 there were 6,500 teachers, for 4,300 schools instructing 151,000 students. The schools operated under 13,000 school trustees and 46 inspectors. The Morning Leader Feb 26, 1920 It was in 1924, that the Normal School system reached peak enrollment applications. 466 students in Regina, and 381 at Saskatoon were registered to attend. Applicants from out of the province had to be turned away.

…..F. M Quance served as principal of the Regina Normal School in 1926 followed by G.D. Ralston in 1927. In the province, at the end of 1926, there were 7,779 teachers hired. 1,724 had first class certificates, 3,907 with second class, 2,129 with third class and 19 with provisional certification.Leader Post 1957 Chas. E. Little, president of the Saskatchewan Teacher’s Association, spoke of the need to ensure that all teachers have a second class certificate as a minimum requirement for teaching, and to decrease third class and provisional teachers.Morning Leader 1926 By the start of the 1927 school season, there were three Normal Schools in the province, Regina and Saskatoon with a new one opening up in Moose Jaw.

…..With another sizeable donation in 1929 from F.N. Darke to the Regina College, the F.N. Darke Building was erected complete with pipe organ to provide music and art instruction. When the United Church of Canada was formed in 1925, amalgamating the Canadian Methodist Church, the Congregational Union of Canada, and Canadian Presbyterians, the Regina college therefore transferred to the United Church of Canada.

…..
Reverend Dr. Ernest W. Stapleford who was the President of the Regina College between 1915 to 1937, had a desire to enable the Regina College to become an independent University. This wish did not come to fruition during his tenure due to the stock market collapse and the drought of the 1930s.
In 1934, the Regina College came under the jurisdiction of the University of Saskatchewan as a second campus of the U of S. severing connections with the United Church of Canada. A gift of $50,000 from the Carnegie Foundation for Higher Education was applied to the accumulated debt of $72,000 against the Regina College.

“Great as was the operating loss of 1934-5, it is more than offset by the advantages resulting from the attainment of the University’s great objective – to be the one recipient of state aid for University purposes and the sole degree conferring power in the province.” ~ Walter Murray, president of the University of Saskatchewan, 1908-1937

…..G.N. Griffin was appointed principal of the Regina Normal School in 1938. Between 1906 and 1940 22,492 teaching certificates had been issued.

…..
The Regina Normal School along with the Regina College buildings served as a Royal Canadian Air Force training centre for the British Commonwealth Air Training Scheme during World War II. Initially Regina Normal School classes were re-located to the Regina Lakeview School, and then into the Regina Trading Company Building located five blocks away on Scarth Street and 12th Avenue between 1940-1944.

Steward Basterfield, Regina College dean 1940 to 1950, is quoted as saying, “we regret having to vacate our own delightful halls, but we are still a community of scholars, and can, in the ardent pursuit of knowledge, easily forget the small inconveniences imposed on us by the exigencies of war.”

The correspondence classes housed at Benson school were also asked to move. Due to declining enrollment, the Regina Normal School closed completely in 1944 and students were served from the Moose Jaw and Saskatoon Normal Schools.

 Sherwood Department Store, Regina Trading Company Building - Regina Normal School 1940-1944, now the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool
Originally the Sherwood Department Store,
then the Regina Trading Company Building ~ and ~ Regina Normal School 1940-1944,
now the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool: credit RPL Photograph Collection

“An education is not complete unless it has breadth. Our plains have breadth. Education reaches out in all directions; it is not to be directed inwards. Our aim, to give a broad education, is well presented by the feature, the Plains.” Lee Greenberg. Heritage and Hope

…..
Following the second world war, students with a grade 10 or 11 matriculation were no longer accepted into the Normal School system for teacher training. Work done at the normal schools was recognized as first year course work towards a bachelor of education degree by the University of Saskatchewan in 1946. The salaries of teachers in English Canada, 1900-1940: a reappraisal states that generally the requirements for teaching certificates; “a second-class, grade XI or XII (equal to junior matriculation), and a first-class, grade XII or XIII (senior matriculation)”.

…..By the early 1950s a drastic shortage of qualified teachers discussions commenced regarding the re-opening of the Regina Normal School. The education system had come to rely on supervisors or “sitters” for classes in Saskatchewan. The name changed to “Teacher’s Colleges” from “Normal Schools” according to the University Act of 1953. In 1956 there were 7,624 teachers hired in the province of Saskatchewan, 1,028 were hired with professional certification, 1,474 with standard, 4,440 possessing interim standard, 298 holding second class certificates, 80 with special and 304 provisional certificates had been issued.Leader Post 1957.

…..

When renovations were complete to the interior of the building and the necessary expansions made, the Regina Normal School building re-opened as the Regina’s Teacher’s College in January of 1960. In the fall of 1961, the Regina College opened as the “University of Saskatchewan – Regina Campus” on Wascana Parkway.

 “Let there be information retrieval…let there also be value retrieval…Open the doors and let in all mankind who seek answers…Above all, let in youth. Help those to interpret the call of the trumpet notes that sound faint in their ears.” John Archer. Heritage and Hope

…..
The original Normal School building became part of the Regina College Avenue complex forming the beginnings of the University at Regina. James M. Pitsula, author of As One Who Serves: The Making of the University of Regina reports, the Normal School at College Avenue and Broad Street served for teacher training classes until the education building was opened on the University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina campus in 1969. The University of Regina achieved full status as an independent university on July 1, 1974.

“As we celebrate a century of education in 2011…it is crucial that as a community we celebrate our shared history of excellence in teaching, research and community service that began at Regina College. The University of Regina’s beginnings were humble. As more and more people walked the halls at Regina College, they saw the value of the education we provide and they contributed to the success of the University along the way. The brick buildings at College Avenue do not just represent our past. They are a strong reminder of the foundation that was laid a century ago – a foundation that we must continue to build on for the future of our students and our province.” University of Regina President and Vice Chancellor Vianne Timmons. History (Alumni)

 Regina College building U of R July 2010 Masalai Wikimedia Commons
Credit: U of R July 2010 Masalai Wikimedia Commons

Article written by Julia Adamson

Bibliography

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Reno Hill School District 5158; Memories of When the Water Came or The price paid for electricity

8 Mar

Rainy Days and Mondays

Reno Hill School District 5158; Memories of When the Water Came

~or~

The price paid for electricity

  • “Change is the parent of progress.” Steve Maraboli, Life, the Truth, and Being Free

The E.B. Campbell Dam was first proposed as the “Squaw Rapids Dam” by the Saskatchewan Power Corporation and the Government of Saskatchewan. This hydroelectric dam was the province’s inaugural venture into providing electrical power. By the mid 1900s it was recognised that the province’s growing electrical energy demand was to soon surpass the existing facilities. In 1961, the province required 1,500,000,000 kilowatt-hours, by late 1964, the Squaw Rapids plant was constructed to produce 1,000,000,000 kilowatt-hours of energy from six 33,500-kilowatt hydraulic turbine generators. The building of the 110 foot (33.5 m) high dam commenced in the beginning of 1960 at an estimated cost of $46 million dollars. The dam is 2,370 feet (722 m) across between the banks of the river, and 620 feet (189 m) wide at the base of the dam, and allows for a two-lane highway across the deck of the dam. The Saskatchewan River was diverted in 1961, and by the fall of 1962, with the $57 million dollar dam completed, the river was closed, filling the dam reservoir. By June of 1963, Premier W.S. Lloyd opened the Squaw Rapids Dam in front of a crowd of approximately 3,000.

  • “The creation of huge reservoirs allows some control over the flow of the river itself. . . . But the [river] is not just a machine. It is an organic machine. . . . For no matter how much we have created many of its spaces and altered its behavior, it is still tied to larger organic cycles beyond our control.” White p. 111-12

The Squaw Rapids hydroelectric station, renamed in 1988, honours E.B. (Bruce) Campbell who was the assistant chief engineer during the construction project. Bruce Campbell was also SaskPower president and CEO between 1983 to 1987 The name “Petaigan” for the reservoir was brought forward to honour the former river now under the reservoir waters. Others suggested that Major E.E. Andrews, a nurse of the Second World War from Carrot River should be honoured with the reservoir naming. William Thorburn employee and trader of the Northwest Trading Company constructed a home and trading post in the area in 1791. Common usage of the name Tobin rather than Thorburn, easier to pronounce, became the name of the trading post and the nearby “Tobin Rapids“. (However, the 1924 Rand McNally Map refers to this location as the Tobin Rof??ls Rapids (see attached enlargement Image) Carrot River suggested the reservoir be named ““Tobin Lake” after much controversy. 174 years after the Tobin NW trading post was established on the rocky bend in the Saskatchewan River, Saskatchewan’s first hydro electric power station was erected, and just as Tobin Rapids was named after William Thorburn, so to Tobin Lake bore his name.


  • “Dams for hydroelectric power generation are located at a site
    where the difference in elevations between the surface of the new reservoir and the outlet to the
    downstream river is adequate to power electrical-generating turbines.”Cech [2003, p150-15

Squaw Rapids, in northern bush lands, was selected because of two sets of rapids on the site. Water plunges 105 feet (32 m) in huge penstocks which channel the water into giant turbines.CP June 15, 1963.7,000,000 cubic yards (6,000,000 m3) of earth were excavated from the reservoir site and re-used creating embankments for the earth-filled dam and a 3,000 foot (900 m) long airstrip. The reservoir covers 75,000 acres (303.5 km3) of land, and when full, the water level rises to 1,013 feet (309 m). By the end of 1962, the water level had already reached 1008 feet (307 m) rising at about one foot (0.3 m) of water a day. Tobin Lake stores 1,780,000 acre-feet (21,965,000,000 cubic meters) of water or 271,322 gallons (about 1,000,000 liters). Plans for the reservoir included creating the reservoir at Squaw Rapids, encompassing Tobin Rapids and extending upstream to the town of Nipawin located 45 miles (72 km) from the dam site at Squaw Rapids. The Torch River Valley provides a natural floodway should the river exceed its highest known peak at spring thaw.


  • “Mr Schell always predicted that with the water power potential for cheap electricity and the abundance of natural resources, Nipawin would eventually grow into a city, and was very concerned when the townsite was laid out that the streets be kept wide, rather than the then popular narrow ones, and that as many pines as possible be left in and around the townsite.” [Mr Winn Schell printed the first newspaper in Nipawin – The Monitor in 1907 later called The Recorder]Schaible p. 842

The reservoir base 46 miles (74 km) by 11-12 miles (18-19 km) wide was prepared for the new lake, wells, dugouts, and basements were all filled in, sawdust piles removed, telephone and power poles, fences and buildings torn down or moved away. The Department of Natural Resources had the $817,000 assignment to clear the reservoir site, removing all useable lumber from crown lands, clearing the 40 by 10 mile (64 x 16 km) area. It was proposed to open the area to farmers who could take some two to three million feet (600,000 to 900,000 m) of spruce lumber from the area. Approximately 40 million feet (12,000,000 m) of white spruce timber, and four million feet (1,000,000 m) of jack pine timber, 17,000 cords (62,000 m3.) of jack pine or fence posts, and 50 million feet (15,000,000 m) of poplar timber needed to be cleared. Following the clearing, a forest fire was set deliberately, to reduce the site to ash, however this failed due to rains, but not before covering the dam construction site with thick smoke. Additionally the SPC put out another $50,000 on clearing and after the dam opened, another contract was needed to prevent logs jamming the dam. 50,000,000 board feet of pine and spruce were removed from the area.


  • It was known from experience where stands of pine and spruce had been flooded during water control projects that trees were still standing after 20 to 30 years…this would have destroyed the recreational potential of Tobin Lake for many years, and would have reduced its usable surface area by two-thirds,” said Resources Minister Eiling Kramer.Leader-Post Oct 2, 1963.

The steam-generating plants at Moose Jaw and Prince Albert were to be closed down in favour of the more economical hydroelectric station here. Water flow at the Squaw Rapids dam is regulated by remote control at the Queen Elizabeth Power Plant in Saskatoon and later from Regina. The hydro-electric project is located 150 miles from Prince Albert, 42 miles (68 km) from Nipawin, 30 miles (48 km) from Carrot River and 45 miles (72 km) upstream of Tobin Rapids.

  • “We should strive to welcome change and challenges, because they are what help us grow. With out them we grow weak like the Eloi in comfort and security. We need to constantly be challenging ourselves in order to strengthen our character and increase our intelligence. ”

120 farmers from the Petaigan, Mossey Vale, and Ravendale districts were estimated to be affected by the filling of the dam reservoir. The farmers who had lands expropriated for the project moved out before December 31, 1961. “SPC has purchased 134 quarter sections of their farm land…most of these farmers have relocated on similar farms in the same general area.Longman 1961 Archdeacon Payton related that the Anglican Church was removed before the region was flooded. About 205 sections or 131,200 acres (531 km2) of land were needed for the Squaw Rapids Hydro Electric project, of which 55 sections (143 km2 were owned by the Crown leaving 600 quarter sections (390 km2) of land in private hands. By October 24, 1962, SPC had only six quarter sections ( 4 km2 ) left to negotiate. SPC also allowed homesteaders to have a lease on their the portion of the land which was above the water line, the Government not only bought the land that would be flooded, but they also paid for improvements done upon the land. After purchase, SPC put buildings up for tender on the condition of sale that the buildings be completely moved or dismantled before December 1961.

  • In all, 100 families were affected, most of them already located in the same general area. They received an average of $55 an acre (4000 m2 or .004 km2 $35,200 a section or $8,800 a quarter section.)).”CP Oct 26, 1962

Compensation packages first proposed considered 2-1/2 the value of the assessment with an additional percentage paid out based on individual needs. In 1924, the Canadian Pacific Railway was offering agricultural land for $11.66 per acre on average with irrigated land fetching $43.74 per acre reported The Financial Post. Whereas, in 1954 the Saskatoon Star Phoenix published that land selling in the Nipawin area was listed for approximately $100 per acre and prices across the provinces were down about 15 per cent from 1953 sales. Land elsewhere in the province was listed at $60 to $70 an acre, and lighter lands may only receive a listed sale price of $25 to 50 per acre. Farm lands for sale in the Rural Municipalities of Torch River, Nipawin and Moose Range, were listed at $50 to $100 per acre in 1966.

  • When the water backs up after the 1962 spring breakup in the river ice, the Petaigan River will burst its banks and disappear, and a church, a school, a curling rink and a farmer’s union lodge, as well as scores of farm homes, will vanish in the Petaigan district.Hooper March 1960

As Daniel Baird relates, “maps present a picture of the complex relationship between water and land as they intersect with human life…driven by the politics of settlement and energy. [Tegan Smith’s] exhibit gestures toward the depths of the lake, which we then have to imagine. The image of long abandoned, rotted out barns in the silty green murk of lake water, fish drifting through their open doors and windows, long spikes of light descending from the surface, everything in suspended animation, in slow motion, is haunting and even funereal. The sparsely settled Mossy Vale, with its isolated farms, traditional hunters and trappers, has become a place of memory.


  • Having no electricity, we were fortunate to have an ice well; our milk and cream we hung down the well in cans. We canned everything we could; meat, game, chicken, turkey, and all kinds of fruit wild and cultivated – so we were rarely at a loss for a quick meal if somebody unexpected dropped in.Horn p. 260

The Nipawin School Unit No. 61 school board advertised for teachers for the 1961 school term. 16 pupils between grades one and eight were enrolled at Reno Hill School District 21 miles out of Carrot River. The Labalm School District was another one room school district nestled in the hamlet of Moose Range serving 15 pupils in the primary grades as well. Squaw Rapids school was a newly established one room school operating out of a trailer for the approximately 20 children of the Saskatchewan Power Corporation Squaw Rapids Dam site area. By the fall of 1961, the Squaw Rapids hydroelectric development project saw a community population of 1,955 necessitating the construction of a two room school building for 61 children. Over the summer of 1961, 275 pioneers came together at the Mossy Vale school near Nipawin for a re-union. The Nipawin Public School saw a huge enrollment, jumping to 834 students in September of 1961. The school enrollment was expected yet to rise to 864 pupils. Five rural schools closed. Mossy Vale, Glen Horne SD 5048, Grassy Lake, Kirkwell (Kirkwall SD 4647) and Welland SD 4473 schools closed their doors. At Nipawin public school, grade seven students attended classes at the high school and at a separate building. The staff room, library, and electrical rooms have been converted to classrooms. The Nipawin ten room school expected to open in 1962 will alleviate some of the over-crowding. In grade one alone, there were 124 students at the beginning of the 1962 school year.


  • Miss Dengate began teaching at Inkster School, with an enrollment of some 37 children spanning ten grades. She hadn’t any experience with one-room schools, and so had to learn a lot in a short time. The school was far from luxurious, with its outdoor plumbing and water pail and dipper, quite a change for someone from England, used to having electricity and indoor plumbing. There was a big stove on which the children would leave their lunch pails to thaw, as it would freeze on the way to school and stay frozen if left on the floor.Haywood p. 681

Cumberland House (“Waskahiganihk” ) settled in 1774 upon an island in the middle of the Saskatchewan River delta region surrounded by swamps, marshes and lakes. It is here that Father Ovide Charlebois erected The first log building schoolhouse in the 1890s inaugurating a system of instruction with both Catholics and Protestants teaching the curriculum. Cumberland House residents depended on a ferry crossing during the summer months, and an ice road in the winter.  The dam is approximately 30 miles(48 km) upstream from the delta area.


  • In 1945, a new home was built, but still no plumbing or electricity.Pihowich p. 777

The Space Shuttle Challenger (STS-41-G) which was launched on 5 October 1984 was able to photograph the Squaw Rapids Dam on October 9, 1984.

“Reshaping life! People who can say that have never understood a thing about life—they have never felt its breath, its heartbeat—however much they have seen or done. They look on it as a lump of raw material that needs to be processed by them, to be ennobled by their touch. But life is never a material, a substance to be molded. If you want to know, life is the principle of self-renewal, it is constantly renewing and remaking and changing and transfiguring itself, it is infinitely beyond your or my obtuse theories about it.”
Boris Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago

With other companies pushing forward in potash production, in 10 years time provincial potash production should reach $100,000,000 a year,” said Premier Woodrow Stanley Lloyd, “The estimated power production for 1963 is 2,000,000,000 kilowatts, five times the production of 10 years ago….This kind of development and announced intention will help keep our place as the fourth largest producer of minerals among Canadian provinces. Leader-Post Jan 1963. Lloyd was also quoted as saying, “there are good reasons for satisfaction in a review of developments in Saskatchewan during 1962. One of the highlights of the economic year has been the surge of activity in connection with our mineral resources. With the opening of the world’s largest potash production plant at Esterhazy, and with 15 other firms actively engaged in potash exploration or development Saskatchewan now has a claim to the title of “World Potash Capital.” Our farm electrification program has nearly reached completion this year and the total of farm homes electrified has been brought to nearly 63,000.”Saskatoon Star-Phoenix Dec 1962.

  • “People who want a cure, provided they can have it without pain, are like those who favour progress, provided they can have it without change.”
    Anthony de Mello, Awareness: A de Mello Spirituality Conference in His Own Words

When Bill and Clara Weighill reminisced on the Mossy Vale area, a quote popped to mind, “We’re all in favor of progress, providing we can have it without change.” For the settlers in the area, there were a lot of ups and downs, and lots of hard work. Homesteading in the area was challenging, there were swarms of bull flies, hordes of mosquitoes, horse flies by the dozens, deep snow, muskeg, swamps, mud holes, and as Kristan and Ellen Sogen relate, the pioneers took it all in stride. The farmers who moved left their homes with sentimental reluctance, regret and melancholy, and yet there was an overall feeling of congratulations towards the Saskatchewan Power Plant, which serves the electrical needs of northern Saskatchewan residents.

The area was filled with settlers who did not give up. The Ravendale Frienship club grew together as ladies of the community gathered for an afternoon outing. Well, as the Squaw Rapids Development commenced, the club dwindled as folks gave up their land, and moved away. But, there was no despair, there was no wailing, with steady faith, the club soon built up again, flourishing and able once again to help the community wherever they were able. They were open to love, light and laughter.

The rail finally came through over hill and dale, through swamp and over river, however it arrived four miles outside of the town of Nipawin. This did not mean the end of Nipawin, resilient, forward thinking and stalwart, the townspeople picked up their houses and their buildings and moved them north beside the rail. These were a people looking at the glass half full, not half empty.

  • “When we least expect it, life sets us a challenge to test our courage and willingness to change… The challenge will not wait. Life does not look back…[It is] time for us to decide whether or not to accept our destiny.” Paulo Coelho, The Devil and Miss Prym 

Settlers made a living the hard way, yet it was felt that it was a healthy life. Making success from the challenges in life, coming together with family and friends to meet the next opportunity allowed these pioneers to be truly grateful and able to celebrate the next step forward for the community when the hydro-electric construction began. Electricity, a much needed, and most desired service and life has changed forever.

Article written by Julia Adamson, Sask Gen Webmaster.

Squaw Rapids Reel

By Don Messer

Squaw Rapids dam a symbol of might,Brings steady power both day and night,

Through summer, winter, spring and fall

Steady power – now reverse all.

The SPC’s pledged to bring

Reliable power for everything.

To serve you well that is their aim

Now all get set, four ladies chain

Reno Hill School District 5158
South east section 18 township 53 range 11 west of the 2nd meridian

near Mossy Vale, SK, CA
Located at north west section 28 township 53 range 11 west of the 2 meridian
E.B. Campbell Hydroelectric Station, Squaw Rapids Dam, Tobin Lake
Located at Section 12 Township 54 range 10 west of the 2nd meridian

Other neighbouring school districts and placenames

Moose Range Rural Municipality 486

Glen Horne School District 5048 SE quarter of section 2 township 51 range 10 west of the 2 meridian.

Grassy Lake School District Unknown School District number and location. Please E-mail if you know

Kirkwell (Kirkwall) School District 4647 SE section ? township 52 range 16 west of the 2nd meridian

Wellands school district 4473 south west section 27 township 50 range 15 west of the 2 meridian (1922-1961)

Labalm School District 4573 unknown location. Please E-mail if you know

Squaw Rapids School District Unknown School District number Located near dam Section 12 Township 54 range 10 west of the 2nd meridian (temporary school)

Mossy Vale, SaskatchewanMossy Vale Saskatchewan: Mossy Vale/Reno Hill Get-Together: 50 years later!
Prepared site for the Mossy Vale cairn.

Neighbouring places

Petaigan post office had three locations:

  • north west quarter of section 33 township 51 range 11 west of the 2nd meridian 1953
  • NW quarter section 22, township 51, range 11, west of the 2 meridian
  • SE Section 4, Township 52, Range 11, west of the 2 meridian

Ravendale post office SW Section 3, Township 53, R.10, West of the 2nd Meridian

Moose Range post office North west quarter of section 16 township 49 range 12 west of the 2nd meridian

Petaigan River geographical feature (waterway)

Garrick hamlet Northwest section 17 township 52 range 16 west of the 2nd meridian

Beaver House post office north east quarter section 34 township 50 range 15 west of the 2 meridian

Ravine Bank (two locations) Section 14, Township 51, Range 14, west of the 2nd meridian

and Section 16, Township 50, Range 14, west of the 2nd meridian

Prince Albert township 38 range 26 west of the 2nd meridian

Carrot River section 17 township 49 range 11 west of the 2 meridian

Nipawin section 16 township 50 range 14 west of the 2 meridian


Pioneer Ways to Modern Days : history of the town of Carrot River and the Rural Municipality of Moose Range.

Carrot River & District History (Association). Carrot River, Saskatchewan: Carrot River & District History, 1985

Jess. Reno Hill School District 5158, south east section 18 township 53 range 11 west of the 2 meridian near Mossy Vale- Saskatchewan Gen Web – One room School Project March 8, 2013.

Bibliography

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School, Reno Hill School District 5158, Mossy Vale School District 5159, Carrot River, Nipawin, Petaigan River, Garrick, Beaver House, RAvine Bank, Prince Albert, Ravendale, squaw Rapids Dam, Tobin Lake, E.B. Campbell Hydroelectric Power Plant, Sask Power, reminiscing, memories, wistful nostalgia, melancholy, regret, sentimenal reluctance, underwater, flooded, reservoir, man made lake

One Room Schoolhouse Naming

18 Feb

GTP in blue

One Room Schoolhouse Naming

An article printed in the Saskatchewan Weekly Newspaper, The Potashville Miner-Journal, “From Bert’s NotebookPlace names, discusses the derivation of the names for schools in the Churchbridge / Langenburg area of Saskatchewan was submitted from the Esterhazy 1939 newspaper by Verna Brenner, which is intriguing and fascinating.

Web master note: Still awaiting permissions from the Saskatchewan Weekly Newspaper, The Miner-Journal and the family of Bert McKay for re-publication, a small paraphrasing of the article comes next. The following page takes the derivation for the name from the article written by Bert McKay, and further verification of these facts have been found in several other sources as noted in the bibliography.

Before we begin with these selected eleven one room school district names, just a note about the historical naming process of the one room school districts in the province of Saskatchewan. John C. Charyk noted in “Syrup Pails and Gopher Tails” that the naming of the school was left to the local residents in the community. “Today as a result of that policy, knowing how a school district derived its name often brings an insight into the very heart of local history and traditions.”Charyk 1984 p. 12 The procedure of determining the name was set before all the community ratepayers requesting a suitable name. The school District organisers would hold a meeting, and of these names, the committee would submit a list of four or five names. The Department of Education set before the community the request for a list, as very often if only one name were submitted, it may be in use already at another school site. So the final choice for the school district name lay with the Department of Education.

At this same time, a school district number was allotted to the school district by the Department of Education. The numbers began with Moose Jaw School District No. 1 of the North West Territories and kept incrementing to Bow Valley School District No. 1409, North West Territories. At this time, for provisional districts of the Northwest Territories were merged to form the twin provinces of Alberta, and Saskatchewan on September 1, 1905. The Department of Education then decided that to keep record keeping for the two provinces separate in these provincial fledgling years, the province of Alberta would continue numbering her schools from School District No. 1410 onwards, and new schools formed in the province of Saskatchewan would fill up the empty numbers between 1 and 1409 vacated by the province of Alberta and proceeding forward from there. And now to delve into the heritage of the naming of these school districts near Churchbridge and Langenburg, Saskatchewan. (Another note, the Department of Education is now termed the Ministry of Education in Saskatchewan.)

  • Chatsworth S.D. No. 1810, (1907) was named after not a place, but a road in the Clapton subdivision of London, England. McKay points out that the school district secretary suggested the name after his previous residential street. Chatsworth road is a market road serving people in the area with a diverse selection of shops and restaurants, including, African, Turkish, Asian and Caribbean produce alongside butchers, bakers and greengrocers according to Wikipedia.
  • Hohenlohe S.D. NO. 2705, (1910) received its appellation from Count Hohenlohe-Langenburg. According to Alan Anderson, the Count Hohenlohe-Langenburg was invited to the west as part of the great immigration scheme by Canadian immigration authorities. The Count, as president of the German Colonial Association was instrumental in encouraging large colonies, notably Colony Hohenlohe which later received the name Langenburg.
  • MacNutt S.D. No. 793, (1912) is next on the list. John Hawkes echoes the sentiments of Bert Mckay, writing of the Honourable Thomas MacNutt, that he was a farmer and stock raiser in the Saltcoats area, and also turned his attentions to the political arena serving the Saltcoats constituency as both Member of the Legislative Assembly and Member of Parliament. MacNutt is renowned for being the first Speaker of the Saskatchewan Legislature.
  • Zorn S.D. No. 3697, (1916) received its calling from Phillip Zorn, a school district administrator actively promoting school district organisation during the formative year, 1916. From the Western Land Grants Records, it can be seen that Fillipp Zorn was successful at proving up a homestead land grant on the Northwest quarter of section 34 township 23 range 30 West of the 1st Meridian.
  • Landestrew S.D. No. 2698, (1916) was named after Landestreu, Galicia by the immigrant Galician German settlers who arrived in this new land. According to Manfred Prokop, Professor of German (emeritus), Modern Languages and Cultural Studies they established the large colony named Hoffnungstal near Langenburg and Landstrew in the late 1800s. The Landestrew post office opened in 1892, the school not until 1916.
  • Dressler S.D. No. 3732, (1916) located on the north east quarter of section 5, township 23, range 31, west of the first meridian was located amidst the Dressler homesteaders. Daniel DRESSLER and Anna BUSCH arrived to the Langenburg area about 1890. Daniel began proving up the land on the south east quarter of section 18 of the same township mentioned above. They had ten children and their sons Frederick, Andrew, John also homesteaded the area. Daniel DRESSLER immigrated with four siblings from Galicia, and this area was home to a number of DRESSLER homesteads. According to LAC Western Land Grants, Section 5 was Canadian Pacific Railway Land. A portion of this land was donated by Frederick DRESSLER to the community on which to build the Dressler Schoolhouse reported Bill Barry.
  • Churchbridge S.D. No. 124, (1887) honours the Anglican Church Colonization Land Company administered by Mr. Church and Reverend Bridges, who purchased land for settlement in the township 22 range 32, west of the 1st meridian. In Ruth Swanson’s compilation, The first hundred years : around Churchbridge, 1880-1980, settlers also remember a Mr. Eden belonging to this English Colonization Company as well, and a preliminary name being Edenbridge which was changed to Churchbridge due to a conflict with Edenbridge, Manitoba.
  • Rothbury S.D. No. 204 (1891) recognizes the town of Rothbury in Northumberland, England. Robert Athey suggested the title at a school district meeting. The land around the Rothbury school district is characterized by rolling and open prairie. Rothbury, Northumberland is nestled within the Simonside and Cheviot Hills.
  • Goehring S.D. 910, (1903) has as its namesake an early trustee, Ludwig Goehring a school district trustee. Goehring successfully proved up on three quarter sections in the area.
  • Kensington Lake S.D. No. 1083, (1904) assumed its name from the nearby physical feature, Kensington Lake. McKay mentions that Kensington Lake, in turn, assumed its name from E.D. Kensington who farmed near the lake.
  • Flower Valley S.D. No. 1098, (1904) derived its name from the German word “Blummenthal” which translated means Flower Valley. McKay points out that George Haas suggested the German term, and Niel McFadyen put forward the English translation. Mrs. Louise (George) Haas recalls that the school district was situated upon the old Pelly Trail

Webmaster note: The newspaper article recorded Chatsworth S.D. as number 1771, however other sources provide the school with the name of Homeland as School District No. 1771, and Chatsworth School District as No. 1810. The spelling was provided as Landstrew S.D. 2698 in the newspaper article, however other sources gave it as Landestrew S.D. No. 3698, And Budweis School District received the S.D. number of 2698. If anyone else has further information or clarification on any of these schools, school districts or Bert McKay, it would be a pleasure to add the same notes as provided. Kind Regards Julia Adamson.

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Distance Learning ~ Saskatchewan Correspondence School History

1 Oct

Autumn Returns

Distance Learning ~The History of the Saskatchewan Correspondence School

Correspondence lessons were initiated and petitioned for by Catherine Sheldon-Williams who was Saskatchewan’s pioneer in the field of distance learning. Her courses nurtured individual students residing in isolated areas, regions without one room schoolhouses, and areas without high school collegiate institutions, opening to them new opportunities to reach their potential. The courses expanded to include ill pupils, those who were physically disabled, and adults seeking education.

Both the Sheldon-Williams Collegiate in Regina and a public school scholarship are named in honour of Miss Catherine Sheldon-Williams, commemorating her works, a true “Adventure in Education”. Or, perhaps Charles Dickens says it best, “It is well for a man to respect his own vocation, whatever it is, and to
think himself bound to uphold it, and to claim for it the respect it deserves.”

Early pioneers benefited from innovative courses set forward by the University of Saskatchewan. In 1907 the University of Saskatchewan offered the ‘Better Farming’ demonstration trains, “Homemaker” short courses and ‘Canadian Youth Vocational Training Workshops’ as an initiation into Saskatchewan’s distance learning experience. These experimental training grounds were the forerunner to the correspondence classes invaluable to the vast expanses of Saskatchewan’s rural population.

Education by mail first originated in British Columbia to serve the educational needs of a lighthouse keeper’s family. The British Columbia Minister of Education, J.D. MacLean was wary of the success of such a programme; “To carry on the education of children in remote country districts unprovided with a school through a system of correspondence cannot, I am afraid, prove successful. Some degree of success would attend the system in the case of say high school pupils but constant supervision by a teacher is necessary if progress is to be made by pupils who have never before attended school.” The experimental lessons were an immediate success, 86 pupils were enrolled by the end of the first year, over 200 in the second.

Year of Correspondence Schools Inception by province

British Columbia 1919
Nova Scotia 1921
Alberta 1923
Saskatchewan 1925
Ontario 1926
Manitoba 1927
New Brunswick 1939
Quebec 1946

The idea spread to Alberta, and soon Saskatchewan residents living near the fourth meridian asked if Saskatchewan had similar mail courses or if they could enrol with the Alberta Correspondence School, ACS. Here is where the “Adventures in Education” stylings of Catherine Shledon-Williams come to the forefront.

Catherine Sheldon-Williams (1869-1949) born in Hampshire, England arrived at the Cannington Manor, Assiniboia, Northwest Territories in 1889 and soon thereafter changed the education landscape in the province of Saskatchewan. Starting out by assisting her father, a gentleman farmer on the land, she soon turned to teaching and began her career at the Wolseley Normal School. She was placed in charge of the Boys Industrial School in Wolseley in 1915.

The former court house in Wolseley was converted to an Industrial School housing youth between the ages of ten and 17 who run afoul of the law. For those working with these youth, special qualifications, patience and a friendly interest in the child were needed to avoid any further court proceedings. Youth could be paroled from the Industrial School to a foster care home with progress shown in school lessons, proper conduct and industry in farm, and shop work such as shoe repairs, baking or laundry duties.

Between 1919 and 1920 the boys living at the Boys Detention House in Wolseley were moved into the vacant Regina Indian Industrial School building which continued to serve Saskatchewan’s delinquent and dependent youth until a fire destroyed the building in 1948. (The building is re-built as the Wascana Rehabilitation Center, then the school was moved to to the outskirts of Regina and became known as the Paul Dojack Center for youthful offenders.)

Sheldon-Williams had initiated a ‘school by mail’ on an unofficial basis as part of a follow-up service to youths released from this detention facility.

Joining the Saskatchewan Department of Education in 1920, Sheldon-Williams campaigned for a province wide correspondence school, “she used the needs of the settlers as expressed in letters and reports, as well as her own interest in and dedication to correspondence education, to convince the decision makers to provide education by mail to remote sections of the province.”page 87

From these humble beginnings the “Saskatchewan Correspondence School” arose in 1925 to bring education to remote rural areas. The original intent of the School was to enable pupils to continue on with their secondary schooling past the grades offered in the One Room Schoolhouse.

Housed in a small room in the West Wing of the Regina Legislative Building, Sheldon-Williams worked alone between 1925-1927 preparing lessons and handling all the typing and clerical work. She adapted the lesson sheets individually to the level of learning for her initial 44 distance pupils, empathizing with each student needs no matter the distance.

The imperative within correspondence schools is not only the preparation of course development, the lessons, examinations, texts and materials but being responsive to the needs of the student providing them with support. There is an Instruction Sheet for the Home Instructors, who may be one room schoolhouse teacher, or “the busy mother on a farm who comes in from planting crops to dictate Johnny’s Spelling lesson.” Personal letters, snapshots begin to convey to the Correspondence School teacher, the living conditions of the students and their family, and their school background. The Correspondence School was not just a repository of reports, and school marks, but also a contact between the child in a solitary outpost and the outside world via their distance tutor.

Eighty years later this continues said Sandra Lalonde, assistant principal of the Saskatchewan Government Correspondence School “But I know from when I taught that you get to know the voice of the students and you do establish a relationship which is very gratifying. Our students tend to be more independent learners in a lot of ways and we see our role as being their guides.”

By 1926 the the enrolment of the Saskatchewan “Outpost Correspondence School” and in 1928, 247 students. The service soon expanded to serve not only isolated students, but those suffering from illness or physical disability, those employed in an occuaption, and adults.

Manitoba’s provisional department of education followed suit, and established their school system of correspondence to enable students living in remote areas to receive instruction, as well as those pupils limited by physical handicap.

Communities could petition the Department of Education to establish a one room school house district if there were ten school aged children within a 36 square mile area. However, high schools were sparsely located in 1918  considering the size of the province. There were seven collegiate institutes, in Moose Jaw, Moosomin, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon, Weyburn, and Yorkton and fifteen high schools located in Arcola, Battleford, Carlyle, Estevan, Humboldt, Indian Head, Maple Creek, Melfort, North Battleford, Oxbow, Qu’Appelle, Strassburg, Swift Current, Wilkie and Wynyard.

If an older student could not be transported to these locations for their secondary education, the correspondence lessons supported those pupils who wished to broaden their learning opportunities. Likewise, students who could not attend school in an area which could not support a one room schoolhouse, could be granted a formal education and receive lessons by mail. During times when a teacher could not be found for the one room schoolhouse, or under conditions of low enrolment when a school closed correspondence lessons served successfully in their stead.

In public school children were taught Standards I-V between 1889 and the 1920s. The first high school grade was referred to as Standard VI before commencing with grades 1 through 8 for the elementary schools. It was not unusual for a one room schoolhouse teacher to teach as many as seventy students in grades one to eight and provide supervision for the older students who took grades high school classes by correspondence. As teachers were in short supply it happened that a public school graduate may be hired to begin teaching school, and that they finish their high school grades via correspondence.

Correspondence schools indeed did fill a much needed resource for those living in sparsely populated regions. The “Grand Lady of Saskatchewan Education”, Sheldon-Williams, enabled students without access to a high school to continue on in their education. Sheldon-Williams, “The Lady on the Bicycle“, continued on with the correspondence school until 1929. Grand Lady of Saskatchewan Education garnered this moniker, as she always rode her bike, named “Eustache” wherever she went. It was in 1930 that the Saskatchewan Correspondence School was formed to continue the work of the Outpost Correspondence School.

About 20 per cent of correspondence students were of foreign extraction. James Hargreaves, officer-in-charge of British Columbia’s mining
correspondence courses noted that after several years these pupils did not show the same progress as English-speaking correspondence students due to the difficulty of receiving assistance from their parents. In many such cases, an interested friend often came forward to help these students.

The school continued with advancements adding radio broadcasts in 1931, computer based internet learning in the 1970s and television broadcasts.

The Saskatchewan Correspondence School became the forerunner to home-based education which became recognized formally in Saskatchewan legislation in 1982, and in 1987 polices, and procedures regarding the operation of a home base school were implemented with a parent Handbook released in 1994.

In the first 75  years of its operation the correspondence school in Saskatchewan served more than half a million students extending classes as far away as the United States, Europe and Asia. The Saskatchewan Correspondence School plays an integral part of the Saskatchewan Distance Learning Centre

“I would say we have students in most schools in the province and in fact some of our biggest classes are in our urban areas. It’s not like what people might think and that students are in some outposts.  Originally maybe it was more that way, but we have such a range now that you can’t say that,” said Lalonde, “We look upon technology as an opportunity to assist and guide our students and to provide them with additional resources. We would be in trouble if we didn’t evolve our programs and it’s just another way we can have better connections with our students.”

“Education is the knowledge of how to use the whole of oneself. Many men use but one or two faculties out of the score with which they are endowed. A man is educated who knows how to make a tool of every faculty–how to open it, how to keep it sharp, and how to apply it to all practical purposes.” ~ Henry Ward Beecher

Sources:

Catherine Sheldon-Williams. McCaig, J.W., Gardiner J.W., Klein, Will. The Saskatchewanians.m Saskatchewan Diamond Jubilee and Canada Centennial Corporation. 1967. p.87

Other sources are given inline within the text of the article.

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The Debate Regarding Saskatchewan Consolidated Schools

30 Sep

Viburnum Trilobum ~ High Bush Cranberry ~ Explore

The Debate Regarding Saskatchewan Consolidated Schools

Wherever there were ten school aged children within a 36 square mile area, early Saskatchewan pioneers and homesteaders could apply for a One Room Schoolhouse District. The little white schoolhouse soon began dotting the prairie landscape, and along with it came a host of attendant responsibilities. Communities elected school trustees to apply to the provincial government and the rural municipality for funding towards schoolhouse, teacherage and barn construction costs, teacher, secretary salary. A teacher was required along with support structure of water, books, maps, desks, stove and heating fuel.

Rural farmers or homesteaders were faced with the challenge of proving up their homestead which necessitate that the new settler must build a residence, live on the land for three years, make improvements and break a minimum of fifteen acres. Times were hard, money was scarce, community residents could pay taxes or supply a couple days per quarter section labour constructing much needed roads, bridges, and fireguards in lieu of paying taxes. However, it was the taxes which kept the one room schoolhouse operational and paid the school teacher‘s salary.

The prairie school system began in 1884 with four established school districts Moose Jaw #1, Qu’Appelle #2, Prince Albert #3, and Regina #4. By 1913 in the province of Saskatchewan alone, there were 3,214 school districts, 15 Roman Catholic Separate Schools and two Protestant Separate School Districts.

Dr. Harold W. Foght, reported in A Survey of Education 1918 that Saskatchewan had 3,608 school districts operating in 1916 under 4,279 teachers, with another 406 school districts which had been organised. “By the early 1930s, Saskatchewan possessed 4,371 rural schools…These schools were administered by 4,371 autonomous school boards, composed of 13,113 duly elected trustees, 4,371 paid secretaries, and a retinue of odd jobs people, who kept the school clean, hauled and cut wood for the classroom’s pot bellied stove, and supplied water to schools which were without their own wells ~ that is, where these chores were not part of the teacher’s duties,” reported Robert Tyre page 3 in Tales out of School ~ The Little Red Schoolhouse.

To maintain a one room schoolhouse in 1915 ratepayers were apportioned taxes based upon the number of students attending school which covered half the teacher’s salary. The remaining portion of the salary was collected from taxes based on a fixed rate per quarter section of land in the school district area. On average a resident may pay between $17.00 to $23.00.

Teachers during this era may receive $20 ro $30 per teaching month along with housing and the lower salary supplemented with farm goods. Teacher’s were expected to work out or farm when school was not in operation.

“There are too many School Districts with summer schools only, a scarcity of duly qualified teachers to man the existing districts and the new ones daily created, …four-fifths of Saskatchewan’s school children are denied the advantages of an education which town and city people can and do enjoy,” reported Arthur A. Frye on interviewing a rural school teacher. The system of non-education set in place in 1915 was considered more expensive than Consolidated Schools with qualified teachers.

Even though legislation was passed in Saskatchewan as early as 1920 had passed legislation in favour of consolidated schools, but as Sir Frederick Haultain, chief justice of Saskatchewan and chancellor of the Saskatchewan University, pointed out that Saskatchewan’s small population did not support such provision.

Mr. Morris secretary-treasurer of the Ontario School Trustees’ Association felt that consolidated schools in Ontario, of which there were 16 in 1922 would be more successful in that province. Saskatchewan being more sparsely populated would face higher operation costs.

Premier W.M. Martin, Saskatchewan’s minister of education in 1921 spoke of the costs to maintain both the consolidated schools and the transportation costs. “The law calls for the province to provide one-third of the cost of conveying the children to school in the consolidated districts. If all the districts in the province were to consolidate, I do not know where we would get the money to pay the costs. Earlier, Martin mentioned that Saskatchewan had about 4,500 schools in the province. The rate of taxation is at $40 to $75 a section to maintain a consolidated school.

It was in 1939, that Mr. Justice W.M. Martin leading a commission on Education advised that a fair and equitable salary for teachers. Schools were managed jointly by the provincial government authority and locally by the school district, and during this time the government was finding it difficult to collect taxes to pay for the schools, and the school district, as well was hard pressed to raise funds. A new system for collection of school taxes wax implemented in 1939 which helped to impose a minimum wage of $700 for teachers. Rural districts reviewed their taxation rate to raise the operational costs of $950 for a one room schoolhouse.

Problems arose in 1946 trying to transport children to consolidated schools over roads which could not be cleared of snow due to a lack of equipment.

Rural municipality borders should be set before those of the consolidated school units to ensure more uniform tax rates collected by RMs advised J.M. Wheatley of Chancellor, AB president of the Alberta Union of Municipal Districts addressing the 1946 Rural Municipalities Association delegation.

The provincial government underwent a crisis in logistical coordination of local government services stated J.H. Brockelbank, Resources Minister in 1956.
Larger school units meet with on average ten RMs up to as many as 17 to coordinate planning of road systems. The RM may itself be divided by larger school units, and collect taxes for two, three or four school units along with any rural consolidated schools not within the larger school unit and any remaining one room school districts. This means that the rural municipality council must collaborate with up to four larger school unit boards to collect taxes and plan the needed road programs. Province wide in 1956 there were 300 school districts, 29 consolidated school districts, and 56 larger school units coordinating with 296 rural municipalities, 370 towns, 98 villages, and eight cities.

Historically, in 1916 each rural municipality had dealt with on average about fifteen one room schoolhouse districts.

The evolution from the one room schoolhouse to consolidated schools was made possible by

  1. Improvements in transportation as society shifted from horse and cart upon Red River Cart trails to automotive transport on asphalt roads and highways.
  2. A shift from rural areas to urban regional centres during the “Dirty Thirties”.
  3. Emergence of the larger farm and improved wheat yields due to new machinery fueling the growth of urban service centres.
  4. A need to downsize the number of school organizational units to reduce financial costs and to eliminate duplication of administration services which could be amalgamated.<
  5. Declining enrolment in rural one room schoolhouses resulted in school closures as early as July 26, 1944. Any schools which had less than 15 students enrolled were closed in an effort to relieve the shortage of teachers according to The Calgary Herald.
  6. A restructuring of the taxation system.

Jointly these were the main factors which enabled the shift from thousands of rural one room school houses to the “modern” consolidated school unit and transportation system.

“Education is simply the soul of a society as it passes from one generation to another.”~G. K. Chesterson

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Schools Close: Lack of Teachers in Saskatchewan’s History

29 Sep

The Inveterate Fox

Schools Close: Lack of Teachers in Saskatchewan’s History

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How are pupils supposed to learn? School trustees, inspectors and the Department of Education addressed the lack of teachers in Saskatchewan’s One Room School houses.

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Parents, students and school districts across the province of Saskatchewan dealt with a serious shortage of teachers through the first half of the twentieth century.

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in the early 1930s there were 4,371 rural schools operated under 4,371 school districts, and this number multiplied to 5,151 by the end of 1937. 1941 counted 8,628 teachers, of which 76% had been been paid less than $700 per annum.

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The dearth of teachers arose from several factors. In the early settlement era there were no trained teachers out west. “Studies show that teacher expertise is the most important factor in student achievement” (1996, p. 6) according to the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future.

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After Normal schools were established, teachers may opt for more profitable career paths in the private sector. Service in the armed forces deprived the country school of teachers who enlisted. The drought and depression years saw a mass exodus from the farm and rural areas to the cities in hopes of employment.

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“Who can blame the teachers for quitting and forsaking their profession? The low salaries, which had to be collected in main directly from the farmers who were themselves in serious financial straits, were certainly not conducive to enthusiasm among the teaching profession — even if they were paid, which quite often they were not,” stated Mr. Townley – Smith, President of the Saskatchewan School Trustees Association, in the February 19, 1942 edition of The Leader Post

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School districts through the early 1900s posted want ads proliferously seeking teachers for the one room schoolhouses. School trustees were advised that “School boards advertising for teachers will invariably obtain more satisfactory returns if the amount of salary is stated in the advertisement. In the case of school districts not located at a railway station, it is advisable to state distance of school from station and from boarding house.” The Morning Leader Feb 14, 1917

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As of 1944, schools with an enrolment of less than 15 students closed, and accordingly, 2,750 schools closed between 1951-1971. “One has to only look at the ‘teachers wanted’ columns of the newspapers’, to see the serious teacher shortage said G.D. Eamer, general secretary of the Saskatchewan Teacher’s Federation in the August 30 edition of the 1963 Saskatoon Star Phoenix.

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As a consequence of school closures, parents and students of closed school districts faced long distance and transportation expense to new schools. The shortage of teachers and school closures hit the remote areas the hardest.

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Teaching attracted men and women to the profession as a transitional step page 151. Men may start out in teaching as a stepping stone in their career. Women viewed the teaching career as a journey of independence, community status and an opportunity for marriage or adventure.

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“Nevertheless, most teachers found that the rewards of teaching outweighed the troubles.”…teachers remember page 156 “the beam on her students’ faces when they first learned to read, ‘ when it finally click[ed] and they [got] it.”

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“In spite of these difficulties the majority of immigrants planned to provide their children with an education, hoping that their decision would give the youngsters a better chance in life than they had themselves. Eventually a school district would be formed and a building of some sort erected. It mattered little whether it was of log, stone, sod, mud or boards so long as it could be called a school. Yet with all its shortcomings and lack of qualified teachers it was able to educate.” introduced John C. Charyk page 1, in The Little White Schoolhouse.

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It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to heaven, we were all going direct the other way – in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only.
Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities
English novelist (1812 – 1870)

Further Reading

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