Tag Archives: Northwest territories

Saskatchewan Evolutionary Changes

27 May

Saskatchewan Evolutionary Changes

1900 Map of Manitoba and the North-West Territories

Manitoba and the North West Territories in 1900

In many instances, the boundaries and names of current place names have changed from historical accounts, correspondences and census enumeration regions. In fact, the province of Saskatchewan established the current provincial boundaries on September 1, 1905. Even though the provisional districts of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Athabaska of the North-west Territories were amalgamated to form the new province, the boundaries of these early provisional districts were similar to the new provincial boundaries, the boundaries were not concurrent with each other.

Genealogical research centers around discovering ancestral lines by delving into research focusing on the ancestral family name, the time period, momentous occasions, birth and death dates and thirdly the location where the family lived. These three, name, date and place names can help to draw a picture of the history of the family. From the place names, the education and occupation can be sought after. The region also will uncover documents such as newspaper obituaries, birth, christening and marriage announcements, wills, land patent titles and scrip to name just a few. Census enumerators canvassed the population by region as well, so if an historical census is released for online viewing which covers the time period of the ancestral family, it can be perused by region. Neighbouring family members can be ascertained from the census along with occupation and residence.

The province’s boundaries are:

1. The 4th Meridian of the Dominion Land Survey or 110°W longitude at the western demarkation between the province of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

2. The 49th parallel US-Canada international boundary line makes the southern provincial border.

3. Upon breaking apart from the North-west Territories into a separate province, the North-west Territories continued on north of 60th parallel, the province’s northern boundary.

4. The eastern boundary does not lie upon the 2nd Meridian, but is rather east of the 102nd meridian west (the 2nd Meridian of the Dominion Land Survey) thus forming the division between the province of Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

Some confusion has arisen regarding historical and current place names. For example if one possesses historical letters which may provide an address say of Cannington Manor, Assa, NWT. Assa was a common abbreviation for the provisional district of Assiniboia in the North-West Territories (1882-1905). (The hyphen in North-west Territories was removed in 1906 becoming Northwest Territories) The District of Assiniboia is described as the 33rd township (about 51.97 degrees north) southward to the U.S.A.- Canada border. The eastern border of Assiniboia abutted the western boundary of the province of Manitoba which was between 101 and 102 line of longitude. Assiniboia’s western border likewise extended past the fourth meridian, the current westerly provincial border to meet with the provisional district of Alberta. The provisional district of Assiniboia extended westward to the further than the fourth meridian to about 112 °W meridian longitude between about range 10 and 11, past the fourth meridian (110°W longitude).

For example, historical maps show Medicine Hat section 31, township 12, range 5, west of the fourth meridian as being within the boundaries of the District of Assiniboia, NWT. Medicine Hat is within the province of Alberta boundaries after 1905.

 

Likewise, Brandon located at section 23, township 10, range 19 west of the prime meridian or latitude longitude 49º 50′ 49” N, 99º 57′ 8” W was outside of the boundaries of the original :postage stamp” province of Manitoba which had a western boundary at the 99th line of longitude. However, Brandon was not within the boundaries of Assiniboia, NWT whose eastern boundary was between the 101 and 102 line of longitude. Currently Brandon is within the province of Manitoba.

Fort Pelly and Fort Ellice were both close to the Provisional District of Assiniboia – Province of Manitoba boundary. Fort Ellice within Manitoba, and Fort Pelly within the Provisional District of Assiniboia. It is interesting to note that Fort Livingstone, headquarters for the North-West Mounted Police was the first capital of the North-West Territories 1876-1877. Fort Pelly is the closest settlement to Fort Livingstone. The current village of Fort Pelly is close to the Hudson Bay Company post of Fort Pelly existing between 1824-1912.

The provisional district of Assiniboia in the North-west Territories can be seen to encompass a sizeable district, quite distinct from the current place name of Assiniboia which is a town in the province of Saskatchewan located at section 10 township 8 range 30 west of the 2nd meridian or latitude, longitude 49º 37′ 45” N, 105º 59′ 19” W.*

It is of note that this provisional district of Assiniboia was created as a regional administrative district in 1882 by the North-West Territories. The first district of Assiniboia (1812-1869) referred to the Red River Colony as created from the 1811 Selkirk Concession with the United States.

Similarly, Athabaska (also spelled Athabasca) was the provisional district of the North West Territories for the northern portion of present day Saskatchewan (Township 71 and northward to the District of MacKenzie NWT at the present border between Saskatchewan and the NWT). In 1882, the eastern boundary of the provisional district followed the routes taken by the Athabasca and Slave rivers to an area south of the Clearwater River fork. The eastern boundary then separated from following natural features and was a straight line between the 111th and 112th meridian longitude. By 1895, the eastern border of Athabasca extended easterly absorbing area from the North-west Territories. The eastern border became now the 100th meridian longitude. The western boundary followed along the 120th meridian abutting the province of British Columbia which had been formed on July 20, 1871. The southerly edge of the Athabasca provisional district ran along the provisional districts of Alberta and Saskatchewan along the 18th correction line just north of 54 degrees latitude north. The provisional district of Athabasca lost land to the province of Alberta, and the NWT Keewatin district in 1905 when the province was created. (As an aside, Manitoba’s borders were extended northward absorbing land from the NWT Keewatin District in 1912.)

Within the provisional district of Athabasca was a post office located at north west section 20, township 66, range 22, west of the 4 meridian which opened in 1901 under the name of Athabaska Landing, changing names in 1914 to Athabaska, and again seeing a name change in 1950 to Athabasca. Athabasca is currently located within the province of Alberta boundaries.

Of note is the provisional district of Saskatchewan, NWT, which possessed boundaries very different from the current province of Saskatchewan. In 1882, the eastern boundary of the provisional district was the 100th meridian longitude alongside the District of Keewatin. These borders were modified in 1898, when the provisional district of Saskatchewan did in fact make use of natural geographical features in its boundary, extending eastward to Lake Winnipeg (now wholly within the province of Manitoba) and the Nelson River. Between the 111th and the 112th meridian longitude was a straight line border which formed the border with the provisional district of Alberta. The northern reach extended as far as the Dominion Survey of township 70 about 54 degrees north, and the southern boundary was township 35 located at about 51.97 degrees north. The provisional district of Saskatchewan lost land to the province of Alberta, and the NWT Keewatin district in 1905 when the province was created.

The post office named Saskatchewan operated between 1884 and 1891 at the eastern half of section 35 township 38 range 4 west of the third meridian placing it in the provisional district of Saskatchewan NWT. However Fort Saskatchewan (former name Edmonton) located at Section 32, Township 54, Range 22, West of the fourth meridian, was located in the provisional District of Alberta, NWT. Fort Saskatchewan currently locates in the province of Alberta.

The settlement of Saskatoon (which changed names to Nutana in 1902) was located at section 28 township 36 range 5 west of the third meridian and is usually shown on maps as being within the Provisional District of Saskatchewan, NWT. Nutana, Riversdale and West Saskatoon (change of names in 1902 to Saskatoon) were three villages which amalgamated to form the city of Saskatoon in 1903 latitude longitude 52º 8′ 23” N, 106º 41′ 10” W.

Saskatchewan is commonly abbreviated Sask, and Saskatoon may sometimes be seen as S’toon. The current abbreviation for the province of Saskatchewan adopted by Postal Canada is SK.

By watching the dates of historic documents, it is easier to ascertain correctly the placenames of Saskatchewan ancestors. Oral history may recollect that an ancestor lived in a certain district, which may indeed refer to one of the three provisional districts, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan or Athabasca or it may refer to a One Room Schoolhouse District. Canada became a nation in 1867. Saskatchewan didn’t become a province of Canada until 1905, before this it was a part of the NorthWest Territories (1868-1905). The Rupert’s Land Act 1868 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, authorized the transfer of Rupert’s Land from the control of the Hudson’s Bay Company to the Dominion of Canada. The North West Territories was divided into districts in 1870. The British (in 1670) had given Rupert’s Land to the Hudson Bay Company which gave the company dominion over lands where there was water passageway from the Hudson Bay.

~Article written by Julia Adamson

For further information:

Adamson, Julia. Placenames of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Gen Web. 03-May-2012. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Placenames of Saskatchewan Comments Saskatchewan Gen Web. 05-Jun-2005. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. An analysis of Saskatchewan placenames Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Maps. 30-Apr-2005. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse project. Saskatchewan Gen Web. 31-May-2013. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Saskatchewan History Saskatchewan Gen Web. 25-Mar-2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia Maps of Saskatchewan 15-May-2014 Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Rural Municipalities of Sakatchewan Saskatchewan Gen Web E-magazine. May 15, 2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia 1921 Canada Census: Place of Habitation :: Rural Municipalities Saskatchewan Gen Web E-magazine. March 24, 2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. How do I locate my Ancestors Home Town in Saskatchewan? February 23, 2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Where were Saskatchewan Homesteads Located? February 10, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created? February 7, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. When Were Saskatchewan Homestead Applications Available? February 16, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Maps of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Gen Web Project 15-May-2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adopted by Saskatchewan Gen Web and Julia Adamson. Saskatchewan Historical Geography May 25, 2014. Family Search. org Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adopted by Saskatchewan Gen Web and Julia Adamson. Saskatchewan May 25, 2014. Family Search. org 24 October 2013. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adopted by Saskatchewan Gen Web and Julia Adamson. Saskatchewan History. 31 July 2013. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Barry, Bill. Geographic Names of Saskatchewan. 2005. People Places Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-897021-19-2

Comprehensive Atlas of Canada and the World. George Philip. London. 1985.

Daly, Ronald C. The Macmillan School Atlas Revised Metric Edition. Gage Educational Publishing Company. Toronto, ON. 1982. ISBN 0-7715-8268-4.

Evolution Boundaries 1882 Atlas of Saskatchewan. Page 10
RICHARDS, J. Howard & FUNG, K.I. (1969). Atlas of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: Modern Press. republish date online Saskatchewan Gen Web Saturday, 11-Mar-2000. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Evolution Boundaries 195 Map Atlas of Saskatchewan. Page 10
RICHARDS, J. Howard & FUNG, K.I. (1969). Atlas of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: Modern Press. republish date online Saskatchewan Gen Web Saturday, 11-Mar-2000. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

File:Manitoba and Northwest Territories (1900).jpg Date accessed May 26, 2014

The First Boundary Extension The Association of Manitoba Land Surveyors Date accessed May 26, 2014

Fort Esperance, Fort Pelly, Fort Livingstone National Historic Sites of Canada Management Plan. Parks Canada. ISBN 978-0-662-49893-3. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Fung, K.I., Bill Barry and Michael Wilson. (1999) Atlas of Saskatchewan Celebrating the Millennium. Saskatoon: Printwest.

Government of Manitoba Postage Stamp Province
Historic Sites of Manitoba Postage Stamp Province 1870 (RM of Alexander) Manitoba Historical Society. 2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Historical Maps of Canada. Canadian Geographic Magazine. 2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014

Historical Boundaries Canadian Heritage Government of Canada. 2013-08-28. Date accessed May 26, 2014

Kerr, D.G.G., editor. Historical Atlas of Canada. Page 66, 67 Canadian Historical Associations Committee on a Historical Atlas of Canada. 1960. Thomas Nelson and Sons (Canada) Ltd. Library of Congress catalog card number 60-9189.

Southern Alberta 2012 Aerial Imagery MD of Willow Creek. July 15, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2014

Watson, J. Wreford, editor. Nelson’s Canadian School Atlas. 1958.

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Moose Jaw Normal School ~ Endless Echoes

26 Jun
Strength by Gentleness by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Strength by Gentleness by Julia Adamson

Moose Jaw Normal School ~ Endless Echoes.

PC002590: The Normal School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan is licensed by University of Alberta Libraries under the Attribution - Non-Commercial - Creative Commons license. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/permissions/postcards.html.

“The Normal School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan” circa 1930 University of Alberta Libraries

As immigration came west in Canada pioneers settled on their homesteads with young families. Families, with young children in need of schools and teachers. The Council of the Northwest Territories made set out guidelines to establish school districts. Moose Jaw had the dubious distinction of pressing forward in applying for their school district, being the first in the Territories to have their petition to the Government approved. The one room schoolhouses, initally staffed by teachers recruited from Eastern Canada and overseas, or teacher appointed by the school district superintendent. The Northwest Territories Council made provision initiating Normal Training Sessions for teacher training. Permanent Normal Schools were established in Regina, Saskatoon, and Moose Jaw, with classes held in any Union School where demand warranted a special session. The Department of Education (now the Ministry of Education) continued regulating education after 1905 when Saskatchewan became a province.

The city of Moose Jaw began when two explorers, James Hamilton Ross (1856-1932), Hector Sutherland along with a couple of other homesteaders searched land suitable for settlement that would also make an excellent railway divisional point. In the summer of 1881, the forks of Moose Jaw and Thunder Creeks was chosen as this site, and by July 1882, the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) arrived connecting the settlement with Winnipeg, and Portage la Prairie. Six months later, Moose Jaw was connected with Calgary via the CPR. As settlers arrived, families realized a there was need to educate their children. In 1880, a federal government grant was available which paid half of a teacher’s salary if there were fifteen pupils in attendance at a school. A Provisional Board was appointed to establish public education in a school. This civic-minded board with John Gordon Ross (1891-1972), son of Senator James Hamilton Ross, at its helm soon had Moose Jaw incorporated as a town in January of 1884.


“As for the need of a school, let me say that education is one of the most sacred responsibility entrusted to parents. Government schools will soon lead to government control of what is taught. Education is a matter for the home, and when more formal instruction is required it should be a matter of choice. Many citizens are willing to share that responsibility with the church, but not with the government.~John Gordon Ross nomination speech for mayor of Moose Jaw February 1884.”Brown, Page 18.

The Northwest Territorial Council passed the very first school law, Ordinance No. 5 on August 18, 1884. Lieutenant-Governor E. Dewdney put this act into effect, sowing the seeds for the Department of Education. Ten Protestant schools and nine Roman Catholic schools in the territories had received payment for half teachers salaries since 1883. “School District of the Town of Moose Jaw Protestant Public School District No. 1 of the North West Territories” was the first school district organized under this ordinance. The temporary location of Moose Jaw’s first classroom is under debate, although it was used for both classes and the aforementioned political assemblies and speeches.

Brian A. Brown reports that the Moose Jaw Public School was located in the Brunswick Hotel, then the Foley Block (later the Churchill Hotel). Classes relocated to a lean to addition on the Moose Hotel (later the Bank of Commerce). Between 1886 and 1889 students were taught in Mr. W.R. Campbell’s building (later the Walter Scott building).

A permanent eight-room school house was built and opened in 1890 under principal Mr. William Rothwell, and Mr. J.N. MacDonald, teacher. The following year Mr. Calder was appointed principal of the Moose Jaw Union School District Number One, with two teachers serving in the newly constructed permanent school location.

“Kind words are short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless”~ Mother Teresa of Calcutta

J.A. Calder began teaching near Portage La Prairie, and other rural schools, landing a position as Moose Jaw High School principal in 1891, and school inspector in 1894. Calder returned to school studying law, following this he was Deputy Commissioner of Education in the North-West Territories (1901-1905) and Commissioner of Education beginning in 1905. (The position, Commissioner of Education, is currently referred to as “Minister of Education for the Ministry of Education”)

The naming of the school as a Union school was significant as it “A Union School could be protestant, public, separate or private. This was a common designation to set apart schools of a certain standard in which teachers could be trained in the absence of any other training facility, university or Normal College.”Brown P 45.


In 1888 provision was made in the Northwest Territories ordinance for the establishment of union schools. These schools combine the teaching of a high school curriculum, a teacher training curriculum, and a public school curriculum.
“The principal was required to be a graduate of some university in her Majesty’s Dominion, or in the opinion of the Board of Education equivalent thereto.

“He was required to satisfy the Board of Education of the Northwest Territories that he was qualified by knowledge and ability to conduct such a school (union) and to train teachers according to the most approved methods of teaching.”-Department of Education recordsBrown p. 46.

By 1901, the school is referred to as Victoria School, and in the spring of 1903, Dr. J.W. Sifton becomes principal of Victoria School taking over from Augustus H. Ball. To further growth and development in Moose Jaw, the Soo Line reached town in September of 1893 connecting Moose Jaw with Chicago and Minneapolis. The population grew to 1,558 residents by 1901, only Prince Albert and Regina are larger centres at the turn of the century. Moose Jaw achieved city status on November 20, 1903 and at this time Moose Jaw was the “leading industrial centre of the provinceSaskBiz. (Regina incorporated June 19, 1903; population 2,2491901 and Saskatoon on May 26, 1906, population 311 1901.) Construction began on Alexandra school in 1905 and the school opened in the spring of 1906. The primary grades remained at Victoria School, and the older students attended the new Alexandra school. Short sessions for teacher training were held at Alexandra School as well. The population continued to swell, Moose Jaw recorded 6,249 residents in 1906, the largest urban centre of the newly formed province of Saskatchewan (September 5, 1905). Regina was enumerated at 6,100, Prince Albert 3,011 and Saskatoon 3,005 in 1906.

 PC011211: Alexandra School, Moose Jaw, Canada is licensed by University of Alberta Libraries under the Attribution - Non-Commercial - Creative Commons license. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/permissions/postcards.html.

“Alexandra School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan circa 1910” University of Alberta Libraries

In 1908,the governing body of the University was established under President Walter Murray. Moose Jaw assembled a petition of 2,217 persons with their claim to establish the provincial University in Moose Jaw. Premier Scott placed the decision with the board of governors to recommend a site upon deliberation and examination of all options and information available. In the following year a site in Saskatoon was chosen after surveying Moose Jaw, Prince Albert, Saskatoon, Battleford, Fort Qu’Appelle, Indian Head.

Moose Jaw continued to grow as the third largest city in the province, showing a population of 13,823 by 1911. Regina was the largest urban centre with 26,127 residents, Saskatoon 12,004. In 1911 Dr. Angus A. Graham, United Church minister, arrived in Moose Jaw and erected the Moose Jaw College. The Moose Jaw College was a boys Christian Residential College offering public school, and high school courses. The college also offered short commercial courses over the winter term when demand warranted. Complete commercial courses were offered, as well as high school classes up to the completion of first year University. Special courses were also arranged for student requests. Due to the depression and drought in the 1930s the Moose Jaw College closed its doors in 1931 and students transferred to the Regina College.

Planning of Ross Collegiate School began in 1913, becoming ready for classes until the spring of 1914. Moose Jaw’s growth reached 16,934 in 1916 third largest in the province; Regina came in at 26,127 and Saskatoon 21,048. During the Great War (1914 -1918) Ross School was converted to a military hospital, and resumed secondary high school and Normal School classes in the fall of 1920. Teacher training for 45 pupils was also undertaken at Alexandra school under the tutelage of principal, W.J. Hawkins, B.A. who happened to be also the Moose Jaw Rural School Inspector. N.L. Massey and S.G.M. McClelland also taught normal school classes alongside Hawkins. These student teachers earned their third-class teaching certificates, and were able to teach for three years under this designation.

A fifteen week teacher training session was made available in Moose jaw under school inspectors as teachers. 62 students applied for normal school teaching, and the call was answered by Inspectors Griffin, McClelland and Keith in the fall of 1923. Additionally, a sixteen week winter normal school sessions was proposed at Prince Albert, Moosomin, Moose Jaw, Weyburn, Swift Current and Estevan facilities if twenty-five students enrolled. A facility was looked at in Yorkton as well for the same extra Winter session. This session was out of the ordinary, as traditionally sessions began in January, however it was thought that teachers could make use of the normal school winter session while the rural schools were closed during the winter vacation period.

The Department of Education needed to meet the increasing demand for teachers, so the Moose Jaw Normal School was opened in 1927. There were now three normal schools in Saskatchewan, Moose Jaw, Regina and Saskatoon. Eastern Canada adopted the French term école Normale which gave rise to the term Normal School where teachers learned the “norms” in school education methods.

“The rewards of teaching do not at present encourage the expenditure of time and money in professional preparation. So long as a third class teacher is paid the same salary as one holding higher qualifications, there is no inducement for a young man or woman to spend an additional year at high school and an additional term at the Normal School. Salaries have not kept pace with the increased cost of living. Teaching is so poorly paid in comparison with other lines of work that it has suffered by competition. The teachers’ services are too often regarded as a commodity to be purchased at the cheapest obtainable rate in the open market. Until the public realizes that there is a close relation between the kind of education available and the price actually paid for it, we cannot look for any improvement in the quality of our teachers or any permanency in the teaching profession. …The best teachers will gradually drop out and the rising generation will be handicapped through life because inadequately qualified “permit” teachers were in charge of their early education, ” said J.F. Bryant, President of the Saskatchewan School trustees, “Another matter which demands our serious consideration is the lack of men in the teaching profession…Since 1906 the percentage of male teachers in the province has dropped from 43.4 to 16.7 per cent. The majority of the men are to be found in urban districts where they carry on as principals and high school masters.The Morning Leader. Feb 26, 1920.

The Moose Jaw Provincial Normal School opened in 1927. “In reference to the selection of Moose Jaw for the location of the third normal school, Mr. Gardiner [acting minister of education] stated that a large majority of the students who presented themselves for normal school training lived in the more settled parts of the southern part of the province.”The Morning Leader 1927. During the first term, some 300 students were in attendance at the new normal school in Moose Jaw.

“The best of a book is not the thought which it contains, but the thought which it suggests; just as the charm of music dwells not in the tones but in the echoes of our hearts.”~ John Greenleaf Whittier

Upon establishment of the Normal School at Moose Jaw, the staffing at all the normal schools were re-arranged. Dr. John Samuel Huff, (1905-1959) M.A., D. Paed., commissioner of education was appointed as president of the new Normal School in Moose Jaw by the Honourable S.J. Latta, Minister of Education. Previously principal of the Saskatoon Normal School (1924-1927) Regina Normal School (1915-1924), Doctor of paedagogy (1919)Inspector of schools (1911-1915), Principal North Battleford High School (1908-1911) he brought with him a wealth of experience following his graduation from the Regina Normal School in 1907 with a first class certificate.

Regina Normal School 1914 Postcard 12856 Lovell & Co. New Normal School Regina (cca. 1911)

Regina Normal School 1914 Postcard credit Postcard 12856 Lovell & Co. New Normal School Regina (cca. 1911) Peel

…..
Honourable James G. Gardiner, Premier and Minister of Education laid the corner stone for the Moose Jaw Provincial Normal School on Tuesday, October 2, 1928 before a crowed of about one thousand. The cost of completion came to $500,000. Richard Geoffrey Bunyard, the first practicing architect located in Moose Jaw, supervised the construction of the Normal School. The Morning Leader recollected that the Regina Provincial Normal School was established in 1912, and the one located in Saskatoon in 1921. ( Moose Jaw Normal School was located where the Moose Jaw SIAST Palliser Campus now stands. )

During the early years of operating normal schools, short-term sessions were held proffering third class teaching certificates to turn out a larger number of teachers for the burgeoning population of Saskatchewan. Even though short term sessions were used to a great extent in the early 1920s and discontinued in 1926, a four month course offering a third class certificate was revived in 1929. In 1928, a short term second class session lasting 18 weeks was held at the three normal schools, and an 18 week short first class session was offered at the Regina and Saskatoon Normal Schools. However, if demand warrants it, a short first class session was available in Moose Jaw for an enrollment level of 40 students. These classes short term classes were made available to those teachers possessing a third class certificate who wished to upgrade to an interim second class (of first class) teaching certificate by taking an additional four month training course.

E.A. Davies Building, Saskatoon Normal School, Saskatoon Teachers College, University of Saskatchewan Avenue A Campus

Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)

Robert Whiting Asseltine (1870-1953), Bachelor of Arts, teacher at both the Saskatoon Moose Jaw normal school was appointed principal of the Moose Jaw Normal School between 1929-1930. Following his tenure as principal of the Moose Jaw Normal School, Dr. Huff went on to become deputy minister of education for Saskatchewan which he held until 1934 when he retired.

“Looking forward into an empty year strikes one with a certain awe, because one finds therein no recognition. The years behind have a friendly aspect, and they are warmed by the fires we have kindled, and all their echoes are the echoes of our own voice.”
~
Alexander Smith

The brick building constructed in Moose Jaw for the Normal School classes was officially opened February 26, 1930 by the Honorable J. F. Bryant, minister of public works. An invitation was extended to the members of the Saskatchewan legislative assembly by the City of Moose Jaw to attend the grand opening on Wednesday afternoon. Premier Anderson, Sir Frederick Haultain and Dr. J.S. Huff, Principal also addressed the gathered crowd at the opening ceremonies. Premier Anderson related that the normal schools in the province were over-crowded. Between the three normal schools, 1,500 teachers are trained each year.

Alexandra school in Moose Jaw, the previous home to teacher training “short courses” opened its doors to the newly established permanent Normal School, offering practicum experiences in the field for the student teachers.

“These teachers [at Normal School], it must be explained, were not so much engaged in teaching, as in teaching how to teach. It was their task to impart to the young men and women in their care the latest and most infallible method of cramming information into the heads of children. Recognizing that few teachers have that burning enthusiasm which makes a method of instruction unnecessary, they sought to provide methods which could be depended upon when enthusiasm waned, or when they burned out, or when it had never existed. They taught how to teach; they taught when to open the windows in a classroom and when to close them; they taught how much coal and wood it takes to heat a one-room rural school where the teacher is also the fireman; they taught methods of decorating classrooms for Easter, Thanksgiving, Hallowe’en and Christmas; they taught ways of teaching children with no talent for drawing how to draw; they taught how a school choir could be formed and trained when there was no instrument but a pitch-pipe; they taught how to make a teacher’s chair out of a barrel, and they taught how to make hangings, somewhat resembling batik, by drawing in wax crayon on unbleached cotton, and pressing it with a hot iron. They attempted, in fact to equip their pupils in a year with the skills which it had taken them many years of practical teaching, and much poring over Department manuals, to acquire. And often, after their regular hours of duty, they would ask groups of students to their homes, and there, in the course of an evening’s conversation, they would drop many useful hints about how to handle rural trustees, how to deal with cranky parents, how a girl-teacher of nineteen, weighing one hundred and ten pounds might resist the amorous advances of a pupil of seventeen, weighing one hundred and sixty pounds, how to leave a rural classroom without making it completely obvious that you were going to the privy, and how to negotiate an increase in pay at the end of your first year.” Martens. (R. Davies, The Salterton Trilogy (Tempest-Tost), 79).

Upon reflection, Dr. James Balfour Kirkpatrick, Dean of the College of Education said that during the pioneering days in the province, “schools had just whoever they could get to do the teaching, and teaching wasn’t considered a very viable profession. Teaching was regarded as a stepping stone into something else like law or medicine.The Phoenix. 1984.

During the depression years, school enrollment was capped at 800 students for the three provincial normal schools, rather than train a full complement of 1,200 teachers. This decision to limit attendance was considered more advantageous in 1931 rather than closing the Moose Jaw Normal School. Statistics Canada recorded a population of 20,753 for Moose Jaw during this year, Moose Jaw’s sister cities for the other two normal schools, Regina was at 53,209 and the city of Saskatoon 43,291.

The Normal Schools published year books, the book in Saskatoon for the Normal School was termed The Light, Regina Normal School published The Aurora, and the Moose Jaw Normal School had the “Normal Echoes“.

“What is history? An echo of the past in the future; a reflex from the future on the past.”
~
Victor Hugo

In 1933 enrollment at the provincial normal schools was open to graduates aged 18 years of age or older and holding either a grade 11 or a grade 12 certificate with no difference being made for the applicants attending the normal school. Saskatchewan Normal Schools would accept graduates of Canadian or British Universities as approved by the department. By 1936, enrollment standings required a grade 12 diploma, and the normal schools would only choose applicants with a grade 11 standing to meet a minimum enrollment quota, if a shortage of grade 12 applicants presented themselves.


“When there is an original sound in the world, it makes a hundred echoes.”

~John A. Shedd

The school was organized under Principal G. Allen Brown in the late 1930s. Brown had been the “Principal of the Collegiate Institute at Prince Albert and superintendent of schools at Prince Albert. He is a graduate of the University of Toronto, holds a permanent high school certificate, has specialist training in mathematics and has been teaching in Prince Albert for over a dozen years.” before being a teacher at the Moose Jaw normal school before his posting as principal. The Morning Leader, 1927. Principals of the Normal Schools reported to the superintendent of education (this title later changed to the Deputy Minister of Education). It was during this era, that the department of education set out a higher pre-requisite for student applicants applying for entry into normal schools. Intelligence, aptitude and vocational testing were set before applicants who had attained at least a grade 12 standing along with a complete medical examination. Additionally, student teachers needed to attend specific university classes following graduation at normal school to attain a “permanent teaching certificate”. Teachers generally attended summer school at university in order to complete this additional requirement.

“In 1921, when 595 certificates were issued and 889 teachers trained, salary paid a first class male teacher was $1,452…in 1935, when 1,326 certificates were issued and 911 teachers trained, salary for the same teacher amounted to only $523.The Leader Post. 1937. ” Due to the drouth and depression of the 1930s, salary arrears for teachers in the province “were reported totalling $777,380 at Dec. 31, 1934; $964,149 at Dec. 31, 1936.The Leader Post. 1937. ” Though Saskatchewan schools experienced a shortage of teachers during the Great War, the depression years of the dirty thirties showed an oversupply of teachers. The difficulties during this era saw former teachers re-applying to the teaching profession. Desperate for a job, residents turned to normal schools and teacher training colleges. Academic and professional qualifications were raised by the normal schools in response to the high number of applications for teacher training, and enrollment levels were capped.

This situation changed following the second world war. Regina Normal School closed after World War II due to declining enrollment. In the fall term of the 1944 school year, enrollment for all three provincial normal schools came to only 321 applicants, and the previous year, 1943-1944 there were only 450 enrolled. In comparison, the 1939-1940 school term had an enrollment of 820 with 211 attending the Moose Jaw Normal School, 344 Saskatoon, and 272 attended the Regina Normal School. Between 1943 and 1948 short courses were again offered, however this brought down the number of full time students. The pre-requisite for normal school applicants was a grade 12 diploma, Saskatchewan residence, medical examination, and successful completion of normal entrance examinations through grades nine, ten and eleven. 877 students were in attendance the next year, and by the 1941-1942 school term 950 were enrolled in the normal schools across the province.

Mr. H.C. Andrews, B.S.A., B.Ed, principal of the Moose Jaw Normal School reported 146 graduates at the 1946 spring convocation. “Teachers must act as pivots, in a community around which education is interpreted to the people there, and prime essentials required are that the young teachers starting out must have faith in the future and faith in the youth, with whom they come in contact,” the Honourable Woodrow S. Lloyd, Minister of Education said, “Teachers in beginning their careers, must develop an ability to interpret that which they read and hear, must have good health, a good background of learning and especially be civic minded.The Leader-Post, 1946.

A new curriculum along with re-designed entrance requirements were both introduced for the fall of 1945. Normal school applicants required a letter from their high school teacher or principal attesting to the students aptitude for teaching. The first two weeks of Normal School consisted of medical and intelligence testing and staff interviews to procure students suited for the profession of teaching.

“Poetry is an echo, asking a shadow to dance.” ~
Carl Sandburg

The Regina Normal School had been taken over by the Royal Canadian Air Force (R.C.A.F.) during the war years (1939 to 1945), and it was unknown how long the R.C.A.F. would require the building. The Moose Jaw institution, being newer, was in better condition. The Department of Education weighing these options decided in favour of keeping the Moose Jaw normal school open.

The University of Saskatchewan accredited the Normal School teaching program as a year of University work in acquiring a Bachelor of Education degree. Normal schools were junior colleges of the university in 1946.

“Teaching is the most important business on earth, ” said Dr. S.W. Steinson of the Moose Jaw Normal School…” After determining the aims [of every lesson], you must choose the tools and techniques with which to work, and, lastly, evaluate the extent to which you have achieved your aims.Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Oct. 14, 1950.

In 1951, members of the legislative assembly (MLAs) discussed re-opening the normal school in Regina, in addition to the Moose Jaw and Saskatoon normal schools. (Moose Jaw had a population of 23,069 in 1951; Regina 60,246 and Saskatoon 46,028) It was during this debate that it was “pointed out that the northern part of the province was more heavily populated than the south…and Moose Jaw didn’t have a full complement of students” at that time. Students enrollment across the province dropped from 894 students to 745 enrolled in the fall of 1951. The Normal School at Moose Jaw saw an enrollment of 225, 49 less students than the previous year, Saskatoon Normal School was down 31 students, and the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education saw a reduction of 69 students as well.

Entrance exams in 1952 consisted of basic language, mathematics and general intelligence tests. “Even our Normal School students agree that one year training is not sufficient, and there are only hurried discussions during the semester,” explained Marion Scribner from the Moose Jaw Normal School, “with an inspired teacher, the ideal school could become a realty.”Saskatoon Star-Phoenix 1952 Though it was felt that Saskatchewan had the “most advanced system of practice teaching in North America”, a teaching certificate was offered after a one year Normal course.

“When the school existed mainly to develop skills and to impart information, the teacher, to be successful, required to be master of his subject and drill techniques, and able to keep order, either by strength of personality or muscles. Beyond this little more was essential.Today aims of a different curriculum made greater demands on the teacher, Mr. Lewis [Normal School teacher] declared.

To train pupils to think, the teacher must himself possess this somewhat rare ability. To teach pupils to enjoy beauty he must have the soul of the artist. To develop good citizens he must have at once the attitudes of a good citizen, a thorough understanding of its benefits.

To deal with many types of children and help those who are maladjusted he must have an understanding heart.

Many young men and women who obtain a high school education do not have the other qualifications necessary to make such a teacher.

They can be obtained only if young people of high ability, steeped from the earliest years in our culture, enter the teaching profession.The Leader-Post, 1948.

The Moose Jaw Normal School was renamed the Saskatchewan Teachers College as of 1953 and opened with an enrollment of 229 student teachers that fall. Andrews, principal of the Moose Jaw Teachers College reported 215 graduates in the spring of 1954, speaking at the convocation; “The sound thinker will examine all ideas carefully and methodically and will discard those that are not well founded.The Leader Post, 1954

During the 50th provincial anniversary celebrations, Robert Kohaly, MLA said that “teaching has possibly become the most important of all professions…members of the teaching profession have the responsibility of seeing that 50 years from now, the residents of Saskatchewan will be as proud of the present generation as we are of the pioneer residents whose memories are being commemorated this year.The Leader-Post 1955.

A three year study to clarify the quality of teacher education and define who was responsible for teacher education curriculum. The study began in 1955 according to Balfour examining whether

  • a) teachers colleges should be kept, but the courses expanded into a two year session;
  • b) teachers colleges become federated colleges;
  • c) or all colleges come under the University.

Though the government’s Department of Education made plans to withdraw from teacher education in 1958, the decision to place teacher education under the jurisdiction of the University of Saskatchewan came about in 1964. “there was a realization that if you expected a teacher to know the subject, the pupils, the technique and all that a teacher needs to know to do a job well, then one year wasn’t nearly enough time,” explained Balfour.” The complete move to the contemporary four year degree program achieving a bachelor’s degree in education did not become fully established until the 1970s.

A ten per cent salary increase was offered to those teachers with teacher’s college training in 1957. The “minimum salary for teachers with teacher’s college training is $2,400, reaching a maximum of $4,00 in nine years.The Leader-Post 1957.” Gib Eamer, Executive secretary of the Saskatchewan Teachers Federation spoke to the success of the salary increase in retaining teachers in the province.

The Moose Jaw Normal School closed its doors in 1959. Moose Jaw normal school student year books were published under the title; “Normal Echoes.”

“The sound of a kiss is not so loud as that of a cannon, but its echo lasts a great deal longer.”
~
Oliver Wendell Holmes

Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) Palliser Campus made its home in the Moose Jaw Normal School building. Operations of the Moose Jaw Normal School resumed at the Saskatchewan Teachers College, Regina. Provincially teacher education was provided by the Saskatoon and Regina Teacher Colleges. in the early 1960s, all the education of teachers in the province was under the jurisdiction of the “University of Saskatchewan” – Regina Campus” and “Avenue A Campus” until buildings could be built for the College of Education in both cities.

The Honourable Woodrow S. Lloyd, Minister of Education, announced that the Provincial Technical Institute will open in the Moose Jaw Teachers College building. The province, in 1958 had only two Teachers Colleges, one located in Saskatoon, the other in Moose Jaw. With the opening of the Provincial Technical Institute in Moose Jaw, the Teachers College will re-locate from Moose Jaw to Regina. The former Regina Normal School building (after renovations amounting to about $400,000) was used again to provide classrooms for teacher training for the Regina Teachers College. In the fall of 1959, the Regina Teachers College opened to an enrollment of about 400 student teachers. Principal H.C. Andrews speaking to the new students said that they faced a “great responsibility and you must be ready to accept it. Never let it be said that you came to the stairs of learning and refused to ascend.The Leader-post Sept. 8,1959.” At the time of the transfer, the Moose Jaw teachers college was under the head of H.C. Andrews, principal along with 15 staff.

“Before a teacher can obtain a permanent certificate in Saskatchewan, two years of study after Grade XII are necessary. The first of these is usually taken at a Teachers College; the second must be at the University. If a two year course is to be a minimum requirement, or even if it is to be provide for effective coordination between the University and department, the problem of proximity of institutions is important….Teacher training will then be carried on, still at two centres in the province, but at those centres in which the University also operates, said Wilson.Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, 1958.

Moose Jaw not only said farewell to its Teachers’ College, but also the Soo Line, when ran its last passenger train in the spring of 1961. The CPR Moose Jaw – Macklin 480 kilometer branch line also ceased services. A once busy divisional point, with trains arriving continuously all day, Moose Jaw rail traffic was reduced to two cross country trains daily.

“Ennui is the echo in us of time tearing itself apart.

~
Emile M. Cioran

The last year the Teachers College, Moose Jaw opened, the 1958-1959 session, enrollment increased to 350 students, over 237 from the year before. The new Technical Institute will move into the college building, after being used for teacher training for 30 years, it will continue its service in education. Following its first year, the Saskatchewan Technical Institute, received an enrollment of 1,500 students. Construction of a new building pegged at $2,2500,000 on the Teacher’s College site, began in 1958, with the official opening on January 11, 1961. The construction added a new gymnasium-auditorium, two storey classroom wing, kitchen, and dining room wing. The Teachers College building remained at the heart of the new institute, housing administration offices.

Moose Jaw’s population on the 2011 census was 33,274; Saskatoon 222,189, and Regina 193,100. Once the province’s largest industrial city, Moose Jaw rings out her proud heritage. Reaching through time, reclaiming hundreds of unique memories, they truly live up to their new slogan, “Moose Jaw: Surprisingly Unexpected.” (Placing a spotlight on their old slogan, “the Band Capital of North America” a story in itself.)

“Most of your reactions are echoes from the past.

You do not really live in the present.”
~
Gaelic Proverb

The Regina Normal School was established first in 1893, followed by the Normal School in Saskatoon in 1912, and then demand warranted as well, the Normal School in Moose Jaw by 1927. The Regina Normal School building was used for teacher training opening in 1914, closing between 1944-1960, when it reopened to serve until 1969, with a total teacher training facility era of 76 years. The Saskatoon Normal School building opened in 1923, and was used until 1970, its era serving teacher education covering a total of 50 years. The Moose Jaw Normal School building, opened in 1930, and closed in 1959 when classes continued at the Regina location. The Moose Jaw Normal School building had a lifespan of 30 years as a teacher training facility before being used by Saskatchewan Technical Institute.

From humble beginnings, the echoes from the Moose Jaw Normal School ring out. Friendly fires are re-kindled, looking at the reflections of history. Through time, hundreds of student teachers passed through Normal Sessions carrying with them lasting memories.

Article written by Julia Adamson

BIBLIOGRAPHY
________________________________________________________________________________________

Additional Reading:

  • Regina Normal School~ a History ~ From potential to realty
      • North-West Territories Normal School 1893-1905
      • Regina Provincial Normal School 1905-1927
      • Regina Normal School 1927-1953
    • Regina Teacher’s College 1953-1961
    • University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus 1961-1969
    • Faculty of Education USRC 1969-1974
    • University of Regina 1974-

________________________________________________________________________________________



The Moose Jaw Standard

The Moose Jaw Standard (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan Location

Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan Location (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: A small grain elevator on a farm near...

English: A small grain elevator on a farm near Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Mac the Moose stands on the edge of Moose Jaw.

Mac the Moose stands on the edge of Moose Jaw. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Welcome to Moose Jaw

Welcome to Moose Jaw (Photo credit: jimmywayne)




Saskatoon Normal School ~ Education is the movement from darkness to light.

30 May

Naturally Fresh ~ Spring LIlac by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Naturally Fresh ~ Spring Lilac by Julia Adamson

Education is the movement from darkness to light.

The Saskatoon Normal School (1912-1953)

The Saskatoon Teachers’ College (1953-1964)

University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus (1964-1970)

University of Saskatchewan College of Education (1927-present)




E.A. Davies Building, Saskatoon Normal School, Saskatoon Teachers College, University of Saskatchewan Avenue A Campus



Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)


“Undoubtedly there should be a very close relation between the kind of training pursued in a Normal School and the philosophy of education upon which the institution is based. Bismarck is reported to have said, “What you would have appear in the life of the nation, you must first put in your schools.” Might I add that what you would have appear in the life of your pupils, you must first put into your teachers.” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, Saskatoon
The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

The historical account of certifying teachers in Saskatoon has grown and developed over the course of the last century. Teacher training began where classrooms and instructors were available, and the first permanent building for teacher training, the Saskatoon Normal School, was opened in 1923. Saskatchewan saw rapid growth and expansion in the early 1900s. Pioneering homestead families with young children created a dire demand for teachers in communities.

Saskatchewan’s pioneer slogan, “A new school every day for twenty years,” is paralleled by the need to staff these new schools. To keep these schools open, the Department of Education desperately required teachers.

From these humble beginnings teacher training programs were developed and refined. The one room school house gave way to the consolidated school. Classrooms and educational trends diversified to meet the changes in society through the twentieth century and into the twenty first. From the early beginnings when the Normal Schools provided teacher training, now the College of Education maintains a professional academic curricula on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon.

During these early years of settlement in the Northwest Territories trained teachers were recruited from overseas, and eastern Canada normal schools. When there was no teacher available, local pioneer residents with education were requested to provide education services in public school classes.

Fledgling school districts relied upon their school inspectors to aid them in procuring a teacher. Additionally, in the late 1800s and early 1900s the community could place a request for a teacher who could provide instruction in a foreign language.

Union schools provided early teacher education classes. “The first such classes were offered as “The Science of Teaching” and “School Law”” Horseman Under the 1888 Ordinance of the Northwest Territories, classes were provided wherever there was a two room union school and ten or more pupils desiring teacher training relates Ken Horseman in his article written for the Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Teaching inspectors were called upon to provide teacher training, and early union schools in Estevan, Moose Jaw, Moosomin, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon, Yorkton, and Weyburn offered classes to obtain a third class teaching certificate.


“A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.” said G.R. Anderson, Principal of the Normal School, quoting Henry Brooks Adams. “

Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 20, 1946.

The early history of the city of Saskatoon began when the scouts for the Temperance Colony Settlement arrived on the shores of the South Saskatchewan River in 1881. Colonists from eastern Canada began settling in 1883. The first permanent school was ready by 1887, and was known as the “Little Stone School”, though classes had begun in temporary locations as early as 1884. This was the beginnings of the village of Saskatoon.

In 1891, the Qu’Appelle, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railway Company bridge and railway station on the west side of the river saw the start of a settlement across the river from the original Temperance Colony Settlement. In 1901, this growing community was large enough to incorporate as a village, and took the name Saskatoon. The pioneers on the east side changed the name of their settlement to Nutana.

Another group of pioneers settled down also on the west side of the South Saskatchewan River, but across the tracks from the village of Saskatoon. This new community incorporated as Riversdale.

By 1896, 258 students were taking Normal School classes in the Northwest Territories, and the first official Normal School was established at Alexandra School on Hamilton Street (the Red School) in Regina, provisional district of Assiniboia, Northwest Territories. Teaching classes moved out of the Regina Union School on Hamilton Street and 11th Avenue (the White School) at this time.

“The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges” ~New York’s Teachers College, 1888, later the Columbia University, 1893

The number of public schools established by the turn of the century was 574 which were served by 592 teachers. According to Statistics Canada, the population of The Territories was booming, growing from 56,446 persons in 1881 to 66,799 in 1891, and more than doubling to 158,940 by 1901.

In 1905, there were 869 school districts in operation according to Ronald A. Manzer. It was in this self same year, on September 1, that Saskatchewan became a province. Until this date, Saskatoon lay within the provisional district of Saskatchewan, in the Northwest Territories.

The growing communities of Saskatoon, Riversdale and Nutana merged together as the city of Saskatoon in 1906. It was during this year, that the number of schools in the province nearly doubled since 1900 coming to a total of 942 schools in existence, with 1,193 teachers serving these schools.

Saskatoon was chosen as the site for the University of Saskatchewan in 1909. The initial buildings were contracted out in 1910, the College Building, Saskatchewan Hall student’s residence, Agricultural Engineering, Stock Pavilion, barn and Poultry Science building.

In 1909, Deputy Minister of Education, W.P. Bate published an article in The Daily Phoenix (Saskatoon’s Newspaper) urging students to send in their applications if they desire training at a Normal School in Saskatoon. Applications were received, however the number was below the needed ten applications to warrant local sessions.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Saskatchewan would boast that new schools were forming at the rate of one for every day of the year ( not including Sundays and holidays ). 1909 figures showed 1,958 public school districts serving the province, with an additional 31 Roman Catholic Public school districts, twelve Roman Catholic Separate School districts, and two Protestant Separate schools. These numbers rose in the 1910 school year, in 1911, there were 2,251 school districts in the province of Saskatchewan served by a corresponding increase in teachers who now number 2,973.

There was a tendency of the one room school house to expand. Communities rebuilt older schools or moved in additions forming two room union schools or three room consolidated schools. The number of schools in the province climbed to 2,468 school districts by June of that same year. The growth and prosperity of the province showed the rise in population which was seconded by the increase in school districts needed by the burgeoning population. Such an increase in population and the education of its children demanded, as well, an increase in the numbers of teachers available.

The population of Saskatchewan was mainly of a rural nature, Statistics Canada recording 73,739 persons residing rurally in 1901, and 361,067 by 1911 increasing 390%. The urban population increased from 17,550 persons to 131,365 an increase of 649 per cent. The population of Saskatchewan had an increase in population of 401,153 or 439 percent jumping from about 91,279 in 1901 to 492,232 by 1911. (Saskatchewan populations were estimated for 1901 when it was part of the Northwest Territories.)

Nutana Collegiate Institute.  In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes Nutana Collegiate Institute.  In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes

Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate)

In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes, this was a temporary location. On August 20, 1912, the Saskatoon Normal School began, with twelve second class student teachers and fifty third class students. In 1912, the University of Saskatchewan also rented rooms from on the third flow of the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute.

In 1913, Dr. J.A. Sneel presided as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School.On Campus News  A.J. Mather was principal of the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute between 1908-1915, followed by A.J. Pyke. The Saskatoon Collegiate was erected in 1910, and gave up the name Saskatoon Collegiate when Bedford Road Collegiate was constructed in 1923 on the “Saskatoon side” or west side of the South Saskatchewan River according to Eric O. Burt. 55 students from were enrolled for the first session held between August to October, 1912. During this time, President Murray of the University of Saskatchewan provided lectures on the philosophy of education, and Normal School students attended lectures offered to the agricultural students at the U of S as well.


“There is one thing lacking in this country … I would like to see some way to make the teaching profession a real profession – a profession that a man or a woman can spend his or her life at – giving sufficient returns for the labor and brains demanded, and the time and money spent in preparation for it – carrying with it the honor that attaches to other professions, not the mere unwritten honour of work well done, but something tangible and recognized.

” ~ Chief Justice Haultain May 31, 1913. Bocking. 1979.

Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914 Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914

Buena Vista School

When Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914 for two years. The Saskatoon Normal School began as did the Regina Normal School utitlizing temporary locations until a permanent building could be built. It was May 30, 1913 when the cornerstone was laid by Haultain for the permanent location of the Regina Normal School on College Avenue and Broad Street, Regina. It would be another ten years before the Saskatoon Normal School held classes in the Saskatoon Normal School building.

Construction began in 1914 on Student’s Residence No. 2 in the University Campus. When the building was completed by 1916, it received the name “Qu’Appelle Hall.” The University of Saskatchewan converted dormitory rooms on the first floor to house the Saskatoon Normal School. Classes commenced in the new location in 1916.

By 1916, the minimum number of persons applying for normal class rose from ten students to 25 persons who indicated a desire to attend third class school sessions. Only fifty students were to be accepted for third class classes in Regina and Saskatoon, however first and second class sessions were also offered in both Provincial Normal Schools in Regina and Saskatoon.

St. Thomas Presbyterian Church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms. St. Thomas Presbyterian Church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.    Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.

St. Thomas Presbyterian church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.

Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School moved again in 1919, St. Mary’s separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church provided space for classrooms. St. Thomas Presbyterian church was constructed at the intersection of Avenue H and 20th Street in 1908, and expanded in the fall of 1911. In 1934, the Riverside Methodist Church on Avenue G and 19th Street (later named Wesley Methodist Church) and the St. Thomas Presbyterian Church both united and became known as St. Thomas Wesley United Church. St. Mary’s Community School, now demolished, was designed by David Webster in a Collegiate style in 1913.

St. Mary's School built 1913. now demolished.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.
St. Mary's School built 1913. now demolished.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.

St. Mary’s Separate School

If 25 students submitted applications for Third Class sessions, then centers at Regina, Saskatoon, Yorkton, Estevan, Prince Albert, Moosomin, Weyburn, Swift Current, North Battleford and Moose Jaw would establish classes for teacher training in addition to classes held at the Saskatoon and Regina Normal Schools. This was a change from the earlier minimum of ten students required to mandate a class at a Union or Normal school.

In 1919 discussions arose to the permanent location of the Normal School site, whether the teacher training school should be located on the University of Saskatchewan campus grounds or elsewhere. Discussions ensued between Walter C. Murray (President of the University of Saskatchewan 1908-1937), the Government of Saskatchewan Department of Education, University of Saskatchewan architect David Brown, Saskatoon Normal School board trustees especially Dr. J.L. Hogg, and Dr. George M. Weir Principal of the (Saskatoon Normal School 1918-1924).

The first option offered on the University campus consisted of four acres, however, ten acres were requested by the Saskatoon Normal School. At this same time, the University of Saskatchewan was considering requests by the government for a tuberculosis sanatorium and a School for the Deaf.

By the spring of the following year, 1920, the decision was made after consideration of several sites, to construct the Saskatoon Normal School of brick and Bedford stone in the gothic architectural stylings overlooking the west side of Saskatoon atop the hill on Avenue A North.

While the Saskatoon Normal School building was under construction, the teacher training sessions were held at St. Paul’s school on 22nd Street. St. Paul’s School had constructed a temporary building on the corner of 22nd street and 4th avenue in 1913 which was replaced by a permanent building in 1926. Prior to this, St. Paul’s school held classes in St. Paul’s church basement which had served since 1911.



E.A. Davies Building, Saskatoon Normal School, Saskatoon Teachers College, University of Saskatchewan Avenue A Campus



Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)


The Saskatchewan provincial population continued to swell, reaching 757,510 by the time of the 1921 census count showing an increase of 265,078 persons since 1911, or 54 per cent growth. At this time, there were 538,552 persons residing rurally in Saskatchewan compared to 218,958 in urban centres. This represented an increase of 49 per cent in the rural population since 1911 and showed 66 per cent in urban growth.

It was February 12, 1923 when the Provincial Normal School was officially opened in Saskatoon. The cornerstone was laid on May 24, 1921 by Lieutenant Governor, The Honorable H. Newland following architectural plans drawn up by the provincial architect, Maurice W. Sharon. The Saskatoon Normal School was one of the projects undertaken by Saskatoon architect David Webster under the supervision of Sharon. The building opened March 1922 at 1030 Avenue A North (now known as Idylwyld Drive North).

Dr. George M. Weir, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School between 1918 and 1924, went on to become the “first professor of education at the University of British Columbia, first director of the UBC Department (later School) of Education, and co-author of Survey of the School System.”Lord p. 8

The provincial normal schools sought to increase the understanding the realities of rural life and teaching in a rural setting. To this end, Normal School students were offered opportunities to practice teaching under the watchful eye of their fellow normal school classmates and instructors. Weir was followed by Dr. J.S. Huff as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, for a time period between about 1924-1927 which was actually Dr. Huff’s second term as Normal School principal.

Table Showing Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools 1904-1920 in Saskatchewan, Canada
Table Showing Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools 1904-1920 in Saskatchewan, Canada

Student enrollment during the 1923 school term showed 404 student teachers at Regina Normal School and 335 enrolled in the Saskatoon Normal School. This trend of a higher student teacher population in the southern portion of the province continued in 1924 with 466 student teachers enrolled in the Regina Normal School, with 381 in Saskatoon. The Saskatchewan Correspondence School arose in 1925 to offer classes for secondary schooling supplementing the province’s seven initial collegiate institutes.


“The purpose of education is to fit the soul of the child. No system of education can give an education to a child. He must get it for himself. All we can do is to provide the facilities for so doing and we never must lose sight of this fact; that the purpose of education is not to make people farmers or mechanics, not to keep them in any particular walk of life. The objective is to see the boy and girl gets the facilities for the development of his moral nature, intelligence and physical nature. Let him develop his intelligence so he may know; give him the moral training so that he can do properly; house that spirit in a body that is clean and sound. This is just as good for the non-English speaking people as it is for the English speaking people.” ~ Honourable S. J. Latta Minister of Education
The Morning Leader. Jan. 15, 1926.

The large number of students applying to the Normal School for admission resulted in additional criteria for acceptance and a higher competitive admission standard. To be accepted in 1926, students applying for classes must submit diplomas and certificates from Saskatchewan institutions attesting to their standing. The Moose Jaw, Weyburn, Estevan, Moosomin, Yorkton, and Prince Albert centers were to provide special sessions for third class teacher training if there are a minimum 25 students registering at each local rural center. In 1927, the Moose Jaw Normal School opened for teacher training sessions.

The staffing at the normal school consisted of permanent teachers along with school inspectors during the winter months. The school inspectors brought practical lessons and how to overcome problems faced directly in the country school. Serving at the Normal school, the inspectors kept in touch with the latest advances in education which they shared on their visits to the one room school districts. Following Dr. Huff, Principal Joseph A. Snell, M.A. LL.D. was appointed the principal of the Saskatoon Normal School serving the years around 1927 and 1929.


“I am not properly qualified to advise farmers as to the education of their sons, but being country born and bred I sometimes date to think what I should like my school education in the country to be if I had the privilege of living my life over again….I should like that there should come to me a leader or teacher – call him or her what you will – who could lift me out of my littleness, my narrowness of vision, my wrong conceptions, my crudeness in thought and manner, and make me able to appreciate the true, the beautiful and the good, make me able to understand the beauty and opportunity in my own environment and, above all, anxious to live and serve with the great and good of all time as my models and inspiration. I should not care to hear about crops and stock and poultry all day long. Virtue is more to be desired that prize stock and a happy home than a good bank balance. ” ~ A farmer’s letter quoted by the Honourable S. J. Latta Minister of Education
The Morning Leader. Jan. 15, 1926.

According to Karen Briere, “the College of Education with practice schools became a realty in 1927 when a School of Education was established under the College of Arts and Sciences.” In 1928, the University of Saskatchewan established the College of Education. The Saskatoon Normal School remained under the jurisdiction of the provincial Department of Education.

Mr. R. W. Asseltine as the Principal of the Saskatoon Normal School was quoted for his memorable speeches during his tenure 1930-1934. Saskatchewan recorded a growth in population in the decade 1921-1931 of 24.33 per cent reaching a population count of 921,785. The rural population was enumerated at 630,880 persons, with the urban centres at 290,905, over this decade, the rural areas showed a growth of 17% and the urban centres of 33%. Over the year of 1928, there were 4,489 more students enrolled in primary and secondary schools over 1927. Elementary schools grew from 211,599 pupils to 215,968, an increase of 4,369, high schools increased by 120 pupils. 51 new school districts formed over the 1927-1928 school year bringing the total to 4,826 in the province, (this number includes the eight Protestant and 24 Roman Catholic separate schools).

In response to this growth, 1,866 teachers received licenses in 1928 for Normal School Training. In the field there were 8,397 teachers and of these 7,192 were trained with higher than a third class certificate, or 86% of the teachers in the 4,826 school districts. The Department of Education’s Report dated December 31, 1928 urged increased Normal School accommodation, with the possibility of opening a fourth Normal School. “At the present time our Normal Schools at Regina, Saskatoon and Moose Jaw are overcrowded and yet we are scarcely training a sufficient number of teachers to supply the demand.”The Morning Leader. Feb. 17, 1930


“Twenty years is a long time in the life of an individual; it is infinitesimal in the life of an institution. The life of either, however is important not so much on account of the number of years each has lived as it is for what each stands.” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, Saskatoon
The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

Estimate of Population of Saskatchewan 1931-1950 Chart
Estimate of Population of Saskatchewan 1931-1950 Chart

As the new year began in 1931, 7,619 pupils were recorded increasing by 140 students over the previous year. The enrollment broke records held for student population in Saskatchewan.
Principal C.P. Seeley served around the years 1935, 1937 and 1938.


The development of character is the supreme task and privilege of the training school of today. The future of civilization will depend upon human beings who know social righteousness as well as scientific truth. Enlightenment without ethics is a social menace and an educational fraud.” Dr. G.M. Anderson, Principal Saskatoon Normal School.
Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 22, 1951.

The number of school districts increased rapidly across the province with the influx of settlement. By 1937 Manzer reports 5,146 school districts, an exponential increase of 590%.

Examination results following the Normal School sessions were published in the local newspaper announcing the names of those students who successfully earned their interim first class teaching certificate, second class certificate or Third Class Licenses.


“The ideal of the Normal School…was to give the students some idea or ideal of the teaching profession and to help them build up the correct professional attitude.”
Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 15, 1933.

Seeley spoke to the advantages of converting rural one room school houses into larger school units enumerating several benefits; among them, the “ability to adjust teachers more wholesomely to the life of the community; elimination of the “army of amateurs” who experimented on the lives of children and provision for the possibility of better supervision.”Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 4, 1938.

The school term over the years 1939-1940 included 344 student teachers enrolled for teaching sessions at Saskatoon, 272 at Regina and 211 at Moose Jaw. In the summer of 1940, classes were relocated to Lakeview School in Regina, as the Regina Normal School was taken over for military purposes. However, classes proceeded as usual at Saskatoon and Moose Jaw Normal Schools.

Over the school term 1940-1941 there were 877 student teachers enrolled for teacher training classes. The decade of 1931-1941 showed the first signs of a dramatic population shift from rural areas to urban centres. Rurally, 600,846 were enumerated, compared to 995,146 representing a negative trend of 5 per cent rurally since 1931, and a huge 242 per cent growth to the urban centres over the decade. To compare the rural and urban populations since the beginning of the century, rurally Saskatchewan expanded from about 74,000 persons in 1901 to about 601,000 in 1941 a growth of 715 per cent, whereas, the urban centres swelled from 17,550 to 995,146 showing an increase of 5,570 per cent over this same 40 year time period.


Teachers according to Salary Received in Saskatchewan 1969
Teachers according to Salary Received in Saskatchewan 1939

“We can’t afford to neglect our children, …They are our greatest natural resource and we neglect them at our own peril and the peril of the future.” ~ Professor Carlyle King. Saskatoon Star Phoenix Dec. 2, 1942.

According to Professor King, there were five problems in the educational system, “the inability of many school districts to finance rural schools on a decent educational standard, inadequate facilities and rapid deterioration of rural schools, inadequate teachers’ salaries and scandalous arrears of those salaries which were forcing teachers to other fields, inequality of educational opportunity and the hopeless inadequacy of the present course of studies, particularly in high schools, to fit the student for modern living.” Saskatoon Star Phoenix Dec. 2, 1942.

In the summer of 1941 the Saskatoon Normal School officials surveyed vacant public school space for the continued operation of the teacher training classes in the event that the Normal School building is given to the Defence Department.

The Normal School gave up its building on Avenue A North (Idylwyld Drive North) to the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, and the first class of the Initial Training School (ITS)#7 were held December 8, 1941 in Bedford Road Collegiate. The Normal School location was chosen as the site of the ITS administration office and Royal Canadian Air Force R.C.A.F. recruit dormitories. The Normal School and Bedford Road Collegiate were supplemented by new buildings beside the Normal School for additional training purposes.

Enlistment in the war effort drained the provincial educational staff of personnel. Summer teacher training classes were offered to address the teacher shortage. A huge enrollment of 800 students registered for one of these sessions.

During this time, Lorraine Blashill, relates that the School Board made accommodations at Wilson School for the Normal School sessions offered by the Department of Education. To further accommodate the war effort, students from Wilson School were then themselves relocated to North Park or King Edward Schools. Wilson school, in a new 8 room building, had opened for classes in the fall of 1928 had served the City Park area. Erected on Duke Street and located between Seventh and Eighth Avenue Wilson replaced wood frame school houses. North Park school was located on the corner of Balmoral Street and 9th Avenue. King Edward school built in 1904 by R.W. Caswell was located in Saskatoon’s down town (on 25th Street at the corner of 6th Avenue) six blocks from Wilson School. Used for public school classes, King Edward School was sold in 1911 and served as Saskatoon’s city hall, and the second Kind Edward built.

Even in these new temporary accommodations, the school year of 1941-1942 showed an enrollment of 950 students taking normal school sessions in the province of Saskatchewan, and 486 the following year, 1942-1943. The next school term showed a drop in student teachers electing to take teacher training with only 450 student teachers attending classes.

Education Minister Woodrow Lloyd announced that the Regina Normal School was to close in the fall of 1944 due to declining student enrollment. The Saskatoon and Moose Jaw normal schools remained open to continue teacher training services. In the 1945-1946 school term, the Saskatoon Normal School had an enrollment of 617 student teachers, 76% were women. During this time period, it was estimated that there were in excess of 2,500 teaches with temporary certificates teaching in the province of Saskatchewan.

During the second world war, a four-year undergraduate program was designed by the College of Education. Although teacher-training was conferred to universities across Canada, the declaration of war in 1939, put many educational policies and procedures of advanced education in the background. Military training, scientific developments and research into social problems were brought to the forefront for post-school education.


“Education….is not for ourselves. It is for the training of human personality to serve the community….You will by your example, create the moral force of human character, the basis of society.” Reverend A.B.B. Moore Principal-elect of St. Andrew’s College at the 1946 Saskatoon Normal School graduation.
Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 20, 1946.

Teacher training standards were raised to a two year minimum to receive certification, the classes could be taken at either of the Normal Schools or the University of Saskatchewan, College of Education. Classes could be shared between the two institutions, with a year taken at the Normal School, followed by a year at the University.

In the fall of 1948, the Moose Jaw normal school had 220 enrolled, and the Saskatoon normal school 280. Students were trained for the 38 week course rather than the six week short course, as there were already study supervisors in the school districts filling in for the teacher shortage. Students graduating from the 38 week course earned interim first-class certificates. In comparison, the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education showed an enrollment of 400 students, 20 per cent less than the previous year.


“The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires. ~William Arthur Ward.
Edudemic 2012.

Dr. G.R. Anderson served as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School until June 1954. Dr. Anderson noted that between the two provincial normal schools and the University education department 750 students would graduate in 1951. However, an estimated 2,000 places were expected to be vacated by beginning of the fall school term. The teacher’s shortage arose from matrimony, economic and social conditions. At this time, “500 rural schools in Saskatchewan were staffed by student supervisors, with limited academic and no professional training. Still another 400 to 500 classrooms were staffed by teachers holding temporary and conditional certificates. Worst of all, 1,000 of the 7,2000 teachers now teaching in Saskatchewan Schools [1951] did not intend to continue in the profession next fall.” Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 22, 1951

At the Saskatoon Normal School convocation in 1951, 75 percent of the graduates were women of the 348 receiving graduation certificates. Concern was raised over the number of teachers available in the teaching profession, if the shortage was due to matrimony along with social and economic conditions.


“You need never apologize for being a teacher. You have set your feet on the path chosen by many of the world’s truly great men. … The teacher takes the living mind and moulds it.” ~ Lorne F. Titus Chief superintendent of Saskatchewan schools.

“Teacher’s College” was the new name given to the provincial normal schools in 1953. Students received teaching education rather than teacher training. There was much call to re-open the Regina Normal School to assist the Moose Jaw and Saskatoon Teacher’s Colleges with teacher education classes. The Regina Normal School building on College Avenue and Broad Street re-opened its doors in 1957 under the new name, the Regina Teacher’s College, however this same year, the Moose Jaw Teacher’s College closed its doors.


“You are handling the most precious commodity in the universe, human personality.” ~ Premier T.C. Douglas.

By 1960, the Saskatoon Teacher’s College recorded an enrollment of 523 student teachers. Even though there were more stringent enrollment requirements for students registering due to the high numbers of students submitting applications, 584 students attended the Saskatoon Teacher’s College during the 1961-1962 school year. Across the province, the larger consolidated schools with many classrooms had replaced the rural one room schools serving districts approximately an area four miles square.


It is essential for the children to get better education, and we adults must practice what we preach, otherwise, no change will take place in our society.” ~ Dr. W. Steinson, principal of the Saskatoon Teacher’s College.

In 1964 both the Saskatoon and the Regina teacher’s colleges closed, and all teacher education came under the jurisdiction of the University of Saskatchewan. The architectural design for the original Normal School building accommodated 360 students. And although the Saskatoon Teacher’s College now came under the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education, classes continued in the building at 1030 Avenue A North. The new name of the Saskatoon Teacher’s College became University of Saskatchewan Avenue A campus and the Regina Teacher’s College became University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus. The building on Avenue A in Saskatoon remained in use until the University of Saskatchewan constructed an education building on campus.

The 1964-1965 school term received 8,070 registrations at for classes at the University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus compared to 1,840 students expected at the University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus. A quota was set at accepting a maximum of 450 students because of space available at the Avenue A Campus. “In 1964 the program of the normal schools was accredited by the University of Saskatchewan as a year of work toward the bachelor of education degree, and the institution became recognized as a junior college of the university.”

University of Saskatchewan College of Education
University of Saskatchewan  College of Education University of Saskatchewan  College of Education
College of Education University of Saskatchewan

The August 22, 1964 Saskatoon Star Phoenix reported that student teachers wishing to teach grades one through nine could achieve their Interim Standard “A” certificate after one year of education at either of the two campuses which were now amalgamated under the University of Saskatchewan. Certification of teachers remained with the Department of Education, and teacher education was placed in the domain of the University of Saskatchewan.

During the 1964 school year, 396 students received classes from the Avenue A Campus, and 6,927 applicants applied for classes in the 1963-1964 school term. During this same year, 1,003 students were expected.

Between 1967-1970, the Education Building was constructed on the University of Saskatchewan campus, with the first classes held in the spring of 1970. This new building was constructed to serve “2,500 university students, 200 graduate students, and 120 faculty members.”The Phoenix Sept 22, 1984 Teaching requires a post-secondary Bachelor’s Degree, such as a Bachelor of Education to be qualified as a teacher.

It was in 1986, that the building used by the Saskatoon Teachers College was re-named E.A. Davies building to honour Fred Davies, principal of the Canadian Vocational Training School, the precursor training institute of Kelsey Institute of Arts and Sciences (Now Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology SIAST.)


“This building was named the E. A. (Fred) Davies Building on February 10, 1986 by the Honorable George McLeod, Minister of Advanced Education and Manpower.
This building is dedicated to the honour of E.A. (Fred) Davies, pioneer of technical education in Saskatchewan since 1941. In 1947, he became the principal of the Canadian Vocational Training School, an early vocational centre located on the present campus of Kelsey Institute. In 1963, Mr. Davies accepted the position of Consultant to the Principal of the newly opened institute. After his retirement from post-secondary education at the age of 71, Mr. Davies was ordained as a deacon and served for another twelve years as the priest of St. Luke’s Church in Saskatoon.

In 1975, Fred Davies was honoured as Saskatoon’s “Citizen of the Year” in recognition of his outstanding contributions to education, community organization and church activities. This building, appropriately renamed in his honour, has served Saskatchewan residents since 1923, first as the Normal School and later as the Teacher’s College.

Government of Saskatchewan

Premier Grant Devine.”
~Plaque installed within the E.A. Davies Building along with the portrait of E.A. (Fred) Davies.

A reflection on the progress of teacher training and teacher education in Saskatoon, honours the era of the Saskatoon Normal School, and embraces the remarkable journey to the College of Education at the University of Saskatchewan. As Dr. Fast, Director of Education says, the schools of today are building on the tradition of excellence begun by those of yesterday, preparing new generations for the challenging and changing world they will soon enter.”Blashill p. 155 Every generation, since time immemorial, has passed on its knowledge, traditions, values, skills and beliefs its stock of values, traditions, methods and skills to the next generation. The role, curriculum, and course of study for the teacher varies, however the main thrust; to facilitate student learning by a method of instruction remains the same. The normal schools provided the pioneering rituals, traditions and standards, nay the “norms” for teaching behaviours, specialized education, values, and code of ethics to maintain the teacher in good professional standing. Teachers colleges provided teachers with the ability to successfully meet or exceed the public expectations to educate the nation’s children. “The College of Education is the second largest college at the University of Saskatchewan and has graduated over 30,000 students in its 80-year history. To become an educator through the U of S College of Education is to join a tradition of excellence in teaching and learning.”~College of Education 1994-2009.


“In the long story of the struggle of mankind to fit its youth better for the activities of life, there has been a great variety of aims, and that the most common characteristic in all these was the tendency to throw the whole emphasis on some one factor. At oem time it was the acquisition of knowledge and information; at another the supreme importance lay in the development of the individual, then the welfare of society and the production of workmen skilled in some particular vocation by means of some specific study.
 

Probably a more fitting comparison could not be found than in the fable of “The Six Blind Men from Hindustan.” Like the elephant in this fable, education has many parts, many factors, none of which we can afford to neglect; and like the elephant, too, doubtless there are some of them of greater importance than others. The tail, the trunk, the leg do not constitute the elephant; it is something vastly more important than one of these or all of them put together. How much truer is this of the individual whom we wish to educate, and of the idea which we call education.

” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, SaskatoonThe Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

Article written by Julia Adamson

Note the majority of sources gave the name Asseltine in this spelling, though it was given as Asselstine as well.
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Bibliography

Mirror Webpage on Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project


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Education is the movement from darkness to light. quotation Allan Bloom

One Room Schoolhouse Naming

18 Feb

GTP in blue

One Room Schoolhouse Naming

An article printed in the Saskatchewan Weekly Newspaper, The Potashville Miner-Journal, “From Bert’s NotebookPlace names, discusses the derivation of the names for schools in the Churchbridge / Langenburg area of Saskatchewan was submitted from the Esterhazy 1939 newspaper by Verna Brenner, which is intriguing and fascinating.

Web master note: Still awaiting permissions from the Saskatchewan Weekly Newspaper, The Miner-Journal and the family of Bert McKay for re-publication, a small paraphrasing of the article comes next. The following page takes the derivation for the name from the article written by Bert McKay, and further verification of these facts have been found in several other sources as noted in the bibliography.

Before we begin with these selected eleven one room school district names, just a note about the historical naming process of the one room school districts in the province of Saskatchewan. John C. Charyk noted in “Syrup Pails and Gopher Tails” that the naming of the school was left to the local residents in the community. “Today as a result of that policy, knowing how a school district derived its name often brings an insight into the very heart of local history and traditions.”Charyk 1984 p. 12 The procedure of determining the name was set before all the community ratepayers requesting a suitable name. The school District organisers would hold a meeting, and of these names, the committee would submit a list of four or five names. The Department of Education set before the community the request for a list, as very often if only one name were submitted, it may be in use already at another school site. So the final choice for the school district name lay with the Department of Education.

At this same time, a school district number was allotted to the school district by the Department of Education. The numbers began with Moose Jaw School District No. 1 of the North West Territories and kept incrementing to Bow Valley School District No. 1409, North West Territories. At this time, for provisional districts of the Northwest Territories were merged to form the twin provinces of Alberta, and Saskatchewan on September 1, 1905. The Department of Education then decided that to keep record keeping for the two provinces separate in these provincial fledgling years, the province of Alberta would continue numbering her schools from School District No. 1410 onwards, and new schools formed in the province of Saskatchewan would fill up the empty numbers between 1 and 1409 vacated by the province of Alberta and proceeding forward from there. And now to delve into the heritage of the naming of these school districts near Churchbridge and Langenburg, Saskatchewan. (Another note, the Department of Education is now termed the Ministry of Education in Saskatchewan.)

  • Chatsworth S.D. No. 1810, (1907) was named after not a place, but a road in the Clapton subdivision of London, England. McKay points out that the school district secretary suggested the name after his previous residential street. Chatsworth road is a market road serving people in the area with a diverse selection of shops and restaurants, including, African, Turkish, Asian and Caribbean produce alongside butchers, bakers and greengrocers according to Wikipedia.
  • Hohenlohe S.D. NO. 2705, (1910) received its appellation from Count Hohenlohe-Langenburg. According to Alan Anderson, the Count Hohenlohe-Langenburg was invited to the west as part of the great immigration scheme by Canadian immigration authorities. The Count, as president of the German Colonial Association was instrumental in encouraging large colonies, notably Colony Hohenlohe which later received the name Langenburg.
  • MacNutt S.D. No. 793, (1912) is next on the list. John Hawkes echoes the sentiments of Bert Mckay, writing of the Honourable Thomas MacNutt, that he was a farmer and stock raiser in the Saltcoats area, and also turned his attentions to the political arena serving the Saltcoats constituency as both Member of the Legislative Assembly and Member of Parliament. MacNutt is renowned for being the first Speaker of the Saskatchewan Legislature.
  • Zorn S.D. No. 3697, (1916) received its calling from Phillip Zorn, a school district administrator actively promoting school district organisation during the formative year, 1916. From the Western Land Grants Records, it can be seen that Fillipp Zorn was successful at proving up a homestead land grant on the Northwest quarter of section 34 township 23 range 30 West of the 1st Meridian.
  • Landestrew S.D. No. 2698, (1916) was named after Landestreu, Galicia by the immigrant Galician German settlers who arrived in this new land. According to Manfred Prokop, Professor of German (emeritus), Modern Languages and Cultural Studies they established the large colony named Hoffnungstal near Langenburg and Landstrew in the late 1800s. The Landestrew post office opened in 1892, the school not until 1916.
  • Dressler S.D. No. 3732, (1916) located on the north east quarter of section 5, township 23, range 31, west of the first meridian was located amidst the Dressler homesteaders. Daniel DRESSLER and Anna BUSCH arrived to the Langenburg area about 1890. Daniel began proving up the land on the south east quarter of section 18 of the same township mentioned above. They had ten children and their sons Frederick, Andrew, John also homesteaded the area. Daniel DRESSLER immigrated with four siblings from Galicia, and this area was home to a number of DRESSLER homesteads. According to LAC Western Land Grants, Section 5 was Canadian Pacific Railway Land. A portion of this land was donated by Frederick DRESSLER to the community on which to build the Dressler Schoolhouse reported Bill Barry.
  • Churchbridge S.D. No. 124, (1887) honours the Anglican Church Colonization Land Company administered by Mr. Church and Reverend Bridges, who purchased land for settlement in the township 22 range 32, west of the 1st meridian. In Ruth Swanson’s compilation, The first hundred years : around Churchbridge, 1880-1980, settlers also remember a Mr. Eden belonging to this English Colonization Company as well, and a preliminary name being Edenbridge which was changed to Churchbridge due to a conflict with Edenbridge, Manitoba.
  • Rothbury S.D. No. 204 (1891) recognizes the town of Rothbury in Northumberland, England. Robert Athey suggested the title at a school district meeting. The land around the Rothbury school district is characterized by rolling and open prairie. Rothbury, Northumberland is nestled within the Simonside and Cheviot Hills.
  • Goehring S.D. 910, (1903) has as its namesake an early trustee, Ludwig Goehring a school district trustee. Goehring successfully proved up on three quarter sections in the area.
  • Kensington Lake S.D. No. 1083, (1904) assumed its name from the nearby physical feature, Kensington Lake. McKay mentions that Kensington Lake, in turn, assumed its name from E.D. Kensington who farmed near the lake.
  • Flower Valley S.D. No. 1098, (1904) derived its name from the German word “Blummenthal” which translated means Flower Valley. McKay points out that George Haas suggested the German term, and Niel McFadyen put forward the English translation. Mrs. Louise (George) Haas recalls that the school district was situated upon the old Pelly Trail

Webmaster note: The newspaper article recorded Chatsworth S.D. as number 1771, however other sources provide the school with the name of Homeland as School District No. 1771, and Chatsworth School District as No. 1810. The spelling was provided as Landstrew S.D. 2698 in the newspaper article, however other sources gave it as Landestrew S.D. No. 3698, And Budweis School District received the S.D. number of 2698. If anyone else has further information or clarification on any of these schools, school districts or Bert McKay, it would be a pleasure to add the same notes as provided. Kind Regards Julia Adamson.

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William Wallace Gibson ~ First Flight of a Canadian Airplane

22 Nov

Shadow Dancing - Explore

William Wallace (Billy) GIBSON (March 28, 1876 – November 25, 1965)

Nothing ever built arose to touch the skies unless some man dreamed that it should, some man believed that it could, and some man willed that it must.

~Charles Kettering

William Wallace (Billy) GIBSON was born March 28, 1876 in Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland to William GIBSON and Margaret LEES. W.W. Gibson or Billy arrived in Canada on June 20, 1883 when he was just seven years old. His kites flew across the prairies as GIBSON learned the basic principals of aerodynamics succeeding at launching a craft heavier than air into flight ~ detailed crafts carried aloft behind a galloping pony ridden by a young boy with a dream.

These kites, powered by wind were instrumental in the research and development of airplane design. The GIBSON Twin Plane and GIBSON Multi Plane pioneer aircraft to come utilized both motor and propellor for their propulsion system. Without formal schooling, without a team of engineers, Gibson mastered lift, aspect ratio, stability and construction flying his gopher piloted kites – his initial tethered aircrafts before launching the first successful all Canadian airplane.

“Man must rise above the Earth—to the top of the atmosphere and beyond—for only thus will he fully understand the world in which he lives,”

~ Socrates.

LOGANSTON

“Dreams do come true, if we only wish hard enough.You can have anything in life if you will sacrifice everything else for it.”

James Matthew Barrie

His father, William Gibson born February 14, 1847 in Auchinleck, Ayrshire, Scotland, was one of three stonemasons who arrived in the Moffat area of Saskatchewan June 1, 1883, and erected a fine stone house over the years 1884 to 1885, naming it Loganston, the very first stone house of the district. This stone mason, noticed the limestone and granite stones across his field, and decided to erect a kiln, and as Haensel wrote in Western People, Loganston house is still standing. The family followed these two years of hard labour with more, constructing as well a fine barn. Moffat, Assiniboia, North West Territories is reminiscent of the historic romance movie Brigadoon according to author Kay Parley of They cast a long shadow: the story of Moffat, Saskatchewan.

Forty families left from the shores of the Bonnie Doon river, and re-located near Wolseley on the banks of Wolf Creek. As William Gibson said of the Canadian North West, “Strawberry, raspberry, brambleberry, gooseberry, black currant, cherry, cranberry, saskatoon berry, and others. Mrs. Gibson has made over 100 lbs of jelly this summer from wild fruit” He also spoke of fertilizers, “I have used manure to a few potatoes to try the effect it had along with others planted without manure, and they did no better with it.” in the book “What settlers say of the Canadian North-West a plain document of the experiences of farmers residing in the country; The Canadian Pacific Railway Manitoba, the Canadian north-west testimony of actual settlers. GIBSON’s father also wrote a journal, which was published in the Ayrshire post from which the early experiences of these hardworking Scottish pioneer families is recorded and known.

BILLY GIBSON CHILDHOOD YEARS

“Pale Face Jumping Deer”

Oh, oh, oh!
Let’s go fly a kite
Up to the highest height!
Let’s go fly a kite and send it soaring
Up through the atmosphere
Up where the air is clear
Let’s go fly a kite!

— from “Mary Poppins” Written by Robert B. Sherman

Kites were always a passion, and gophers were his first pilots as they flew above the prairie fields. Known as the Bird Man of Balgonie GIBSON spent years on his hobby experimenting with flight. His power plant propelling his kites from the spring end of the window blinds encouraged to go further. One of his kites measured in at seven feet (2.1 meters) and carried a basket packed full of nine gophers. Just imagine GIBSON galloping across the Saskatchewan prairies on his little pony flying his elaborately designed kite in his wake, learning and studying the principals of aerodynamics.

In 1883, a small seven year old is often found playing with the grandson of the great Chief Piapot, the Cree Indian Reserve of Piapot being 25 miles northwest of Regina was near the Loganston Farm of Moffat. The book Silver Cloud by GIBSON reminisces about the friendship that had developed amongst these friends. Little Billy Gibson soon became friends with the children of Grey Eagle, and Billy received the name “Pale Face Jumping Deer” as he could outjump his playmates from page 22 of Canada’s flying heritage by Frank Henry Ellis (1896-1979.

GIBSON attended the Abbotsford School as a child, and the first school classes were held in the attic of Loganston house for the first month which began approximately the spring of 1886 under Andrew T. Fotheringham. The classes then took place in the abandoned Robert Yule log home under Mr. Argue, a University student. By December 18, 1885, the Abbotsford Protestant School District #37 was organized. The school building was erected in 1888, and classes began May 6, 1889. At the age of 13, (1889) he left school to assist the family on the farm located at the SE quarter of section 4 township 16 range 10 west of the 2nd meridian. The family adopted one of the many British Home Children, Johnny Vipond another 13 year old arriving in Canada from the Dr. Bernardo Home in the spring of 1889.

BIRD MAN OF BALGONIE

“When once you have tasted flight, you will forever walk the earth with your eyes turned skyward, for there you have been, and there you will always long to return.”

~Leonardo Da Vinci.

It was in 1900, when he set out on his own starting up a blacksmith in Wolseley. Purchasing hardware dry goods in Regina, he re-located to Balgonie and started a hardware venture there about a year later which had become quite prosperous. The very first automobile in Saskatchewan was owned by GIBSON IN 1902. Around 1903, at the age of 27, GIBSON blossomed. He invested in a railway construction venture. He accepts a contract to construct 42 miles of right-of-way; 20 miles north of Wolseley, and another 22 miles west of the Touchwood Hills. As a railway contractor, he completed 40 miles of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway.[4]

GIBSON also founded a hardware business in Craven, Saskatchewan with a partner, Olin Abner Beach (1882-1966) in 1904, Beach and Gibson Hardware Store. Business warranted another hardware and implement business in Cupar, Saskatchewan.[1][2]

News of the Wright brother’s success in 1903 spurred GIBSON onward. During these years GIBSON had switched from flying kites to experimenting with model airplanes. The spring in a Venetian blind roller powered his model airplanes. He launched a large paper glider from the roof top of his hardware store in Balgonie using it as a prototype model for a man carrying aeroplane with engine.

Privacy was a determining Scottish trait inherited by the young inventor. He tested out aviation engines in the early hours of daybreak to avoid scepticism and mockery as well thus protecting his credit rating. It was in this time he developed a four cylinder air cooled engine, testing this aeroplane engine at Balgonie, Saskatchewan June 19, 1904.

The railroad fever had the potential for a large payoff, however GIBSON’s gamble failed. The Railway venture caused GIBSON to loose $40,0000 within a year and a half. To make ends meet, he was required to sell off his chain of hardware stores which had arisen in Balgonie, Cupar and Craven. William Gibson, his father, began employment with the Forestry Division of British Columbia’s Department of Education. GIBSON also left for British Columbia with his family in 1906.[3]

GIBSON, an adventurous soul, had traveled to Victoria seeking fortune in the gold rush. Around and about 1908, he meets Lucky Grant who had his gold mine prospect up for sale. GIBSON purchased a 17 foot boat and set sail up the ocean coast, arriving in Clayoquot eight days later. Here He re-united with Grant and they traversed overland to the Leora Mine. Immediately GIBSON purchased the prospect selling Locky, his boat, camera, rifle, field glasses and some cash. GIBSON knew what was required to mine this spot, and traveled back to Victoria for a water wheel driven small stamp-mill. The mining venture at the Blackpearl Mine was productive, and GIBSON was able to flip the mine for $10,000 cash early in 1910.

FIRST SUCCESSFUL CANADIAN AIRPLANE ENGINE

GIBSON TWIN PLANE

“”This plane can teach you more things and give you more gifts than I ever could. It won’t get you a better job, a faster car, or a bigger house. But if you treat it with respect and keep your eyes open, it may remind you of some things you used to know — that life is in the moment, joy matters more than money, the world is a beautiful place, and that dreams really, truly are possible.”

~ Lane Wallace

He was now financed for the era of “aeromania” fueled by the Wright Brother’s flight in North Carolina. Tristan Hopper of the British Columbia Magazine, relates that France’s Louis Blériot was embarking on his dream to fly cross the English Channel, Magician Harry Houdini was working upon a French biplane in Australia. Even the Canadian inventor Alexander Graham Bell assembled together an American engineering team and embarked on a mission to build a flying machine.

Now GIBSON had the means to return to his aviation hobby and settle in at Victoria B.C. He purchased a large home on 146 Clarence Street in the James Bay region of Victoria. He was able to make use of Beacon Hill for test flights. Neighbors would flap their arms and just at his experiments, so again he took to the early morning hours, and night time trial runs. His initial hand built engine did not take to the air, however GIBSON persevered. In an interview with the Victoria Colonist July 1909, GIBSON states, “The machine is [intended to be] 65 feet long and 14 feet width at its widest part. There it differs radically from all the machines hitherto made. They all present their widest part to the wind, proceeding, so to speak, sideways. I go straight ahead, like a steamboat or a fish.” Gibson was convinced that a long, narrow air craft was the best design promoting flight and diminishing the risk of capsizing in the air.

On the other side of the world, Bleriot was undertaking a flight across the English Channel, July 25, 1909. And coincidentally, GIBSON make a wager of $1000 that he would achieve a flight to Seattle or Vancouver before the end of the year crossing the Gulf of Georgia.

Working in a local machine shop, and partnering with the Hutchinson Brothers, he soon had a six cylinder, air cooled 40-60 horsepower aircraft engine weighing in at 210 pounds constructed. With the aid of Tom Pimley of the Plimley Bicycle Company, a four wheel undercarriage was fashioned from bicycle tires. Fred Jeune proprietor of Jeune brothers supplied the blue silk to cover the 20 foot wings which were mounted lengthwise providing 330 square feet of lifting surface area. The monoplane designed by Blériot had only 160 square feet. The plane is twenty feet long, and eight feet wide. GIBSON fashioned two propellers and mounted a saddle in front of the engine. The entire craft was 54 feet in length with contra propellers before and aft of the engine. Ahead of his time, GIBSON’s use of gull wings, baffle plates within the fuel tanks, and the direct drive contra-rotating propellers are innovations used in contemporary aeronautical design.

At Tolmie, Victoria, on September 8, 1910, GIBSON set off on his inaugural flight in the GIBSON twin plane on the Dean Farm, now the locality of the Victoria Landsdowne Airport. He reached a height of about 20 feet and a distance of 200 feet! As pilot of this craft, GIBSON cut short the flight early as he needed to cut the engine to avoid the trees at the far end of the runway. The landing completely broke the riding wheels.

GIBSON survived, having been thrown from the plane, but the aircraft hit the trees. GIBSON surpassed the initial flight record of the Wright Brothers which had maintained a distance of only 120 feet. Aviation pioneer A.V. Roe in England also did not meet this achievement with his inaugural flight of 100 feet.

“His flight this week was seen by several people who wondered what the enormous moving thing in the air could be as they saw it sailing across fields towards Mount Tolmie,” was the extent of the September 9, 1910 Daily Times newspaper write up. However this great feat is now reported thusly, “in 1910, William Wiallace Gibson of Victoria, without formal training, designed and built the first successful Canadian aircraft engine,” recognizing the contributions GIBSON made to aviation in British Columbia, GIBSON was inducted into The British Columbia Aviation Hall of Fame.

The first flight was followed by another on September 24, 1910. This flight recorded in the article Pioneer Flying in British Columbia, 1910-1911 by Frank H. Ellis in the The British Columbia Historical Quarterly, October 1939 related that the plane rose about fifty feet, “passing the shelter of a clump of trees a strong cross wind was encountered with the result that the aeroplane was drifted dangerously near some trees, Mr Gibson not using his rudder. He shut off his engine to avoid collision and came down, but unfortunately his wheels were not equipped with brakes and the momentum drove the aeroplane into an oak tree at the rate of about 25 miles an hour….on discussing the flight, Mr. Gibson said he was under the disadvantage of having to learn the art of aviation by experience, there being no “flying schools” in British Columbia” The National Aeronautical Museum in Ottawa has preserved this engine which powered his twin plane.[3] The Twin plane was re-built to size and is on display in the British Columbia Aviation Museum near Victoria.

GIBSON MULTI PLANE ~ THE FLYING VENETIAN BLIND

To most people, the sky is the limit. To those who love aviation, the sky is home.

– anonymous

GIBSON sold his home for $14,000 to continue financing his aviation hobby. GIBSON honestly came by a true Scottish character, a “tenacious nature”, with a “willful stubbornness” and very patient to achieve his long term goal. Lieutenant Governor Thomas Wilson Paterson (1851-1921 Lt Gov 1909-1914) offered the use of the Paterson Ranch located near Ladner, British Columbia in the Fraser River delta providing a flat surface. It is here that GIBSON made test flights in his multi plane. The new design incorporated forty planes of Spruce wood which gave rise to the name; the flying Venetian Blind. Again, the craft had two propellers, and a new 60 horse power engine invented entirely by GIBSON. It was reported in the 1952 edition of The Beaver that this airship could bear the weight of twelve men.

GIBSON’s wife, now worried about his safely, made him promise to take no more test flights. On May 31, Paterson, joined by Frank J. McKenzie, M.L.A. and other residents were present at the Paterson Farm to watch the first attempt. J.B. Woods of the Western Motor and Supply Company in Victoria is to be the “demonstrator”.[5] In an unfortunate twist of fate, the day was calm resulting in a failed flight due to the lack of wind.

GIBSON tested his craft around Kamloops, B.C. before trying the drier air in Alberta, near Calgary. Partnering now with Alex Japp, GIBSON tries again. A new 6 cylinder air cooled, 2 cycle engine is developed producing 40 horsepower on a tandem, gull-wing monoplane. The flight on September 8, 1910, the landing gear is needing repairs. The on September 24, another flight, and a side wind took the plane resulting in a landing without power crashing into an oak tree.

The book Artificial and natural flight was published in 1908 by Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, (1840-1916). Following his father’s dream to conquer the air, Maxim chose to construct an airplane rather than a helicopter. Maxim’s first attempt at flight was made August 31, 1894. Conveyed along railway tracks like a roller coaster, it did not lift off, and crashed at the end of the line. His next models were all tested in wind tunnels, but did not become successful.

Japp reads Maxim’s book, and makes design changes to GIBSON’s multi plane incorporating ailerons amongst other tweaks. on August 12, 1911 completing a flight of one mile in the GIBSON multi plane. He used Spruce for the wings, and tried it out on the flat plains near Calgary. Here GIBSON made successful test flights, and to settle his wife’s fears while she is abroad on vacation, Alex Japp became the pilot. Japp steers the aeroplane trying to avoid the badger holes on the runway upon landing, ditching the plane into a swamp, and the craft is destroyed. In honor of his flying feat, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington built a model of his airplane for display.[3]

Following these aeronautical experiments, GIBSON returned to gold mining along the Kennedy river Leora Gold Mine inventing his own mill and mining machinery. GIBSON was able to produce $20,000 worth of gold from a mine which was most active between the years 1902 and 1915.

GIBSON MILLS MANUFACTURING COMPANY ENTERPRENEUR

Genius is the gold in the mine; talent is the miner who works and brings it out.”

~ Marguerite Blessington

Gibson abandoned the mine in 1933, embarking on the GIBSON MILLS manufacturing company in San Francisco. A successful inventor, GIBSONs mining machines were successful and in demand internationally.

GIBSON RETIRES WITH JESSIE

In 1940 he was 64 and living in the Oakland Judicial Township, Alameda, California with his wife Jessie P, born in Michigan, 1895. Here GIBSON retires, and yet to quote Seneca, “many discoveries are reserved for ages still to come . . . . Our universe is a sorry little affair unless it has in it something for every age to investigate.”

INDUCTION INTO THE CREE TRIBE AS A GREAT CHIEF

Kisikaw Wawasam ~ “Flash in the Sky Boy” ~ Great Chief Piapot

Name bestowed upon William Wallace Gibson

The traditions of our people are handed down from father to son. The Chief is considered to be the most learned, and the leader of the tribe.

~ Sarah Winnemucca Paiute

It was Thursday, July 15, 1948, when over 600 First Nations people were present at a large dramatic ceremony. GIBSON, now a resident of San Fransisco, was present, fulfilling the prophecy told to him in 1883, some sixty five years earlier. Now at 72 years of age, GIBSON received the name “Kisikaw Wawasam“, the name of the Great Chief Piapot which translated literally to English means “Flash in the sky boy.”

GIBSON was thus inducted as a great chief of the Cree Nation in Saskatchewan, the prophecy told to the seven year old boy, “Pale Face Jumping Deer” was now complete. First Nations of the Piapot Reserve, the Qu’Appelle and Crooked Lake Indian agencies unveiled a memorial cairn to Chief Piapot at the ceremonies.

This induction honour had only been bestowed twice earlier, upon John Phillip Sosa, the American band leader, and upon D.C. Coleman president of the Canadian Pacific Railway who had both been previously inducted as a chief of the tribe. GIBSON traveled to Ottawa on his trip to Canada, where he took in the Dominion Archives display of his first airplane engine assembled in British Columbia before returning home.

OTHER HONOURS

Throughout the centuries there were men who took first steps, down new roads, armed with nothing but their own vision.

~ Ayn Rand

A commemorative cairn was erected on Richmond Road. According to Bill Irvine, the locations is ” former site of Landsdowne Airfield (Victoria’s first airstrip), beside Knox Presbyterian Church 2964 Richmond Road, Victoria BC, Canada” and it reads:

HONOURING

WILLIAM WALLACE GIBSON

WHO DESIGNED AND BUILT AND

FLEW THE FIRST ALL

CANADIAN AIRCRAFT AT THIS

SITE ON SEPTEMBER 8th 1910

*

ERECTED BY : EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION

CHAPTER 142

CORPORATION OF THE DISTRICT OF SAANICH

8 SEPTEMBER 1985

PUBLICATIONS

Authored by William Wallace Gibson

“Your vision will become clear only when you look into your heart. Who looks outside, dreams. Who looks inside awakens.”

~ Carl Jung

He wrote several books:

Title The Birdmen
Author William Wallace Gibson
Published 1923 republished 1942
Length 23 pages

Title Flash-in-the-sky-boy: From the Letters, Manuscripts, and Published Works of William Wallace Gibson
Author William Gibson
Editor with additions by Kay Parley
Published 1967

Title: Silver Cloud OR the Last Buffalo
by W.W. Gibson
It is the “story of the love affair of a young Indian girl and a white settler boy.”
The pamphlet has a photo showing Gibson attired in full Cree regalia
published 1900, and c1905
Regina Saskatchewan
Re-published c 1940 California

WILLIAM WALLACE GIBSON FAMILY TREE

All successful people men and women are big dreamers. They imagine what their future could be, ideal in every respect, and then they work every day toward their distant vision, that goal or purpose.

~ Brian Tracy

The tombstone for William Wallace GIBSON’s parents is in the Ross Bay Cemetery

Erected
by
Margaret Gibson
In memory of
Her husband
WILLIAM GIBSON
Born
Auchinleck, Scotland
Aug. 23, 1847
Died at Victoria
July 11, 1918
MARGARET GIBSON
Born at Patna
Scotland
March 22, 1849
Died April 13, 1940

[Margaret – daughter of James F. Lees & Margaret McConnachie]

On the sides of this stone are entries for both – Margaret & Jean Gibson – their daughters –

Jean Wilson GIBSON
Ross Bay Cemetery
Vancouver Island Region, British Columbia

Also their daughter
Margaret
M. C. GIBSON
Born at Dalmellington
Scotland
July 18, 1874
Died April 9, 1921
Jean W. GIBSON
Born at Wolseley, SK
Sept. 8, 1886

[Daughters of William & Margaret McConnachie Gibson – their details on side of this stone. Jean died 16 Mar. 1973, aged 86. Both single & died in Victoria]

Photos of the Gibson family; Mrs. William Gibson, William Gibson, Hugh Gibson and William Wallace Gibson.

Parents:

WM Gibson 1847-1918 Margaret (Maggie) Mcconnachie Lees 1874-1940

  • Gibson William
    Head born Auguest 27 1847 Patna Ayrshire, Scotland died July 11, 1918 Victoria, British Columbia
  • Gibson Margaret McConnachie
    Wife born March 22 1849 Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland died April 13, 1940 Victoria, British Columbia Parents James Lees, Margaret Mcconnachie

Married April 6, 1871 in Straiton,Ayrshire,Scotland
emigrated to Canada June 1, 1883 settled on SE quarter of section 4 township 16 range 10 west of the 2nd meridian homestead in Moffatt, Assiniboia, North West Territories. (location changed names to Moffatt region near Wolseley, Saskatchewan, Canada in 1905)

Family Siblings

  • Gibson John Son born June 29, 1871 Dalmellington, Ayrshire, Scotland died November 22, 1954 Victoria, British Columbia
  • Gibson Jas James Lees Son born November 11, 1872 Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland died September 10, 1924 Essondale, British Columbia married to Maggie Campbell died 1903
  • Gibson Margaret McConnachie Daughter born July 18 1874 Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland April 9, 1921 Victoria, British Columbia age 45
  • Gibson William Wallace Son March 28 1876 Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland died November 25, 1965 Oakland, Alameda, California married to Jessie P died 1978
    • Lived in Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland 1881 to June 1, 1883>>Winnpeg, MB June 1 1883-June 20, 1883>> Moffatt, Assiniboia, Northwest Territories (later Saskatchewan) June 20, 1883 to 1901 >>Wolseley, Saskatchewan >> Balgonie, Saskatchewan (with ties to Craven, Saskatchewan and Cupar, Saskatchewan)>> Victoria, British Columbia >> Kennedy river region, British Columbia >>San Fransisco, California>> Oakland, Alameda, California
  • Gibson Hugh Wilson Son March 7 1881 Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland died September 10, 1964 Victoria, British Columbia married Edna Catherine Robinson
  • Lees Thomas Nephew April 25 1884
  • Gibson Jeanie Jean Wilaon Daughter September 8 1886 Moffatt, Assiniboia, North West Territories (later province of Saskatchewan) died March 16, 1973 Ross Bay
    Vancouver Island Region, British Columbia

Grandchild of Wm and Maggie:

  • James Gordon Gibson born January 8, 1906 Craik, Saskatchewan died March 7 1969 Victoria, British Columbia s/o John Gibson and Jane Paul Loree married on June 10, 1927 in Craik Saskatchewan to Bessie Loree age 23 b1904 London England d/o John E. Loree and Alice Baldwin.
  • Baby Gibson died December 18, 1934 at Victoria, British Columbia c/o Hugh Wilson Gibson and Edna Catherine Robinson.
  • Margaret Gibson d/o James Lees Gibson and Maggie Campbell daughter Margaret was raised by wife Maggie’s parents Donald Campbell and his wife Helen Cameron; this family left the Moffat, Saskatchewan area in 1916

Family of Margaret Gibson nee Lees wife of William Gibson

William Wallace Gibson Maternal Ancestry

Lees, John Head married June 29, 1838, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
married McConnachie, Margaret

  • Lees James born May 1, 1840, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees Jean born June 15, 1842, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees Thomas born Oct 21, 1844, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees Mary born Dec 22 1846, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees Mcconnachie, Margaret born March 22 1849 Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland died April 13, 1940 Victoria, British Columbia
  • Lees John born May 10 1851, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees William born March 22, 1856, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees Janet Born August 29, 1858, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland

BIBLIOGRAPHY

“No person was ever honored for what he received. Honor has been the reward for what he gave.”

~
Calvin Coolidge

[1] Title: Beach in Canada, A Pictorial Genealogy

Abbrev: Beach in Canada

Author: Mahlon W. Beach

Publication: Privately published, December 1978

[2] Title: A Brief History of David Beach and Phoebe Daniels Beach and their Descendants

Abbrev: Brief History

Author: Wilfred Warren Beach

Publication: Unpublished manuscript, Chicago, 1932

[3] Bridging the Past.
Wolseley and District. 1880-1980.

Wolseley and District History Book Committee.

ISBN 0-88925+27+0

Friesen Printers. Altona, MB.

Pages6 and 57

[4] Victoria Colonist, July 7, 1909

[5] Victoria Colonist, May 2, 1911.

[6] Victoria Colonist, June 2, 1911.

[7] Letter from A.D. Paterson to Frank H. Ellis dated June 1, 1939.

[8] Daily Colonist, Victoria, September 10, 1910.

[9] From Cordwood to Campus in Gordon Head 1852-1959

Ursula Jupp

ISBN 10: 0969065027 / 0-9690650-2-7

ISBN 13: 9780969065029

Publisher: estate of Ursula Jupp

Publication Date: 1975

[10] Title The Beaver

Contributors Hudson’s Bay Company, Canada’s National History Society

Publisher Hudson’s Bay Co., 1952

[11]People who lived in stone houses

Western People

August 26, 1982

[12] Understanding Saskatchewan through “Our Towns”

Publisher Leader Post
Date May 23, 2008

[13] Title Saskatchewan History, Volumes 28-30

Contributors University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan. Archives

Publisher University of Saskatchewan., 1975

[14] Title Canada’s flying heritage

Author Frank Henry Ellis

Edition revised

Publisher University of Toronto Press, 1973

Original from the University of Michigan

Digitized 12 Feb 2008

[15] Uncharted skies : Canadian bush pilot stories / Walter Henry and the Canadian Bush Pilot 1993.

[16] Riders on the wind / Laurence Swinburne ; illustrated by Dan Hubrich. 1980

[17] Canada’s aviation pioneers : 50 years of McKee trophy winners / Alice Gibson Sutherland ; foreword by C – Headquarters:
[18] Title Indian fall: the last great days of the Plains Cree and the Blackfoot confederacy

Page 203

Author D’Arcy Jenish

Edition illustrated

Publisher Viking, 1999

Original from the University of Wisconsin – Madison

Digitized 18 May 2010

ISBN 0670880906, 9780670880904

[19] Title Recollections of an Assiniboine chief

Authors Dan Kennedy, James R. Stevens

Editor James R. Stevens

Contributors Dan Kennedy, James R. Stevens

Edition illustrated

Publisher McClelland and Stewart, 1972

ISBN 0771045107, 9780771045103

Page 57

Frank Ellis, O.C., a noted aviation historian, Canada’s first parachute jumper and aviation pioneer who flew his own biplane in 1914 wrote several articles about GIBSON:

[20] Gibson, William Wallace. “William Wallace Gibson; a Canadian pioneer of the air by Frank H. Ellis, in The British Columbia Historical Quarterly, April, 1944.

[21] – Flash in the sky boy, by Frank H. Ellis, in Western Wings, July-August 1960.

[22] ” Ellis, Frank. “First Flying wing; the story of an attempt to conquer the air made by three ingenious farmers of Alberta in 1907-8, The Beaver, outfit 277 (March 1977), 6-9. illus.”

[23] Ellis, Frank. “Pioneer flying in British Columbia, The British Columbia Historical Quarterly, III (October 1939), 227-261.”

William Wallace Gibson: A Canadian Pioneer of the Air

[24] A biography

Author Frank Ellis

Published 1946-45

held at the City of Vancouver Archives

[25] Additionally, the Saanich Archives has a Gibson Displayset up honouring the achievements of William Wallace Gibson’s first flight at “George Deans’ farm near Mount Tolme.”[9] The photograph of the cairn and plaque erected at Landsdowne and Richmond roads in 1985 at Landsdowne Airfield. This commemoration came twenty years posthumously.

[26] Coming in On a Wing and Some Wire

The Montreal Gazetter
March 9, 1968

[27] AS well, Partners in Motion produced an episode “The Balgonie Birdman” for the one hour documentary series, The Canadians, Biographies of a Nation which aired on History Television NOvember 15, 1998.

[28] “The Balgonie Birdman”, a nine minute animation feature film, produced by the National Film Board of Canada, was directed by Brian Duchscherer and released in 1991.

[29] Photographs exist attesting to the achievements of W.W. GIBSON at the Glenbow archives. An image of his aircraft engine on display at the National Air Museum, Ottawa, Ontario, and his wooden plane built in Victoria, British Columbia, 1911.

[30] Also a photo exists of the very first airplane built in Regina, Saskatchewan by William Wallace Gibson in 1907.

[31] A photo (#8551) of the GIBSON twin plane is held at the Canadian Aviation and Space Museum

[32] On September 10, 2010, the B.C. Aviation Museum honoured the 100th Anniversary of Flight in Victoria B.C., (100 years Gibson’s flight) reported Bill Irvine, the event was hosted by Caroline Duncin of the Saanich archives, and Dave Marratt was the master of Ceremonies.

[33] Saturday July 17, 1948 a Canadian Press story entitled “Inducted into Cree tribe as Great Chief Piapot,” published by the Lethbridge Herald.

[34] The 1952 edition of The Beaver published by the Hudson’s Bay Company with contributions from Hudson’s Bay Company, Canada’s National History Society, quoting the Canadian Press Induction into Cree Tribe story first published in Regina on July 17, 1948

[35] Induction Ceremony Story published by the Winnipeg Free Press Page 2, Friday August 6, 1948.

 

________________________________________________________________________________

For more information:

Saskatchewan Gen Web Ethnic History – Scottish Roots

Saskatchewan Gen Web – Transportation

Yorkton Gen Web Region

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Related Posts:

•The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

•Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?
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Distance Learning ~ Saskatchewan Correspondence School History

1 Oct

Autumn Returns

Distance Learning ~The History of the Saskatchewan Correspondence School

Correspondence lessons were initiated and petitioned for by Catherine Sheldon-Williams who was Saskatchewan’s pioneer in the field of distance learning. Her courses nurtured individual students residing in isolated areas, regions without one room schoolhouses, and areas without high school collegiate institutions, opening to them new opportunities to reach their potential. The courses expanded to include ill pupils, those who were physically disabled, and adults seeking education.

Both the Sheldon-Williams Collegiate in Regina and a public school scholarship are named in honour of Miss Catherine Sheldon-Williams, commemorating her works, a true “Adventure in Education”. Or, perhaps Charles Dickens says it best, “It is well for a man to respect his own vocation, whatever it is, and to
think himself bound to uphold it, and to claim for it the respect it deserves.”

Early pioneers benefited from innovative courses set forward by the University of Saskatchewan. In 1907 the University of Saskatchewan offered the ‘Better Farming’ demonstration trains, “Homemaker” short courses and ‘Canadian Youth Vocational Training Workshops’ as an initiation into Saskatchewan’s distance learning experience. These experimental training grounds were the forerunner to the correspondence classes invaluable to the vast expanses of Saskatchewan’s rural population.

Education by mail first originated in British Columbia to serve the educational needs of a lighthouse keeper’s family. The British Columbia Minister of Education, J.D. MacLean was wary of the success of such a programme; “To carry on the education of children in remote country districts unprovided with a school through a system of correspondence cannot, I am afraid, prove successful. Some degree of success would attend the system in the case of say high school pupils but constant supervision by a teacher is necessary if progress is to be made by pupils who have never before attended school.” The experimental lessons were an immediate success, 86 pupils were enrolled by the end of the first year, over 200 in the second.

Year of Correspondence Schools Inception by province

British Columbia 1919
Nova Scotia 1921
Alberta 1923
Saskatchewan 1925
Ontario 1926
Manitoba 1927
New Brunswick 1939
Quebec 1946

The idea spread to Alberta, and soon Saskatchewan residents living near the fourth meridian asked if Saskatchewan had similar mail courses or if they could enrol with the Alberta Correspondence School, ACS. Here is where the “Adventures in Education” stylings of Catherine Shledon-Williams come to the forefront.

Catherine Sheldon-Williams (1869-1949) born in Hampshire, England arrived at the Cannington Manor, Assiniboia, Northwest Territories in 1889 and soon thereafter changed the education landscape in the province of Saskatchewan. Starting out by assisting her father, a gentleman farmer on the land, she soon turned to teaching and began her career at the Wolseley Normal School. She was placed in charge of the Boys Industrial School in Wolseley in 1915.

The former court house in Wolseley was converted to an Industrial School housing youth between the ages of ten and 17 who run afoul of the law. For those working with these youth, special qualifications, patience and a friendly interest in the child were needed to avoid any further court proceedings. Youth could be paroled from the Industrial School to a foster care home with progress shown in school lessons, proper conduct and industry in farm, and shop work such as shoe repairs, baking or laundry duties.

Between 1919 and 1920 the boys living at the Boys Detention House in Wolseley were moved into the vacant Regina Indian Industrial School building which continued to serve Saskatchewan’s delinquent and dependent youth until a fire destroyed the building in 1948. (The building is re-built as the Wascana Rehabilitation Center, then the school was moved to to the outskirts of Regina and became known as the Paul Dojack Center for youthful offenders.)

Sheldon-Williams had initiated a ‘school by mail’ on an unofficial basis as part of a follow-up service to youths released from this detention facility.

Joining the Saskatchewan Department of Education in 1920, Sheldon-Williams campaigned for a province wide correspondence school, “she used the needs of the settlers as expressed in letters and reports, as well as her own interest in and dedication to correspondence education, to convince the decision makers to provide education by mail to remote sections of the province.”page 87

From these humble beginnings the “Saskatchewan Correspondence School” arose in 1925 to bring education to remote rural areas. The original intent of the School was to enable pupils to continue on with their secondary schooling past the grades offered in the One Room Schoolhouse.

Housed in a small room in the West Wing of the Regina Legislative Building, Sheldon-Williams worked alone between 1925-1927 preparing lessons and handling all the typing and clerical work. She adapted the lesson sheets individually to the level of learning for her initial 44 distance pupils, empathizing with each student needs no matter the distance.

The imperative within correspondence schools is not only the preparation of course development, the lessons, examinations, texts and materials but being responsive to the needs of the student providing them with support. There is an Instruction Sheet for the Home Instructors, who may be one room schoolhouse teacher, or “the busy mother on a farm who comes in from planting crops to dictate Johnny’s Spelling lesson.” Personal letters, snapshots begin to convey to the Correspondence School teacher, the living conditions of the students and their family, and their school background. The Correspondence School was not just a repository of reports, and school marks, but also a contact between the child in a solitary outpost and the outside world via their distance tutor.

Eighty years later this continues said Sandra Lalonde, assistant principal of the Saskatchewan Government Correspondence School “But I know from when I taught that you get to know the voice of the students and you do establish a relationship which is very gratifying. Our students tend to be more independent learners in a lot of ways and we see our role as being their guides.”

By 1926 the the enrolment of the Saskatchewan “Outpost Correspondence School” and in 1928, 247 students. The service soon expanded to serve not only isolated students, but those suffering from illness or physical disability, those employed in an occuaption, and adults.

Manitoba’s provisional department of education followed suit, and established their school system of correspondence to enable students living in remote areas to receive instruction, as well as those pupils limited by physical handicap.

Communities could petition the Department of Education to establish a one room school house district if there were ten school aged children within a 36 square mile area. However, high schools were sparsely located in 1918  considering the size of the province. There were seven collegiate institutes, in Moose Jaw, Moosomin, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon, Weyburn, and Yorkton and fifteen high schools located in Arcola, Battleford, Carlyle, Estevan, Humboldt, Indian Head, Maple Creek, Melfort, North Battleford, Oxbow, Qu’Appelle, Strassburg, Swift Current, Wilkie and Wynyard.

If an older student could not be transported to these locations for their secondary education, the correspondence lessons supported those pupils who wished to broaden their learning opportunities. Likewise, students who could not attend school in an area which could not support a one room schoolhouse, could be granted a formal education and receive lessons by mail. During times when a teacher could not be found for the one room schoolhouse, or under conditions of low enrolment when a school closed correspondence lessons served successfully in their stead.

In public school children were taught Standards I-V between 1889 and the 1920s. The first high school grade was referred to as Standard VI before commencing with grades 1 through 8 for the elementary schools. It was not unusual for a one room schoolhouse teacher to teach as many as seventy students in grades one to eight and provide supervision for the older students who took grades high school classes by correspondence. As teachers were in short supply it happened that a public school graduate may be hired to begin teaching school, and that they finish their high school grades via correspondence.

Correspondence schools indeed did fill a much needed resource for those living in sparsely populated regions. The “Grand Lady of Saskatchewan Education”, Sheldon-Williams, enabled students without access to a high school to continue on in their education. Sheldon-Williams, “The Lady on the Bicycle“, continued on with the correspondence school until 1929. Grand Lady of Saskatchewan Education garnered this moniker, as she always rode her bike, named “Eustache” wherever she went. It was in 1930 that the Saskatchewan Correspondence School was formed to continue the work of the Outpost Correspondence School.

About 20 per cent of correspondence students were of foreign extraction. James Hargreaves, officer-in-charge of British Columbia’s mining
correspondence courses noted that after several years these pupils did not show the same progress as English-speaking correspondence students due to the difficulty of receiving assistance from their parents. In many such cases, an interested friend often came forward to help these students.

The school continued with advancements adding radio broadcasts in 1931, computer based internet learning in the 1970s and television broadcasts.

The Saskatchewan Correspondence School became the forerunner to home-based education which became recognized formally in Saskatchewan legislation in 1982, and in 1987 polices, and procedures regarding the operation of a home base school were implemented with a parent Handbook released in 1994.

In the first 75  years of its operation the correspondence school in Saskatchewan served more than half a million students extending classes as far away as the United States, Europe and Asia. The Saskatchewan Correspondence School plays an integral part of the Saskatchewan Distance Learning Centre

“I would say we have students in most schools in the province and in fact some of our biggest classes are in our urban areas. It’s not like what people might think and that students are in some outposts.  Originally maybe it was more that way, but we have such a range now that you can’t say that,” said Lalonde, “We look upon technology as an opportunity to assist and guide our students and to provide them with additional resources. We would be in trouble if we didn’t evolve our programs and it’s just another way we can have better connections with our students.”

“Education is the knowledge of how to use the whole of oneself. Many men use but one or two faculties out of the score with which they are endowed. A man is educated who knows how to make a tool of every faculty–how to open it, how to keep it sharp, and how to apply it to all practical purposes.” ~ Henry Ward Beecher

Sources:

Catherine Sheldon-Williams. McCaig, J.W., Gardiner J.W., Klein, Will. The Saskatchewanians.m Saskatchewan Diamond Jubilee and Canada Centennial Corporation. 1967. p.87

Other sources are given inline within the text of the article.

Further Reading

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When Were Saskatchewan Homestead Applications Available?

17 Feb

Seasons Spinning Time

When Were Saskatchewan Homestead Applications Available?

Pioneers settling the CanadianLast Best West” could apply for a homestead for a $10 filing fee if they were British subjects over the age of 18. A genealogist researching a family tree starts from the known and works toward the unknown to discover names, dates and places of their ancestors. The various homestead and lands databases online assist this endeavour for Saskatchewan about one century ago.

Between 1870 to 1930 Letters Patent were issued by the Lands Patent Branch of the Department of the Interior to successful homesteaders. To be successful pioneers needed to “prove up” their land. Settlers had to live on their homesteads for a three year period, clearing and farming some of the land and making improvements.

From 1871 until 1890 and again from 1908 until 1918, a homesteader who had received patent on his homestead could apply for a pre-emption. They would pay the market price of the time which was about $2.00 acre, this rate changed and the rate was recorded as $1, $2 or $3 an acre depending on the era. Even numbered sections were reserved for homesteads and pre-emptions, while odd-numbered sections were sold. A pre-emption was the quarter section adjacent to his homestead if it was available. In this way the homesteader could expand his own farm for himself or for his children.

Homesteaders had the option to purchase Hudson Bay Company lands, railway lands, and school lands. These gave way also to larger farms. Sections 11 and 29 of each township were allocated toward school sections. Railway rants allowed the Canadian Pacific Railway (C.P.R.) 24 miles on either side of the railroad. The Dominion Lands Act of 1872 provided that the Company should receive all of section 8 in each township, all of section 26 in each township with a number divisible by 5, and the southern half and the northwest quarter of section 26 in all other townships.

240 acres of land were offered to Métis families between 1886-1902. Due to the location of these lands, a majority of Métis sold their scrip to land speculators.

In 1871, land grants were offered to soldiers and militia who had served in Manitoba and the North West Territories, to North West Rebellion veterans, Boer War veterans, and North West Mounted Police retirees. The 1918 Soldier Settlement Act provided World War I veterans with a free quarter section of land or scrip.

There were some ranching concerns in the southern portion of the province, where land was leased out for grazing. From 1872 to 1905, open grazing leases were available. These lands were not guaranteed in any way, and could be put up for sale.

After 1908, a closed grazing lease of farming land in Saskatchewan could be obtained for one cent an acre for up to 21 years subject to a two year’s cancellation.

In 1914, grazing leases of 12,000 acres of unfit farming land could be obtained under a ten year closed lease. There were many other subsequent changes in regulations concerning grazing land periodically.

The pioneer starting out with their quarter section homestead may continue on the land and expand by purchasing additional land from a variety of sources. They may sell their land after successfully proving it up, and re-locate. A few homesteaders were not successful, and in such cases a Declaration of Abandonment was filed with the Land Titles Office.

Using the Land Patent database held by Library and Archives Canada LAC, the Land Titles Application database called The Saskatchewan Homestead Index Project (SHIP), the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society’s HOME (Historical Ownership Mapping Endeavour) or the Glenbow Archives CPR database which shows “Sales of agricultural land by the Canadian Pacific Railway to settlers in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, 1881-1906.” One piece of the family history search may indeed be completed, and that would be to discover their place of residence.

The place of residence can further unlock local history books, birth, marriage and cemetery records which may be held locally and census records.

An important clue in early Saskatchewan genealogy research is to delve into legal land locations and determining homestead locations and expansion.
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Further Reading:

Homestead Record Information on Saskatchewan Gen Web ~ a Rootsweb project at Ancestry.com

Homestead Form Examples

Homestead Legal Land Location, Township Range and Meridian explained

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Related posts:

What can be found at the NEW Saskatchewan Provincial Archives website?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•Love and Marriage in Saskatchewan- a comprehensive guide

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

•How to locate birth, marriage and death certificates in Saskatchewan, Canada

Are there genealogy sites that can compete with Ancestry.com?
______________________________________________________________________________

Image:Seasons Spinning Time

“To every thing there is a season, and time to every purpose under the heaven:

A time to be born, and a time to die;
A time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted
A time to kill, and a time to heal
A time to break down, and a time to build up
A time to weep, and a time to laugh
A time to mourn, and a time to dance
A time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones together
A time to embrace and a time to refrain from embracing
A time to get, and a time to lose; a time to keep, and a time to cast away
A time to rend, and a time to sew
A time to keep silence, and a time to speak
A time to love, and a time to hate
A time of war, and a time of peace. ”

The Bible, Ecclesiastes 3:18.

All rights reserved. Copyright © Aum Kleem. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed throgh Getty images. .. Peace and love be with you.
Namaste.

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Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

17 Feb

Peaceful Calm

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

Homesteads of one hundred and sixty acres of land were offered by the Dominion Land Act of 1872. They were created as the Dominion Government wanted British Columbia to join the Dominion and B.C. would only do so if there was a transcontinental rail line built joining them to eastern Canada.

The Dominion Government agreed to this term. When it came time to survey the land and enlist existing rail line companies to embark on this project, the rail lines did not wish to lay rail through the prairies. They argued the rail lines would not be used due to the low population, and therefore it would not be economically feasible in the long run and feared the rail lines would be subject to disrepair and vandalism.

Without a British presence in the west, the Canadian Government realized that the area ay fall to the United States. The Dominion Government, Railway colonisation companies and private colonisation companies all promoted homesteading in Eastern Canada, United States and Europe.

Precursors to the rail lines and deciding factors to the rail lines were dependent upon the Palliser expedition and the Henry Youle Hind expedition reports.

Captain John Palliser led a Royal Geographical Society expedition (1857-1860) that explored the Canadian West in an attempt to survey the region’s resources, provide an early analysis of where to best lay a transcontinental railway, and to assess the economic potential.

In 1853, Palliser wrote the book “Solitary Rambles and Adventures of a Hunter in the prairies.” It was his advice that the railway should be surveyed from Winnipeg up through the area which later housed the Northwest capital of Fort Livingstone (1873-1876) east of present day Norquay and Kamsack. He suggested he rail should extend north of the Eagle Hills through Battleford, to whit, this area became the North West capital between 1876-1883. Following along, the rail would run through to Edmonton. By 1885, the telegraph lines were surveyed and laid in the west following this route including Fort Pitt at Frenchman’s Butte and Fort Saskatchewan enroute to Edmonton.

Palliser was of the impression that the ony settlements arising in the west would be north of the tree line in the forested area of the Northwest Territories and the economic mainstay would continue to be the trapping industry. This area was believed to be the only place to obtain wood for building houses and subsequently heating them through the prairie winter.

“In Palliser’s Triangle, Living in the Grasslands 1850-1930 delves into the living conditions during a time when the grasslands were experiencing drought like conditions similar to those experienced in the 1930s. The area called Palliser’s triangle was thought to be an extension of the American desert.

John Palliser’s conclusions were: “[This area now known as Saskatchewan] can never be expect to become occupied by settlers…it can never be of much advantage to us as a possession.” Captain Palliser became famous or perhaps infamous, for these words.

Henry Youle Hind and Simon Dawson set out on a subsequent expedition 1857-1858 which showed a much larger area of land was fertile than previously asserted by Captain John Palliser on his expedition. Hind was a botanist and saw the potential for agricultural settlement in viewing the native grasses and plants growing in the river valley area near Long Lake. It waas due to his report that the survey for the rail lines took a more southerly route from Winnipeg then south of Long Lake where the settlement of Regina later established itself becoming the capital of Saskatchewan (1883 to present). This route was more economically viable to the rail lines.

In 1867, the British North America act brings the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia into one Dominion of canada, divided now into four provinces named Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Prime Minister John A. MacDonald wanted to build the nation of Canada from coast to coast.

On November 19, 1869, the Hudson’s Bay Company agreed to surrender Rupert’s Land to the Dominion of Canada for 300,000 pounds and 120th of lands in the fertile belt. (This amounted to 3,351,000 in the current province boundaries of Saskatchewan). This request was given Royal assent June 23 180.

Sir Clifford Sifton, Minister of the Interior initiated a huge advertising campaign for immigration. Homesteads of one hundred and sixty acres of land were offered by the Dominion Land Act of 1872.

Europeans were familiar with settlement acts. In 1763 Catherine the Great issues Manifesto inviting foreigners to settle in Russia,and in 1862 the United States enacted a Homestead Act inviting immigration to America.

The terms of the Russian 1763 Manifesto, held that immigrants to Russia would receive communal property, implement their own education and for the majority exercise their religious practices and be exempt from serving in the military and paying taxes.

The American Homestead Act of 1862 offered the settler 160 acres (64.75 ha) of land, free of monetary cost in exchange for an agreement that the homesteader remain living on the land and cultivate it for a minimum of five years.

Western Canadian homesteaders could purchase a quarter section of land (160 acres) for a filing fee of $10.00 on the condition that they clear ten acres and construct a domicile within three years. The homesteader was expected to live on the land and cultivate it for six months out of every year in this first period This condition for “proving up the homestead” provided for settlement in the west, and prevented speculators from buying up large amounts of land. Land agents inspected homesteads to ensure that improvements were made annually.

These were the main factors at work to create opportunities for homesteading in the “Last Best West”. The North West Territories evolved from a hunting and trapping lifestyle to a farming population. The creation of the province of Saskatchewan occurred in 1905.

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Sources:

California: A History
Volume 23 of Modern Library Chronicles
 page 169. Kevin Starr. reprint, illustrated. Random House of Canada, 2007. ISBN 081297753X, 9780812977530. digitised online by Google Books. URL accessed February 7, 2012.

Dickason, Olive Patricia (1997) (Paperback). Canada’s First Nations A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times (second ed.). Toronto, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-541358-X, 0-19-541227-3.

Dominion Lands Act / Homestead Act
2006 Canadian Plains Research Centre, University of Regina. URL accessed February 7, 2012.

History Of The United States Of America, Part Five International World History Project. January 2007. URL accessed February 7, 2012.

Introduction – Free Land! – A National Open-Door Policy (1867-1895) – Traces of the Past – Moving Here, Staying Here. The Canadian Immigrant Experience – Library and Archives Canada URL accessed February 7, 2012.

Lalond, Andre N. and Perdersen Maureen A. Administration of Dominion Lands 1870-1930. pp. 48-49.in Fung, Kai-iu (1999). Barry, Bill. ed. Atlas of Saskatchewan Celebrating the Millennium (Millennium edition ed.). Saskatchewan: University of Saskatchewan. ISBN 0-88880-387-7.

McCracken, Jane. Homesteading. pp. 527-528. Volume 2 For-Pat. in The Canadian Encyclopedia. Hurtig Publishers Ltd. Edmonton, AB, CA. 1985. ISBN 0-88830-269-X (set)

McConnnell, J.G. and Turner A.R. Historical Geography. Land Settlement. pp. 16, 17. in J.H. Richards, K.I. Fung. (1969). Atlas of Saskatchewan. W.G.E. Caldwell, W.O. Kupsch. Saskatoon, SK, CA: University of Saskatchewan.

Life’s a Grind: For Volga Germans, its not Christmas Without Sausage on the Table Obra, Joan. “Life’s a Grind: For Volga Germans, its not Christmas Without Sausage on the Table.” Fresno Bee, 20 December 2006.: North Dakota State University Libraries NDSU
Germans from Russia Heritage Collection URL accessed February 7, 2012.

Russell, R.C. Carlton Trail. The Telegraph Line. pp. 73-75. Prairie Books. The Western Producere. Saskatoon, SK, CA. 1971.

Schwier, Charles. Railway History. pp. 1541-1544. Volume 3 Pat-Z. in The Canadian Encyclopedia. Hurtig Publishers Ltd. Edmonton, AB, CA. 1985. ISBN 0-88830-269-X (set)

Survey of the Western Part of the Dominion – Homestead Regulations of Dominion Land – Entry – Homestead Duties Map. Survey of the Western Part of the Dominion, Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year 1904. and 1907 by the Scarborough Company, Hamilton, Ontario, at the Department of Agriculture,Scarborough Company, digitised online by Online Map Historical Digitisation Project. Julia Adamson. Copyright February 3, 2009. URL accessed February 7, 2012.
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Related Posts:

What can be found at the NEW Saskatchewan Provincial Archives website?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•Love and Marriage in Saskatchewan- a comprehensive guide

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

•How to locate birth, marriage and death certificates in Saskatchewan, Canada

Are there genealogy sites that can compete with Ancestry.com?

________________________________________________________________________________
All rights reserved. Copyright © Aum Kleem All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed throgh Getty images. .. Peace and love be with you.
Namaste.
________________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on 500 px, Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, Flickr, and Flickriver

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Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

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How do the Saskatchewan 2011 Canadian Census Statistics Compare to History?

14 Feb

Engaging Powers of the Paperwhite

How do the Saskatchewan 2011 Canadian Census Statistics Compare to History?

The latest census to be taken was completed in 2011. The results showed that Saskatchewan has shown an increase in population. What’s most exciting is you can look a young person in the eye and say . . . ‘It’s as good, or better, here.’” said Kent Smith-Windsor president of the Saskatoon Chamber of Commerce, “This is a pretty amazing growth cycle. It has the potential to be truly historic.”

Saskatchewan’s growth increased 6.7% from the previous census in 2006. Of this population 60.9% lived within one of the “Census metropolitan areas”, namely Saskatoon, Regina, Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Lloydminster, North Battleford, Yorkton, Swift Current of Estevan. Saskatoon and Lloydminster saw the largest growth spurt. Saskatoon, the largest CMA, was enumerated at 260,600 persons and the CMA of Regina, a population of 210,556.

“Saskatchewan has gone from a province where people were moving out, to a province where people are choosing to stay and moving in,” Premier Brad Wall said in a statement. That is because of our growing economy, plenty of job opportunities and our great quality of life.” said Premier Brad Wall, “Saskatchewan is simply the best place in Canada to live, to work, to raise a family and to build a life. More and more people are now discovering that and it is why our population is growing.”

To put the 2011 census into context with historical data for the genealogist. Regina, the capital city of Saskatchewan has a 2011 population of 193,100 making it the second largest city of the province. However in 1901 its population was 2,249 making it the largest city of the area now known as Saskatchewan. This trend continued, and Regina remained the largest city with a population of 6,100 (1906) 30,213 (1911) and 26,127 (1916). Beginning as Pile O’ Bones in 1882, Regina became both incorporated as a town and the territorial capital of the North-West Territories in 1883, a city in 1903 and the provincial capital in 1905.

The current largest city of Saskatoon has a population of 222,189 in 2011 compared to 113 in 1901, and 3,011 in 1906. Saskatoon became a city in 1906 with a population of 4,500, by amalgamating the communities of Saskatoon, Riversdale, and Nutana. Saskatoon meanwhile showed a population of 3,011 (1906), 12,004 (1911) and 21,048 (1916) behind Regina’s population of the early 1900’s.

Prince Albert, one of the fastest growing settlements of the late 1800s was enumerated at 1,785 in 1901. The third largest city in Saskatchewan has a 2011 population of 35,129. The city’s growth rate (2.9%) was below both the provincial (6.7%) and national average (5.9%). As early as 1876, Prince Albert had a booming population of 750 persons, and 8,500 cattle and horses. Prince Albert was formerly the capital (1882-1905) of the District of Saskatchewan, a regional administrative division of what then constituted the Northwest Territories. The District of Saskatchewan, NWT comprised a central area of present day Saskatchewan extending as far south as Saskatoon, and as far north as Prince Albert. Beginning as the Isbister Settlement, Nisbet Mission and Porter Town, Prince Albert incorporated as a town in 1885 and as a city in 1904. In 1879, it was considered that 40-50 days was good timing for a trip from Winnipeg, Manitoba to Prince Albert traveling on average 20 miles per day. In the early 1900s travel along Red River Cart trails was abandoned in favour of the railway lines for transportation.

Moose Jaw was the third city of (present day) Saskatchewan in 1901 with a population of 1,558. Moose Jaw remained the third largest city through 1906 (6,249), 1911 (13,823) and 1916 (16,934). Moose Jaw incorporated as a city in 1903, and is now the province’s fourth largest city with a population of 33,274 in 2011 up from 32,132 in 2006. In 1880, when John Macoun traveled the Moose Mountains, the present site of Moose Jaw was called the Souris Plains.

Between 1876 and 1883, Battleford was the territorial capital of the Northwest Territories, and home to the North-West Mounted Police. The Battlefords refers to both Battleford and North Battleford who are directly across from each other on either bank of the North Saskatchewan River. Battleford had a burgeoning population of 609 by 1901, and 4,065 in 2011. North Battleford was not large enough to be enumerated in 1901, and in 2011 had grown to 13,888. By 1911 North Battleford surpassed Battleford in size 2,100 persons to 1,335, continuing in 1916 3,148 to 1,436 persons.

Fort Livingstone, North-West Territories was the territorial capital 1876–1877. This site near Pelly, Saskatchewan was sometimes referred to as Fort Pelly or Swan River. Currently it has no population, only a plaque declaring it a provincial heritage site.

The 1881 Swift Current settlement blossomed following the arrival of the rail over the years 1882-1883 in the midst of a ranching community. Swift Current had a population of 121 in 1901, was able to incorporate as a village in 1903, a town in 1907 with a population of 550, a city in 1914 and recorded a 1916 population at 3,181. The city of Swift Current currently (2011) is the sixth largest in the province, population 15,503 and the eighth largest provincial Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), population 12,973.

Estevan was incorporated as a village in 1899, and later became a town in 1906. On March 1, 1957, Estevan acquired the status of a city, which, in Saskatchewan terms, is any community of 5,000 or more. Estevan census agglomeration 2011 population, 12,973 showed a huge growth of 9.2% up from 2006 and it population of 11,883. The city of Estevan proper showed a population of 11,054 persons up from 10,084.

Lloydminster, the boundary city straddles both Saskatchewan and Alberta. As a Census Agglomeration, Lloydminster is the fifth largest community (population 30,798) compared to other CMA’s of Saskatchewan. The Census Agglomeration of Lloydminster includes both parts of the city, as well as the rural municipality of Wilton No. 472, the Town of Lashburn, Saskatchewan, and the Village of Marshall, Saskatchewan. However, the Saskatchewan portion of the city proper accounted for a population of 12,766 persons. In 1916, the Saskatchewan portion of Lloydminster was 494 persons, up from 1911 (441) and 1906 (389).

The other current cities of Saskatchewan are Melfort (5,576), Humboldt (5,678), Martensville (7,716), Meadow Lake (5,045) , Melville (4,517), and Flin Flon (229 in the SK portion) is also included though the majority of its population is in Manitoba.

Altogether Saskatchewan’s 16 cities amount to a population of 588,823 out of a provincial population of 1,033,381 in 2011. 57% of the population resides in the cities.

Compare this to the 1916 statistic when Saskatchewan’s six cities (Moose Jaw, North Battleford, Regina, Saskatoon, Swift Current and Weyburn) had a combined population of 79,931, an urban population of 176,297 out of a total provincial population of 647,835. The city population amounts for approximately 12% of the population, and the urban population 27%. The population of Saskatchewan in 1906 came to 257,763 with a city population of 20,778 and an urban population of 48,642. This makes the city population about 8% and an urban population of 18%. Saskatchewan became a province in 1905, population comparisons before this time would be based on estimates from the Northwest Territory enumerations.

The shift from rural to urban occurred in the depression years of the dirty thirties when people vacated their farms in vast number seeking economic stability in the cities. The end of World War II saw an increase in vehicles, paved highways, consolidated urban schools, and improved agricultural machinery such as the combine. Farms became larger, the rural population continued to decline, and the population continued to shift towards the cities and towns.

Read More:

BC and Alberta growth lead to rise in west. Saskatchewan sees turnaround – Postmedia News – The National Post Feb 8, 2012 by Jordan Press.

Cities big and small leading Saskatchewan boom: 2011 Census ~ From Martensville to Warman, Saskatoon to Regina, Saskatchewan growing at record rate
The StarPhoenix February 8, 2012

Saskatchewan Population report

Focus on Geography series – Province of Saskatchewan – Statistics Canada 2011 Census

9 Fascinating facts from the 2011 Census ~ When it comes to the census, Saskatchewan is Canada’s comeback kid. Kevin O’Connor CBC News Feb 9, 2012

Population Trends, Saskatchewan Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Alan Anderson. Canadian Plains Research Centre, University of Regina. 2006.

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Related posts:

What can be found at the NEW Saskatchewan Provincial Archives website?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•Love and Marriage in Saskatchewan- a comprehensive guide

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

•How to locate birth, marriage and death certificates in Saskatchewan, Canada

Are there genealogy sites that can compete with Ancestry.com?

______________________________________________________________________________

Image:
Engaging Powers of the Paperwhite

The two most engaging powers of an author are to make new things familiar, familiar things new.
William Makepeace Thackeray

All rights reserved. Copyright © Aum Kleem. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed throgh Getty images. .. Peace and love be with you.
Namaste.

______________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Flickr, Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, and Flickriver

______________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

______________________________________________________________________________

Evolution of Saskatchewan’s Historical Census

13 Feb

Pink Orchids

Evolution of Saskatchewan’s Historical Census

Canada became a nation in 1867, and the eastern provinces took their individual census as early as 1851, and every ten years thereafter. The 1851, 1861, were provincial census amalgamated into becoming the Census of Canada for those years. 1871 was the first census year following confederation.

The 1881 census is the first census to enumerate the Northwest Territories, and the seven provinces which belonged to Canada in that year. The Northwest Territories was the name given to western Canada and encompassed present day Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, the Northwest territories, Yukon, Nunavut, Labrador and the northern portions of Quebec, and Ontario.

By 1891 the Northwest Territories was subdivided into districts, Alberta, Assiniboia East, Assiniboia West, Saskatchewan, and Mackenzie River. Canada was comprised now of the provinces of British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec.

The Northwest territorial divisions now consisted of Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Franklin, Mackenzie, Saskatchewan, and Ungava. The provinces of Canada were enumerated as well during the 1901 census, including British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec; two territories – the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories.

The 1906 Canada Census of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta was unique following the formation of the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta in 1905. This demarked the first time the census was taken every five years in the Prairie provinces rather than every ten years, this five year system was adopted by all of Canada in 1956.

The 1911 Census of Canada and the 1916 Census of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta are the latest census to be released into the public domain by the National Library and Archives. Various agencies have undertaken searchable transcription of these documents.

All the released records have been digitised by the National Archives and Library and can be found on their website as primary source images in their original form. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints FamilySearch, Ancestry.com, and Automated Genealogy have all transcribed census records into searchable online databases.

At the FamilySearch’s family history centers, public researchers can access the 1916 Canada Census for free. Due to contractual obligations with The Generations Network (TGN) the 1916 census will not be available for free online at Family Search, however they have made the 1881 census available online.

The 1851, 1861, and 1871 census of Canada have now been added to the Family Search database and is accessible to the public researcher for free at the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints family history centres. There are plans to include as well the 1891 census. They are seeking transcribers for their projects. These volunteers can work from home

The Historical Canadian Census Collection 1851 to 1916 on Ancestry.co provides a searchable database for all the released census (1851/2, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1906, 1911 and 191) on web site search engine. There is a fourteen day free trial period, and monthly subscription rates to access the entire record collection at Ancestry.com.

The 1851/1852 Cenus of Canada are currently being transcribed by Automated Genealogy, and they have the 1901 Census of Canada, 1906 census of the Western Provinces and the 1911 Census of Canada completed and searchable online.

The census are invaluable to genealogists. Enumerators recorded persons inhabiting dwellings listed by householder followed by the family grouping as of the census date. Employment, age, religion, nationality, year of immigration, relationship to the head of family or household were recorded along with place of habitation. Street address was given for city areas, and legal land descriptions were recorded for rural dwellers in the form of section, township, range and meridian.

Further Reading:

Links to digitised primary source documents, and transcribed secondary source documents and search information, tips and hints about the Canadian census on Saskatchewan Gen Web ~ Rootsweb ~ Ancestry.com

1916 Canada Census of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta – Search – Ancestry

1916 Census – Ancetry

  • 38,413 images of original records
  • 1.69 Million names
  • Military service information

Census of the Prairie Provinces, 1916 – Library and Archives Canada

FamilySearch Expands Canadian Census Collection June 24, 2009

Family Search Known Issues for Canadian 1901 and 1916 censuses in Historical Records

1852 Census of Canada – Automated Genealogy Index the 1851/1852 Census of Canada being transcribed by Automated Genealogy, Volunteers requested

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•Love and Marriage in Saskatchewan- a comprehensive guide

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•How to locate birth, marriage and death certificates in Saskatchewan, Canada

Are there genealogy sites that can compete with Ancestry.com?

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