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Is my ancestor’s grave marked with a tombstone?

6 Jan
Tears in my Eyes ~ Bleeding Heart by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Tears in my Eyes ~ Bleeding Heart by Julia Adamson

Is my ancestor’s grave marked with a tombstone?

To answer this query, “Is my ancestor’s grave marked with a tombstone,” it is necessary to determine the cemetery used for the burial site. As genealogists start researching by moving from the “known” towards the “unknown” locating a person’s place of burial can be researched in this same method. It is best to consult with relatives, family records, cemetery and church records, newspaper obituaries, professional genealogists and historians. In this way the cemetery can be located, then the next step would be to contact the local infrastructure department, church or private individual who maintain Saskatchewan cemeteries.

Once the internment location has been found, through research it may be that the burial site is unmarked. The plot may not have received a tombstone perhaps due to neglect, inattention, or hard times. The cemetery itself may have a policy of no tombstones such as at Forest Hills Memorial Park in Berks County, Reading, Pennsylvannia. In some cases the family or the person themselves may request no tombstone. Steve Jobs, Apple Inc. founder, has no tombstone. The internment sites of notable comedian John Belushi, and American author, H.P. Lovecraft, remain unmarked, and the family erected a cenotaph in a separate location.

Descendants may decide to erect a gravestone upon discovering this ancestor in their family tree, and honour their ancestor with a memorial. Genealogy societies such as the African Atlantic Genealogical Society (AAGS) joined with the he American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) to honour the unmarked gravesite of Eubie Blake, an African American composer. In researching notable local figures, societies, historians or agencies first must contact family descendants to receive permission to erect a tombstone. A similar project honoured and memorialised the unmarked gravesite of blues guitarist, Tommy Bankhead, by the Killer Blues Headstone Project in St. Louis.

For most of Saskatchewan’s cemeteries volunteers from various agencies have initiated their own cemetery projects to record burials. It is then possible to search internet grave registries to locate internment sites. There are global sites such as Find a Grave, Internment.net, or the Cemetery Junction Directory. In Saskatchewan alone several agencies have come together to compile listings of cemetery burials. These agencies are listed at Saskatchewan Gen Web – Cemetery Records – Obituary Records Just a very few agencies recorded at the aforementioned site are the Ancestor Recognition Project – Cemetery Preservation: Online Digitization, Canada Gen Web Cemeteries Project, City and town infrastructure departments, Odessa Library — a German-Russian Genealogical Library, Doukhobor.org, GRHS (Germans from Russia Heritage Society), International Internet Genealogical Society Library, Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness, Rural Municipality offices, Saskatchewan Cemeteries Project, Saskatchewan Mennonite Cemetery Finding Aid, Saskatchewan Genealogy Society and branches.

In Saskatchewan the Genealogy Index Search listing is online by the Government of Saskatchewan eHealth Vital Statistics division providing searchable information on “births registered with Vital Statistics more than 100 years ago, and deaths registered more than 70 years ago”. The burial index is searchable online available from research done by Saskatchewan Genealogy Society SGS members from their volunteer cemetery transcription projects. Many of the SGS transcriptions have been put on microfilm and are held with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Family Search centre.

It may aid the individual to search in the family biography / local history books published locally in the province by various communities during the province’s 50th anniversary celebrations (1955), 75th anniversary, (1980) and 100th anniversary (2005). Indexed books can be searched through the Saskatchewan Resident’s Index SRI or Our Roots Nos Racines to see if there are any family names within these resources. The local history committees who came together to write these books are an invaluable source of information as are the local museum curators and librarians.

If the town or placename that the individual resided is unknown, check the homestead records to determine the legal land location (address) for the pioneering family residence. Pinpointing this location on a map will indicate the closest rural placename and the nearest large centre. Entering these placenames in a library catalogue may assist in finding the relevant local history / family biography book. At times these books will also profer cemetery listings as well as biographies of the local residents submitted by the families themselves.

Locating the homestead on a map is actually very wise to assist narrow down the closest or most likely cemetery for the family to adopt. For instance the Rural Municipality of Excelsior #166 maintains 40 cemetery records and Sliding Hills RM #273 maintains 49 cemeteries. On average a rural municipality encompasses 9 townships each 6 miles by 6 miles square, so the RM itself would be an 18 mile by 18 mile area unless boundaries were altered due to population or natural boundaries such as rivers. Such a cemetery density would offer the family a choice of cemetery locations close to their homestead. They may opt for a church yard corresponding to their religious beliefs, desire to be interred in family plot, or choose a town or city plot if the final years were spent residing in an urban centre near senior’s or healthcare resources.

Without a cemetery transcription nor photographs of headstones available, it may be fruitful to ask the assistance of a professional genealogical researcher or some kind soul on the local mailing list or query board for the relevant region of Saskatchewan to check the cemetery for the ancestral burial site. If this is the case, do not expect an answer during the winter months. Between the months of October and April, snow covers the ground making traipsing through cemeteries difficult, and rendering headstones buried beneath the snow invisible to the sight.

To determine if a person is actually interred in a specific cemetery it would be helpful to consult church records, newspaper obituaries, cemetery burial certificates, census records or perhaps family records.

Cemetery burial records are held by the local administration; city or town authorities usually handle cemetery queries in their infrastructure department, parks and cemeteries. Similarly cemetery plot maps, and internment certificates are held by the rural municipality, the civic administration overseeing private rural farm and ranch lands, unorganised hamlets, unincorporated areas, localities, villages and former towns. Burial registers are held by religious denominations officiating at churchyard burials.

If the cemetery plot is located on private land, it is necessary to contact the private land owners for access to the site. This can be done by contacting the rural municipality office and purchasing an RM map of the area.

At times the cemetery may have unmarked graves, and cemetery owners may indulge in ground penetrating radar surveys to find and document all historic internment sites. If a cemetery has a paper trail, such as death certificates, or obituaries to show that an internment had taken place in the graveyard, then radar technology or grave dowsing may help to locate any unmarked sites.

In regards unmarked older cemeteries, it is necessary to contact the local historians for information and directions to a cemetery. For public cemeteries, a local resident would be able to offer directions to a cemetery currently in use. A rural municipality map purchased from the rural municipality would demark cemeteries, townships, ranges along with current roadways.

If a researcher is fortunate in finding the cemetery gravestones photographed online or the cemetery transcribed on the internet, that may help in locating the gravesite, unless the name is not listed. Such may be the case for the Ogema Cemetery in the RM of Key West 70, located in the northwest quarter of section 22 township 7 range 22 West of the 2nd meridian where both a cemetery transcription and tombstone photographs are online from two different agencies. If the ancestor’s name is not listed from either of these listings, but does indeed show up in the provincial genealogy index search where the Government of Saskatchewan eHealth Vital Statistics division indicates “births registered with Vital Statistics more than 100 years ago, and deaths registered more than 70 years ago”, then it would be wise to follow up with further research.

In the case of Key West 70 there are 27 local cemeteries, which are listed at in at least two sites online; Canada Gen Web or the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Cemetery Index . Another note to consider is that the town of Ogema is located in the southeastern portion of the rural municipality there is a chance that the family may have chosen a cemetery in a neighbouring RM such as Norton RM # 69 to the east, The Gap RM # 39 to the southeast, or Bengough RM # 40 to the south.

If one encounters such an experience of finding the death certificate in Saskatchewan with the Vital Statistics division, but no record of the ancestral name in the expected cemetery listings, it may be necessary to apply for the death certificate from Vital Statistics and or the burial (internment) permit from the Rural Municipality or in the case of this example, the Ogema town office. Most rural municipalities, cities and towns have their own individual websites online along with their contact information. The Government of Saskatchewan also has the Municipal Directory System online with contact information. MySask.com and Canada 411 are two online phone (and address) directories.

Officially civic registration of births, marriages and deaths did begin in 1905 with the formation of the province, registration did not become a regular practice until 1920. The government system to register deaths began in 1888 when the area was still part of the Northwest Territories. These early records of the Northwest Territories may be included in the Saskatchewan Provincial Archives or Manitoba Provincial Archives (Hudson Bay records) vital records collection. If the family chose to be buried in a churchyard, the church burial registers may indicate where an ancestral loved one may be found. If the deceased were registered under the terms of the Indian Act, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) maintains the Indian Register containing dates of birth, death, marriage and divorce information.

Equipped with a date of passing provided by the provincial EHealth genealogy index search another venue opens up. It becomes easier to follow up on an obituary search in an historic newspaper. However as indicated previously if families did not regularly register for a death certificate in the early pioneering years, they may not run an obituary, especially if the passing occurred in the dearth of winter, 40 degrees below zero, no plowed roads, actually no formal paved roads at all, and only horse and buggy for conveyance, or ox and cart. However, there were newspapers, and indeed some obituaries were run. Newspapers were published in the Northwest Territories in the late 1800s serving all of northwestern Canada. As settlement expanded out west, additional local newspapers sprang up across the province. Some these newspapers can be researched online as a few historic newspapers have been placed online by Google News for instance. Various editions of historic newspapers are held on microfilm in the provincial archives and public library system.

Additionally, with the known departure date, application can be made to the Saskatchewan Law Courts to search for wills, letters probate, letters of administration, estate titles which are held in the Wills and Estates Registry dating back to 1883. If desiring to erect a gravesite marker on an unmarked grave, it may behoove one to check if there is a will to honour any requests made by the departed if they wished to lie in an unmarked grave.

So in this way, by starting with the known, and working towards the unknown, steps can be taken to determine cemeteries in the locality where an ancestor resided. Searches can be made of transcriptions made by local residents to determine if the internment took place in a cemetery in the region. Many of these transcriptions are coming online. It is wise to investigate several regional cemeteries to cover all the bases. Without an ancestor’s name listed on a transcription made from tombstones, local church or civic registries can be consulted for historic burials in unmarked gravesites. Additionally the death certificate can be ordered from Vital Statics, Ministry of Health. Without a primary source document, to show that an ancestor was buried in the cemetery, it may not be possible to erect a tombstone, in such a case, perhaps a bench, cenotaph, a tree planting or commemorative sign could be placed in the cemetery honouring the relative and acknowledging their unmarked gravesite.

Article written by Julia Adamson

Bibliography

Saskatchewan Genealogy MagazineSaskatchewan Genealogy Web : Sask Gen Web E-Magazine
Answering Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

 

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Naval Monument honours prairie Royal Canadian Navy seamen and ships H.M.C.S. Regina (K234) and H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173)

26 Sep

Naval Monument honours Royal Canadian Navy prairie seamen and RCN ships
H.M.C.S. Regina (K234) and H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173)

John Thompson RCNVR (V 34087), a cook aboard the HMCS Regina aged 24 son of Robert Parker Thompson and Helena Thompson, of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan was one of the naval seamen honoured on Sunday, September 22, 2013 at an unveiling ceremony held on Navy Way in Regina, Saskatchewan in front of the HMCS Queen naval reserve unit.

The Friends of the Navy have honoured Royal Canadian Navy sailors who hail from Saskatchewan, particularly those who fell in World War II. The new Saskatchewan Naval monument honours the naval ships, Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship (HMCS) Weyburn and the HMCS Regina who were both lost in World War II. The HMCS Weyburn on the 67th anniversary of its sinking was commemorated earlier during the centennial year of the Royal Canadian Navy in 2010. Royal Canadian Navy ships paid tribute to dozens Saskatchewan Communities in their naming including the HMCS Waskesiu and the HMCS Estevan.

The HMCS Weyburn (K 173), the namesake for the city of Weyburn was a flower class corvette mainly serving in the Battle of the Atlantic. This smaller ship was needed as an escort ship and equipped by minesweeping gear. However, on February 32, 1943 at 11:17 a.m., the Weyburn struck a large SSMA (Sonder Mine A) magnetic mine laid by German U-boat U-118. The mine, new technology for the time, could be laid as deep as 350 meters, and the Weyburn taken three weeks after the charge was laid was one of the first victims. Though HMS Wivern assisted Weyburn after the initial explosion, two depth charges exploded, everyone in the water, and crew members of the Wivern were killed or severely injured. Of the 83 officers and men aboard the Weyburn 12 died and there were 71 survivors.

The HMCS Regina (K 234), was another Saskatchewan namesake for the province’s capital city, Regina. HMCS Regina, was a flower-class corvette also engaged in escort duties in the Second World War. The American Liberty Ship, the Ezra Weston was a cargo ship carrying war material to the theatre of war. The Ezra Weston took a torpedo from the U-667. Her only escort was the HMCS Regina who was under the impression that the merchant ship had fallen to a mine. Therefore the Regina turned to assist the flailing ship and pick up survivors. The U-boat then also fired on the corvette. Within 30 seconds on August 8, 1944 at 9:27 p.m., one officer and 27 men fell.

Robert Watkins, a prairie sailor out of Winnipeg, sums it up this way, “during the war, the one thing he was scared of was the submarines, if the supply lines from Canada and the U.S. had dried up on account of the submarines, Britain would have gone under.”

Alongside John Thompson, Douglas Peter Robertson RCNVR (V 11460) son of Robert Angus Robertson and Elizabeth Jane Robertson, of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan aged 26 fell August 8, 1944 in his capacity as Petty Officer Stoker aboard the HMCS Regina. As well, John Charles Henry Rathbone RCNVR (V 34478), son of John and Florence Rathbone, of Regina, Saskatchewan, aged 27 who took on the duties of supply assistant did not survive his wounds incurred that fatal evening. These three Saskatchewan prairie naval reservists lost their lives along with their crew mates, British and Canadian Navy sailors.

The Fall Action Stations magazine reports that, “exactly how many Saskatchewanians served in the RCN during the war is hard to estimate as many volunteered at recruiting offices outside the province, and vice versa. And due to wartime staffing pressures, sailors from a particular city or town rarely served on the ship bearing its name.”

For instance, Joseph McGrath, V/11616, son of Margaret McGrath of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, serving with the Royal Canadian Volunteer Reserve aboard the HMCS Athabaskan was one of those honoured in the commemorative naming program of the Saskatchewan Geographic Names Board with the naming of McGrath Lake in Saskatchewan.

Natural geographic features across Saskatchewan honour armed forces personnel and merchant sailors from the Second World War and the Korean War, and also those who fell during peacekeeping or NATO missions, or while protecting the public while on active duty such as police officers, firefighters, and Emergency Response Personnel.

The Naval Memorial erected at a cost of about $30,00 honours was spear-headed by Doug Archer, Chairman of the Friends of the Navy, and Steve Smedley. There are over 6,000 war memorials in Canada remembering those who fought with courage. Saskatoon’s Next of Kin Memorial Avenue in the Woodlawn Cemetery, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan is a national historic site. Both the Regina Cemetery and the North Battleford Cemetery are homes to two of the 28 Crosses of Sacrifice. Alongside these memorials, the Royal Canadian Legion branches and towns across Saskatchewan have erected monuments and cenotaphs honouring those who fell in military service from their community.

Quoting Lieutenant James Balfour, himself a prairie seaman, serving in the naval reserve stemmed from “the belief that there are things that are more important than just you as an individual, it’s about serving your country and doing something for the good of others.”

Terrence McEachern of The Leader Post quoted Doug Archer, former mayor of Regina, “We are so truly blessed that others have gone before us to preserve our freedom and our democracy. We need to honour them and never forget the contribution they’ve made.”

~Article written by Julia Adamson

Bibliography

Adamson, Julia. Commander Harold Wilson Balfour OBE VD RCNVR Recognized for Outstanding Civic Service and Meritorious Military Achievement. H.W. Balfour’s Truly Impressive Career.

CMHC 200 National Defence. Canadian Military History Since the 17th Century Proceedings of the Canadian Military History Coinvernce Ottawa 5-9 May 2000. Edited by Yves Tremblay. National Defence 2001.

CWGC Works 2007 Commonwealth War Graves Commission (Canada) .

Crewlist from HMCS Weyburn ( 173) Canadian Corvette) Ships hit by German U-=boats Uboat.net. 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

Crewlist from HMCS Regina 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

Falloon, Dan.Veteran hoping to commemorate fellow sailors. 04 24 2013. Winnipeg Free Press.

For Posterity’s Sake Canadian Genealogy HMCS Weyburn K173 Corvette Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII uboat.net. 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

HMCS Regina (K 234) of the Royal Canadian Navy – Canadian Corvette of the Flower class – Allied warships of WWII uboat.net. 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

HMCS Regina (K 234) Canadian K 234) (Canadian Corvette) ships hit by German U boats during WWII 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

HMCS Regina (K234) Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia

HMCS Weyburn (K173) (Canadian Corvette) Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII uboat.net 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

HMCS Weyburn (K173) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. id version =571908407.

Home/About Government/News Releases/November 2006/New Commemorative Naming Program to Recognize Saskatchewan Heroes. Government of Saskatchewan. c/o Grant Bastedo. Information Services Corporation of Saskatchewan ISC

JosephMcGrath – The Canadian Virtual War Memorial. Records and Collections. Veteran’s Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. 2013-07-29.

Liberty Ship. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. id version=572158310

Mceachern, Terrence. Monument honours Navy seamen from Sask The Leader-Post, republished The StarPhoenix. September 23, 2013. 2010 – 2013 Postmedia Network Inc.

Naval Memorial Installation. Friends of the Navy.

Naval Monument Planned for Regina. From the files of Will Chabun, Leader Post, Regina. Memorial Honours RCN War Hero. 2012 Fall Action Stations. Volume 30 Issue 5 HMCS Sackville Newsletter.

Christianson, Adriana. Navy Reservists in Regina Commemorate the Battle of the Atlantic. May 6, 2013. New Saskatchewan Naval Monument. 620 CKRM the Source. Harvard Broadcasting Radio Stations September 23, 2013.

Remembrance Day Tribute. Let us remember those who served in the wars of yesterday and today. November 12, 2010.

Travel Article: Lest We Forget: Outstanding Canadian War Memorials / 1994-2013 World Web Technologies Inc.

Volume 2 Part 1 Extant Commissioned Ships. HMCS Regina. National Defence and the Canadian Forces. DHH Home. Histories. 2006-07-07. Government of Canada.

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For More Information:

•Saskatchewan Gen Web Military Resources

•Canada In Flanders – The Official Story of the Canadian Expeditionary Force Volume I

•Saskatchewan Gen Web E-Magazine

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Related posts:

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

Michelle Lang. Canadian Journalist. Jan 31, 1975-Dec 30, 2009. Afghanistan Casualty.

Saskatchewan Virtual War Memorial Site Updated

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

Where were Saskatchewan Homesteads Located?

How do I locate my ancstor’s home town in Saskatchewan? Have you ever visited your ancestral home?

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Naval Monument, Royal Canadian Navy, Prairie Sailors, Tribute, Commemoration, H.M.C.S. Regina (K234), H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173) HMCS REgina, HMCS Weyburn, John Thompson, HMCS Queen, Doug Archer,Joseph McGrath, Lieutenant James Balfour, Steve Smedley, Friends of the Navy, Robert Watkins,Douglas Peter Robertson, John Charles Henry Rathbone, Naval Monument, Royal Canadian Navy, Prairie Sailors, Tribute, Commemoration, H.M.C.S. Regina (K234), H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173) HMCS REgina, HMCS Weyburn, John Thompson, HMCS Queen, Doug Archer,Joseph McGrath, Lieutenant James Balfour, Steve Smedley, Friends of the Navy, Robert Watkins,Douglas Peter Robertson, John Charles Henry Rathbone, CA, Canada, Sk, Sask, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, North Battleford, Regina, Prince Albert, Weyburn, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Naval Monument, Royal Canadian Navy, Prairie Sailors, Tribute, Commemoration, H.M.C.S. Regina (K234), H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173) HMCS REgina, HMCS Weyburn, John Thompson, HMCS Queen, Doug Archer,Joseph McGrath, Lieutenant James Balfour, Steve Smedley, Friends of the Navy, Robert Watkins,Douglas Peter Robertson, John Charles Henry Rathbone, Naval Monument, Royal Canadian Navy, Prairie Sailors, Tribute, Commemoration, H.M.C.S. Regina (K234), H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173) HMCS REgina, HMCS Weyburn, John Thompson, HMCS Queen, Doug Archer,Joseph McGrath, Lieutenant James Balfour, Steve Smedley, Friends of the Navy, Robert Watkins,Douglas Peter Robertson, John Charles Henry Rathbone, CA, Canada, Sk, Sask, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, North Battleford, Regina, Prince Albert, Weyburn, Winnipeg, Manitoba,

Saskatoon Normal School ~ Education is the movement from darkness to light.

30 May

Naturally Fresh ~ Spring LIlac by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Naturally Fresh ~ Spring Lilac by Julia Adamson

Education is the movement from darkness to light.

The Saskatoon Normal School (1912-1953)

The Saskatoon Teachers’ College (1953-1964)

University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus (1964-1970)

University of Saskatchewan College of Education (1927-present)




E.A. Davies Building, Saskatoon Normal School, Saskatoon Teachers College, University of Saskatchewan Avenue A Campus



Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)


“Undoubtedly there should be a very close relation between the kind of training pursued in a Normal School and the philosophy of education upon which the institution is based. Bismarck is reported to have said, “What you would have appear in the life of the nation, you must first put in your schools.” Might I add that what you would have appear in the life of your pupils, you must first put into your teachers.” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, Saskatoon
The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

The historical account of certifying teachers in Saskatoon has grown and developed over the course of the last century. Teacher training began where classrooms and instructors were available, and the first permanent building for teacher training, the Saskatoon Normal School, was opened in 1923. Saskatchewan saw rapid growth and expansion in the early 1900s. Pioneering homestead families with young children created a dire demand for teachers in communities.

Saskatchewan’s pioneer slogan, “A new school every day for twenty years,” is paralleled by the need to staff these new schools. To keep these schools open, the Department of Education desperately required teachers.

From these humble beginnings teacher training programs were developed and refined. The one room school house gave way to the consolidated school. Classrooms and educational trends diversified to meet the changes in society through the twentieth century and into the twenty first. From the early beginnings when the Normal Schools provided teacher training, now the College of Education maintains a professional academic curricula on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon.

During these early years of settlement in the Northwest Territories trained teachers were recruited from overseas, and eastern Canada normal schools. When there was no teacher available, local pioneer residents with education were requested to provide education services in public school classes.

Fledgling school districts relied upon their school inspectors to aid them in procuring a teacher. Additionally, in the late 1800s and early 1900s the community could place a request for a teacher who could provide instruction in a foreign language.

Union schools provided early teacher education classes. “The first such classes were offered as “The Science of Teaching” and “School Law”” Horseman Under the 1888 Ordinance of the Northwest Territories, classes were provided wherever there was a two room union school and ten or more pupils desiring teacher training relates Ken Horseman in his article written for the Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Teaching inspectors were called upon to provide teacher training, and early union schools in Estevan, Moose Jaw, Moosomin, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon, Yorkton, and Weyburn offered classes to obtain a third class teaching certificate.


“A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.” said G.R. Anderson, Principal of the Normal School, quoting Henry Brooks Adams. “

Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 20, 1946.

The early history of the city of Saskatoon began when the scouts for the Temperance Colony Settlement arrived on the shores of the South Saskatchewan River in 1881. Colonists from eastern Canada began settling in 1883. The first permanent school was ready by 1887, and was known as the “Little Stone School”, though classes had begun in temporary locations as early as 1884. This was the beginnings of the village of Saskatoon.

In 1891, the Qu’Appelle, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railway Company bridge and railway station on the west side of the river saw the start of a settlement across the river from the original Temperance Colony Settlement. In 1901, this growing community was large enough to incorporate as a village, and took the name Saskatoon. The pioneers on the east side changed the name of their settlement to Nutana.

Another group of pioneers settled down also on the west side of the South Saskatchewan River, but across the tracks from the village of Saskatoon. This new community incorporated as Riversdale.

By 1896, 258 students were taking Normal School classes in the Northwest Territories, and the first official Normal School was established at Alexandra School on Hamilton Street (the Red School) in Regina, provisional district of Assiniboia, Northwest Territories. Teaching classes moved out of the Regina Union School on Hamilton Street and 11th Avenue (the White School) at this time.

“The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges” ~New York’s Teachers College, 1888, later the Columbia University, 1893

The number of public schools established by the turn of the century was 574 which were served by 592 teachers. According to Statistics Canada, the population of The Territories was booming, growing from 56,446 persons in 1881 to 66,799 in 1891, and more than doubling to 158,940 by 1901.

In 1905, there were 869 school districts in operation according to Ronald A. Manzer. It was in this self same year, on September 1, that Saskatchewan became a province. Until this date, Saskatoon lay within the provisional district of Saskatchewan, in the Northwest Territories.

The growing communities of Saskatoon, Riversdale and Nutana merged together as the city of Saskatoon in 1906. It was during this year, that the number of schools in the province nearly doubled since 1900 coming to a total of 942 schools in existence, with 1,193 teachers serving these schools.

Saskatoon was chosen as the site for the University of Saskatchewan in 1909. The initial buildings were contracted out in 1910, the College Building, Saskatchewan Hall student’s residence, Agricultural Engineering, Stock Pavilion, barn and Poultry Science building.

In 1909, Deputy Minister of Education, W.P. Bate published an article in The Daily Phoenix (Saskatoon’s Newspaper) urging students to send in their applications if they desire training at a Normal School in Saskatoon. Applications were received, however the number was below the needed ten applications to warrant local sessions.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Saskatchewan would boast that new schools were forming at the rate of one for every day of the year ( not including Sundays and holidays ). 1909 figures showed 1,958 public school districts serving the province, with an additional 31 Roman Catholic Public school districts, twelve Roman Catholic Separate School districts, and two Protestant Separate schools. These numbers rose in the 1910 school year, in 1911, there were 2,251 school districts in the province of Saskatchewan served by a corresponding increase in teachers who now number 2,973.

There was a tendency of the one room school house to expand. Communities rebuilt older schools or moved in additions forming two room union schools or three room consolidated schools. The number of schools in the province climbed to 2,468 school districts by June of that same year. The growth and prosperity of the province showed the rise in population which was seconded by the increase in school districts needed by the burgeoning population. Such an increase in population and the education of its children demanded, as well, an increase in the numbers of teachers available.

The population of Saskatchewan was mainly of a rural nature, Statistics Canada recording 73,739 persons residing rurally in 1901, and 361,067 by 1911 increasing 390%. The urban population increased from 17,550 persons to 131,365 an increase of 649 per cent. The population of Saskatchewan had an increase in population of 401,153 or 439 percent jumping from about 91,279 in 1901 to 492,232 by 1911. (Saskatchewan populations were estimated for 1901 when it was part of the Northwest Territories.)

Nutana Collegiate Institute.  In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes Nutana Collegiate Institute.  In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes

Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate)

In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes, this was a temporary location. On August 20, 1912, the Saskatoon Normal School began, with twelve second class student teachers and fifty third class students. In 1912, the University of Saskatchewan also rented rooms from on the third flow of the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute.

In 1913, Dr. J.A. Sneel presided as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School.On Campus News  A.J. Mather was principal of the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute between 1908-1915, followed by A.J. Pyke. The Saskatoon Collegiate was erected in 1910, and gave up the name Saskatoon Collegiate when Bedford Road Collegiate was constructed in 1923 on the “Saskatoon side” or west side of the South Saskatchewan River according to Eric O. Burt. 55 students from were enrolled for the first session held between August to October, 1912. During this time, President Murray of the University of Saskatchewan provided lectures on the philosophy of education, and Normal School students attended lectures offered to the agricultural students at the U of S as well.


“There is one thing lacking in this country … I would like to see some way to make the teaching profession a real profession – a profession that a man or a woman can spend his or her life at – giving sufficient returns for the labor and brains demanded, and the time and money spent in preparation for it – carrying with it the honor that attaches to other professions, not the mere unwritten honour of work well done, but something tangible and recognized.

” ~ Chief Justice Haultain May 31, 1913. Bocking. 1979.

Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914 Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914

Buena Vista School

When Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914 for two years. The Saskatoon Normal School began as did the Regina Normal School utitlizing temporary locations until a permanent building could be built. It was May 30, 1913 when the cornerstone was laid by Haultain for the permanent location of the Regina Normal School on College Avenue and Broad Street, Regina. It would be another ten years before the Saskatoon Normal School held classes in the Saskatoon Normal School building.

Construction began in 1914 on Student’s Residence No. 2 in the University Campus. When the building was completed by 1916, it received the name “Qu’Appelle Hall.” The University of Saskatchewan converted dormitory rooms on the first floor to house the Saskatoon Normal School. Classes commenced in the new location in 1916.

By 1916, the minimum number of persons applying for normal class rose from ten students to 25 persons who indicated a desire to attend third class school sessions. Only fifty students were to be accepted for third class classes in Regina and Saskatoon, however first and second class sessions were also offered in both Provincial Normal Schools in Regina and Saskatoon.

St. Thomas Presbyterian Church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms. St. Thomas Presbyterian Church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.    Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.

St. Thomas Presbyterian church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.

Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School moved again in 1919, St. Mary’s separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church provided space for classrooms. St. Thomas Presbyterian church was constructed at the intersection of Avenue H and 20th Street in 1908, and expanded in the fall of 1911. In 1934, the Riverside Methodist Church on Avenue G and 19th Street (later named Wesley Methodist Church) and the St. Thomas Presbyterian Church both united and became known as St. Thomas Wesley United Church. St. Mary’s Community School, now demolished, was designed by David Webster in a Collegiate style in 1913.

St. Mary's School built 1913. now demolished.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.
St. Mary's School built 1913. now demolished.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.

St. Mary’s Separate School

If 25 students submitted applications for Third Class sessions, then centers at Regina, Saskatoon, Yorkton, Estevan, Prince Albert, Moosomin, Weyburn, Swift Current, North Battleford and Moose Jaw would establish classes for teacher training in addition to classes held at the Saskatoon and Regina Normal Schools. This was a change from the earlier minimum of ten students required to mandate a class at a Union or Normal school.

In 1919 discussions arose to the permanent location of the Normal School site, whether the teacher training school should be located on the University of Saskatchewan campus grounds or elsewhere. Discussions ensued between Walter C. Murray (President of the University of Saskatchewan 1908-1937), the Government of Saskatchewan Department of Education, University of Saskatchewan architect David Brown, Saskatoon Normal School board trustees especially Dr. J.L. Hogg, and Dr. George M. Weir Principal of the (Saskatoon Normal School 1918-1924).

The first option offered on the University campus consisted of four acres, however, ten acres were requested by the Saskatoon Normal School. At this same time, the University of Saskatchewan was considering requests by the government for a tuberculosis sanatorium and a School for the Deaf.

By the spring of the following year, 1920, the decision was made after consideration of several sites, to construct the Saskatoon Normal School of brick and Bedford stone in the gothic architectural stylings overlooking the west side of Saskatoon atop the hill on Avenue A North.

While the Saskatoon Normal School building was under construction, the teacher training sessions were held at St. Paul’s school on 22nd Street. St. Paul’s School had constructed a temporary building on the corner of 22nd street and 4th avenue in 1913 which was replaced by a permanent building in 1926. Prior to this, St. Paul’s school held classes in St. Paul’s church basement which had served since 1911.



E.A. Davies Building, Saskatoon Normal School, Saskatoon Teachers College, University of Saskatchewan Avenue A Campus



Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)


The Saskatchewan provincial population continued to swell, reaching 757,510 by the time of the 1921 census count showing an increase of 265,078 persons since 1911, or 54 per cent growth. At this time, there were 538,552 persons residing rurally in Saskatchewan compared to 218,958 in urban centres. This represented an increase of 49 per cent in the rural population since 1911 and showed 66 per cent in urban growth.

It was February 12, 1923 when the Provincial Normal School was officially opened in Saskatoon. The cornerstone was laid on May 24, 1921 by Lieutenant Governor, The Honorable H. Newland following architectural plans drawn up by the provincial architect, Maurice W. Sharon. The Saskatoon Normal School was one of the projects undertaken by Saskatoon architect David Webster under the supervision of Sharon. The building opened March 1922 at 1030 Avenue A North (now known as Idylwyld Drive North).

Dr. George M. Weir, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School between 1918 and 1924, went on to become the “first professor of education at the University of British Columbia, first director of the UBC Department (later School) of Education, and co-author of Survey of the School System.”Lord p. 8

The provincial normal schools sought to increase the understanding the realities of rural life and teaching in a rural setting. To this end, Normal School students were offered opportunities to practice teaching under the watchful eye of their fellow normal school classmates and instructors. Weir was followed by Dr. J.S. Huff as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, for a time period between about 1924-1927 which was actually Dr. Huff’s second term as Normal School principal.

Table Showing Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools 1904-1920 in Saskatchewan, Canada
Table Showing Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools 1904-1920 in Saskatchewan, Canada

Student enrollment during the 1923 school term showed 404 student teachers at Regina Normal School and 335 enrolled in the Saskatoon Normal School. This trend of a higher student teacher population in the southern portion of the province continued in 1924 with 466 student teachers enrolled in the Regina Normal School, with 381 in Saskatoon. The Saskatchewan Correspondence School arose in 1925 to offer classes for secondary schooling supplementing the province’s seven initial collegiate institutes.


“The purpose of education is to fit the soul of the child. No system of education can give an education to a child. He must get it for himself. All we can do is to provide the facilities for so doing and we never must lose sight of this fact; that the purpose of education is not to make people farmers or mechanics, not to keep them in any particular walk of life. The objective is to see the boy and girl gets the facilities for the development of his moral nature, intelligence and physical nature. Let him develop his intelligence so he may know; give him the moral training so that he can do properly; house that spirit in a body that is clean and sound. This is just as good for the non-English speaking people as it is for the English speaking people.” ~ Honourable S. J. Latta Minister of Education
The Morning Leader. Jan. 15, 1926.

The large number of students applying to the Normal School for admission resulted in additional criteria for acceptance and a higher competitive admission standard. To be accepted in 1926, students applying for classes must submit diplomas and certificates from Saskatchewan institutions attesting to their standing. The Moose Jaw, Weyburn, Estevan, Moosomin, Yorkton, and Prince Albert centers were to provide special sessions for third class teacher training if there are a minimum 25 students registering at each local rural center. In 1927, the Moose Jaw Normal School opened for teacher training sessions.

The staffing at the normal school consisted of permanent teachers along with school inspectors during the winter months. The school inspectors brought practical lessons and how to overcome problems faced directly in the country school. Serving at the Normal school, the inspectors kept in touch with the latest advances in education which they shared on their visits to the one room school districts. Following Dr. Huff, Principal Joseph A. Snell, M.A. LL.D. was appointed the principal of the Saskatoon Normal School serving the years around 1927 and 1929.


“I am not properly qualified to advise farmers as to the education of their sons, but being country born and bred I sometimes date to think what I should like my school education in the country to be if I had the privilege of living my life over again….I should like that there should come to me a leader or teacher – call him or her what you will – who could lift me out of my littleness, my narrowness of vision, my wrong conceptions, my crudeness in thought and manner, and make me able to appreciate the true, the beautiful and the good, make me able to understand the beauty and opportunity in my own environment and, above all, anxious to live and serve with the great and good of all time as my models and inspiration. I should not care to hear about crops and stock and poultry all day long. Virtue is more to be desired that prize stock and a happy home than a good bank balance. ” ~ A farmer’s letter quoted by the Honourable S. J. Latta Minister of Education
The Morning Leader. Jan. 15, 1926.

According to Karen Briere, “the College of Education with practice schools became a realty in 1927 when a School of Education was established under the College of Arts and Sciences.” In 1928, the University of Saskatchewan established the College of Education. The Saskatoon Normal School remained under the jurisdiction of the provincial Department of Education.

Mr. R. W. Asseltine as the Principal of the Saskatoon Normal School was quoted for his memorable speeches during his tenure 1930-1934. Saskatchewan recorded a growth in population in the decade 1921-1931 of 24.33 per cent reaching a population count of 921,785. The rural population was enumerated at 630,880 persons, with the urban centres at 290,905, over this decade, the rural areas showed a growth of 17% and the urban centres of 33%. Over the year of 1928, there were 4,489 more students enrolled in primary and secondary schools over 1927. Elementary schools grew from 211,599 pupils to 215,968, an increase of 4,369, high schools increased by 120 pupils. 51 new school districts formed over the 1927-1928 school year bringing the total to 4,826 in the province, (this number includes the eight Protestant and 24 Roman Catholic separate schools).

In response to this growth, 1,866 teachers received licenses in 1928 for Normal School Training. In the field there were 8,397 teachers and of these 7,192 were trained with higher than a third class certificate, or 86% of the teachers in the 4,826 school districts. The Department of Education’s Report dated December 31, 1928 urged increased Normal School accommodation, with the possibility of opening a fourth Normal School. “At the present time our Normal Schools at Regina, Saskatoon and Moose Jaw are overcrowded and yet we are scarcely training a sufficient number of teachers to supply the demand.”The Morning Leader. Feb. 17, 1930


“Twenty years is a long time in the life of an individual; it is infinitesimal in the life of an institution. The life of either, however is important not so much on account of the number of years each has lived as it is for what each stands.” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, Saskatoon
The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

Estimate of Population of Saskatchewan 1931-1950 Chart
Estimate of Population of Saskatchewan 1931-1950 Chart

As the new year began in 1931, 7,619 pupils were recorded increasing by 140 students over the previous year. The enrollment broke records held for student population in Saskatchewan.
Principal C.P. Seeley served around the years 1935, 1937 and 1938.


The development of character is the supreme task and privilege of the training school of today. The future of civilization will depend upon human beings who know social righteousness as well as scientific truth. Enlightenment without ethics is a social menace and an educational fraud.” Dr. G.M. Anderson, Principal Saskatoon Normal School.
Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 22, 1951.

The number of school districts increased rapidly across the province with the influx of settlement. By 1937 Manzer reports 5,146 school districts, an exponential increase of 590%.

Examination results following the Normal School sessions were published in the local newspaper announcing the names of those students who successfully earned their interim first class teaching certificate, second class certificate or Third Class Licenses.


“The ideal of the Normal School…was to give the students some idea or ideal of the teaching profession and to help them build up the correct professional attitude.”
Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 15, 1933.

Seeley spoke to the advantages of converting rural one room school houses into larger school units enumerating several benefits; among them, the “ability to adjust teachers more wholesomely to the life of the community; elimination of the “army of amateurs” who experimented on the lives of children and provision for the possibility of better supervision.”Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 4, 1938.

The school term over the years 1939-1940 included 344 student teachers enrolled for teaching sessions at Saskatoon, 272 at Regina and 211 at Moose Jaw. In the summer of 1940, classes were relocated to Lakeview School in Regina, as the Regina Normal School was taken over for military purposes. However, classes proceeded as usual at Saskatoon and Moose Jaw Normal Schools.

Over the school term 1940-1941 there were 877 student teachers enrolled for teacher training classes. The decade of 1931-1941 showed the first signs of a dramatic population shift from rural areas to urban centres. Rurally, 600,846 were enumerated, compared to 995,146 representing a negative trend of 5 per cent rurally since 1931, and a huge 242 per cent growth to the urban centres over the decade. To compare the rural and urban populations since the beginning of the century, rurally Saskatchewan expanded from about 74,000 persons in 1901 to about 601,000 in 1941 a growth of 715 per cent, whereas, the urban centres swelled from 17,550 to 995,146 showing an increase of 5,570 per cent over this same 40 year time period.


Teachers according to Salary Received in Saskatchewan 1969
Teachers according to Salary Received in Saskatchewan 1939

“We can’t afford to neglect our children, …They are our greatest natural resource and we neglect them at our own peril and the peril of the future.” ~ Professor Carlyle King. Saskatoon Star Phoenix Dec. 2, 1942.

According to Professor King, there were five problems in the educational system, “the inability of many school districts to finance rural schools on a decent educational standard, inadequate facilities and rapid deterioration of rural schools, inadequate teachers’ salaries and scandalous arrears of those salaries which were forcing teachers to other fields, inequality of educational opportunity and the hopeless inadequacy of the present course of studies, particularly in high schools, to fit the student for modern living.” Saskatoon Star Phoenix Dec. 2, 1942.

In the summer of 1941 the Saskatoon Normal School officials surveyed vacant public school space for the continued operation of the teacher training classes in the event that the Normal School building is given to the Defence Department.

The Normal School gave up its building on Avenue A North (Idylwyld Drive North) to the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, and the first class of the Initial Training School (ITS)#7 were held December 8, 1941 in Bedford Road Collegiate. The Normal School location was chosen as the site of the ITS administration office and Royal Canadian Air Force R.C.A.F. recruit dormitories. The Normal School and Bedford Road Collegiate were supplemented by new buildings beside the Normal School for additional training purposes.

Enlistment in the war effort drained the provincial educational staff of personnel. Summer teacher training classes were offered to address the teacher shortage. A huge enrollment of 800 students registered for one of these sessions.

During this time, Lorraine Blashill, relates that the School Board made accommodations at Wilson School for the Normal School sessions offered by the Department of Education. To further accommodate the war effort, students from Wilson School were then themselves relocated to North Park or King Edward Schools. Wilson school, in a new 8 room building, had opened for classes in the fall of 1928 had served the City Park area. Erected on Duke Street and located between Seventh and Eighth Avenue Wilson replaced wood frame school houses. North Park school was located on the corner of Balmoral Street and 9th Avenue. King Edward school built in 1904 by R.W. Caswell was located in Saskatoon’s down town (on 25th Street at the corner of 6th Avenue) six blocks from Wilson School. Used for public school classes, King Edward School was sold in 1911 and served as Saskatoon’s city hall, and the second Kind Edward built.

Even in these new temporary accommodations, the school year of 1941-1942 showed an enrollment of 950 students taking normal school sessions in the province of Saskatchewan, and 486 the following year, 1942-1943. The next school term showed a drop in student teachers electing to take teacher training with only 450 student teachers attending classes.

Education Minister Woodrow Lloyd announced that the Regina Normal School was to close in the fall of 1944 due to declining student enrollment. The Saskatoon and Moose Jaw normal schools remained open to continue teacher training services. In the 1945-1946 school term, the Saskatoon Normal School had an enrollment of 617 student teachers, 76% were women. During this time period, it was estimated that there were in excess of 2,500 teaches with temporary certificates teaching in the province of Saskatchewan.

During the second world war, a four-year undergraduate program was designed by the College of Education. Although teacher-training was conferred to universities across Canada, the declaration of war in 1939, put many educational policies and procedures of advanced education in the background. Military training, scientific developments and research into social problems were brought to the forefront for post-school education.


“Education….is not for ourselves. It is for the training of human personality to serve the community….You will by your example, create the moral force of human character, the basis of society.” Reverend A.B.B. Moore Principal-elect of St. Andrew’s College at the 1946 Saskatoon Normal School graduation.
Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 20, 1946.

Teacher training standards were raised to a two year minimum to receive certification, the classes could be taken at either of the Normal Schools or the University of Saskatchewan, College of Education. Classes could be shared between the two institutions, with a year taken at the Normal School, followed by a year at the University.

In the fall of 1948, the Moose Jaw normal school had 220 enrolled, and the Saskatoon normal school 280. Students were trained for the 38 week course rather than the six week short course, as there were already study supervisors in the school districts filling in for the teacher shortage. Students graduating from the 38 week course earned interim first-class certificates. In comparison, the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education showed an enrollment of 400 students, 20 per cent less than the previous year.


“The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires. ~William Arthur Ward.
Edudemic 2012.

Dr. G.R. Anderson served as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School until June 1954. Dr. Anderson noted that between the two provincial normal schools and the University education department 750 students would graduate in 1951. However, an estimated 2,000 places were expected to be vacated by beginning of the fall school term. The teacher’s shortage arose from matrimony, economic and social conditions. At this time, “500 rural schools in Saskatchewan were staffed by student supervisors, with limited academic and no professional training. Still another 400 to 500 classrooms were staffed by teachers holding temporary and conditional certificates. Worst of all, 1,000 of the 7,2000 teachers now teaching in Saskatchewan Schools [1951] did not intend to continue in the profession next fall.” Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 22, 1951

At the Saskatoon Normal School convocation in 1951, 75 percent of the graduates were women of the 348 receiving graduation certificates. Concern was raised over the number of teachers available in the teaching profession, if the shortage was due to matrimony along with social and economic conditions.


“You need never apologize for being a teacher. You have set your feet on the path chosen by many of the world’s truly great men. … The teacher takes the living mind and moulds it.” ~ Lorne F. Titus Chief superintendent of Saskatchewan schools.

“Teacher’s College” was the new name given to the provincial normal schools in 1953. Students received teaching education rather than teacher training. There was much call to re-open the Regina Normal School to assist the Moose Jaw and Saskatoon Teacher’s Colleges with teacher education classes. The Regina Normal School building on College Avenue and Broad Street re-opened its doors in 1957 under the new name, the Regina Teacher’s College, however this same year, the Moose Jaw Teacher’s College closed its doors.


“You are handling the most precious commodity in the universe, human personality.” ~ Premier T.C. Douglas.

By 1960, the Saskatoon Teacher’s College recorded an enrollment of 523 student teachers. Even though there were more stringent enrollment requirements for students registering due to the high numbers of students submitting applications, 584 students attended the Saskatoon Teacher’s College during the 1961-1962 school year. Across the province, the larger consolidated schools with many classrooms had replaced the rural one room schools serving districts approximately an area four miles square.


It is essential for the children to get better education, and we adults must practice what we preach, otherwise, no change will take place in our society.” ~ Dr. W. Steinson, principal of the Saskatoon Teacher’s College.

In 1964 both the Saskatoon and the Regina teacher’s colleges closed, and all teacher education came under the jurisdiction of the University of Saskatchewan. The architectural design for the original Normal School building accommodated 360 students. And although the Saskatoon Teacher’s College now came under the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education, classes continued in the building at 1030 Avenue A North. The new name of the Saskatoon Teacher’s College became University of Saskatchewan Avenue A campus and the Regina Teacher’s College became University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus. The building on Avenue A in Saskatoon remained in use until the University of Saskatchewan constructed an education building on campus.

The 1964-1965 school term received 8,070 registrations at for classes at the University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus compared to 1,840 students expected at the University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus. A quota was set at accepting a maximum of 450 students because of space available at the Avenue A Campus. “In 1964 the program of the normal schools was accredited by the University of Saskatchewan as a year of work toward the bachelor of education degree, and the institution became recognized as a junior college of the university.”

University of Saskatchewan College of Education
University of Saskatchewan  College of Education University of Saskatchewan  College of Education
College of Education University of Saskatchewan

The August 22, 1964 Saskatoon Star Phoenix reported that student teachers wishing to teach grades one through nine could achieve their Interim Standard “A” certificate after one year of education at either of the two campuses which were now amalgamated under the University of Saskatchewan. Certification of teachers remained with the Department of Education, and teacher education was placed in the domain of the University of Saskatchewan.

During the 1964 school year, 396 students received classes from the Avenue A Campus, and 6,927 applicants applied for classes in the 1963-1964 school term. During this same year, 1,003 students were expected.

Between 1967-1970, the Education Building was constructed on the University of Saskatchewan campus, with the first classes held in the spring of 1970. This new building was constructed to serve “2,500 university students, 200 graduate students, and 120 faculty members.”The Phoenix Sept 22, 1984 Teaching requires a post-secondary Bachelor’s Degree, such as a Bachelor of Education to be qualified as a teacher.

It was in 1986, that the building used by the Saskatoon Teachers College was re-named E.A. Davies building to honour Fred Davies, principal of the Canadian Vocational Training School, the precursor training institute of Kelsey Institute of Arts and Sciences (Now Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology SIAST.)


“This building was named the E. A. (Fred) Davies Building on February 10, 1986 by the Honorable George McLeod, Minister of Advanced Education and Manpower.
This building is dedicated to the honour of E.A. (Fred) Davies, pioneer of technical education in Saskatchewan since 1941. In 1947, he became the principal of the Canadian Vocational Training School, an early vocational centre located on the present campus of Kelsey Institute. In 1963, Mr. Davies accepted the position of Consultant to the Principal of the newly opened institute. After his retirement from post-secondary education at the age of 71, Mr. Davies was ordained as a deacon and served for another twelve years as the priest of St. Luke’s Church in Saskatoon.

In 1975, Fred Davies was honoured as Saskatoon’s “Citizen of the Year” in recognition of his outstanding contributions to education, community organization and church activities. This building, appropriately renamed in his honour, has served Saskatchewan residents since 1923, first as the Normal School and later as the Teacher’s College.

Government of Saskatchewan

Premier Grant Devine.”
~Plaque installed within the E.A. Davies Building along with the portrait of E.A. (Fred) Davies.

A reflection on the progress of teacher training and teacher education in Saskatoon, honours the era of the Saskatoon Normal School, and embraces the remarkable journey to the College of Education at the University of Saskatchewan. As Dr. Fast, Director of Education says, the schools of today are building on the tradition of excellence begun by those of yesterday, preparing new generations for the challenging and changing world they will soon enter.”Blashill p. 155 Every generation, since time immemorial, has passed on its knowledge, traditions, values, skills and beliefs its stock of values, traditions, methods and skills to the next generation. The role, curriculum, and course of study for the teacher varies, however the main thrust; to facilitate student learning by a method of instruction remains the same. The normal schools provided the pioneering rituals, traditions and standards, nay the “norms” for teaching behaviours, specialized education, values, and code of ethics to maintain the teacher in good professional standing. Teachers colleges provided teachers with the ability to successfully meet or exceed the public expectations to educate the nation’s children. “The College of Education is the second largest college at the University of Saskatchewan and has graduated over 30,000 students in its 80-year history. To become an educator through the U of S College of Education is to join a tradition of excellence in teaching and learning.”~College of Education 1994-2009.


“In the long story of the struggle of mankind to fit its youth better for the activities of life, there has been a great variety of aims, and that the most common characteristic in all these was the tendency to throw the whole emphasis on some one factor. At oem time it was the acquisition of knowledge and information; at another the supreme importance lay in the development of the individual, then the welfare of society and the production of workmen skilled in some particular vocation by means of some specific study.
 

Probably a more fitting comparison could not be found than in the fable of “The Six Blind Men from Hindustan.” Like the elephant in this fable, education has many parts, many factors, none of which we can afford to neglect; and like the elephant, too, doubtless there are some of them of greater importance than others. The tail, the trunk, the leg do not constitute the elephant; it is something vastly more important than one of these or all of them put together. How much truer is this of the individual whom we wish to educate, and of the idea which we call education.

” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, SaskatoonThe Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

Article written by Julia Adamson

Note the majority of sources gave the name Asseltine in this spelling, though it was given as Asselstine as well.
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Bibliography

Mirror Webpage on Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project


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Education is the movement from darkness to light. quotation Allan Bloom

Saskatoon Normal School ~ Bibliography

30 May

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Naturally Fresh ~ Spring LIlac by Julia Adamson

The Saskatoon Normal school (1912-1953)

The Saskatoon Teachers’ College (1953-1964)
University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus (1964-1970)
University of Saskatchewan ~ College of Education (1927-present)
“Education is the movement from darkness to light.”
~Allan Bloom

Bibliography: Saskatoon Normal School History

11 x 17 Heritage Sites City of Saskatoon. Community Services. Planning Department. Documents. Mapping. Quote“City of Saskatoon heritage Properties: …Holding Bylaw Properties. The Normal School. 1030 Idyylwyld Drive North.” unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

1910 started boom years. Page 6 and 17. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013

200 New Schools in last 129 Days. Saskatchewan Now Boasts of 2,468 School Districts – 1300 Since 1906. Page 4. The Morning Leader. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013

Adamson, Julia. From potential to realty ~ The Regina Normal School. With additional notes regarding the Regina College. University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina campus. University of Regina. May 9, 2013. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. The Drastic Shortage of Teachers in Saskatchewan’s History. A small sampling of Teacher wanted ads. Saskatchewan One Room School Project. Saskatchewan Gen Web. September 28, 2012. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. Schools Close. Lack of Teachers in Saskatchewan’s History. September 29, 2012. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. Saskatchewan School Inspection of the One Room Schoolhouse. September 2012. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

American describes Teaching Conditions in State of Kansas. Less Training needed, hence wages are relatively low in rural districts, visitor in Saskatoon declares. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 29, 1939. Page 9. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Appointed. Charles W. Downer. (Saskatoon Normal School Librarian) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. July 4, 1931. Google News Archive. Page 7. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Asks More Stress on Culture Values. Seeley Suggests Way in Which Youth Can Get Increased Joy From Life. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 29, 1937. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Author Bio. Asseltine, Robert Whiting. 5663: story of Lodge Progress, no. 92, G.R.S., A.F. and A.M., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, April 15th, 1912, April 15, 1933 The . [1933]. Quote“Asseltine, Robert Whiting (1870-1953). Teacher in Ontario; to Saskatchewan, 1911; inspector of schools at Rosetown; on staff of Saskatoon Normal School, 1918-1927; principal of Moose Jaw Normal School, 1929-1930; principal of Saskatoon Normal School, 1930-1934 (Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, March 24, 1953).” unquote 2003-2009. University of Alberta. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Attendance is up at Normal School. Accommodation taxed to limit as 325 begin training for teachers. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. September 4, 1934. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Applicants to Normal School Turned Away. Students refused for first time in history – record number in history. The Morning Leader. September 24, 1924. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16,2013

Blashill, Lorraine (1982). In Lorraine Blashill. From a little stone school… A story of Saskatoon Public Schools. Modern Press Ltd. p. 40, 68, 99986-87.

Bocking, D.H. for the Saskatchewan Archives Board. Saskatchewan A Pictorial History. Western Producer Prairie Books. Saskatoon, SK. ISBN 0-88833-017-0 BD ISBN 0-88833-042-1 pa. page 83. r
Books and Authors. More Success come to Frances Shelley Wees, To Whom Saskatoon is “Home-Town.” Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. January 30, 1954. Quote“She came back to Saskatoon for a year at the Normal School which was held for the first few months in St. Paul’s School until the new building was ready…” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Building Progress in School District. The Saskatoon Phoenix. June 30, 1927. Page 82. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Charyk, John C. The Little White Schoolhouse. Volume 1. Western Producer Prairie Books. Saskatoon. ISBN 0-919306-08-X. Pages 100, 170, 193, 228-229 237. 1977.

Briere, Karen. College of Education established in 1927. The Phoenix. September 22, 1984. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Burt, Eric O. Saskatoon Schools: What’s in a Name? Schools Recognize Civic Personalities. Teacher arrived with harvest. Public school draws name from war hero. Vanier School departure from Tradition. The Phoenix. September 8, 1984. Page 63. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Certificates Given 365 New Teachers. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 13, 1958. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

City of Saskatoon Municipal Elections, 1959. [school addresses] Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 29, 1959. Page 31. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

The City of Saskatoon – Municipal Manual 2011 Compiled by the Office of the City Clerk. 2011. Quote“1910 Nutana Collegiate was erected…1921 May 24 Cornerstone Provincial Normal School was laid by the Lieutenant Governor, The Honorable H. Newland…1923 February 12 Provincial Normal School was formally opened…1931 Technical School was completed… 2004 June 15 Demolition work began on the Gathercole Building (originally Saskatoon Technical Collegiate) as part of the new South Downtown riverfront development…” unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

City school names represent policies. The Phoenix. October 20, 1979. Page 83. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013

Clark, Greg. Jean Stangoe on Saskatoon Normal School Team (second from rt seated) 1928-29, Stangoe family photos. Flickr photo sharing. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Classrooms in Lakeview School Made Ready for Normal School. The Leader-Post August 5, 1940. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

College of Education ~ University of Saskatchewan. Prospective Undergraduate Students. 1994-2008. Date accessed May 26, 2013.

College Principal Guest Speaker. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 15, 1961. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Colleges turning away applicants. The Leader-Post. September 9, 1961. Page 32. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Delainey, William P., JOhn D. Duerkop, and William A.S. Sarjeant. Saskatoon, A Century in Progress. Western Producer Prairie Books. Saskatoon. ISBN 0-88833-090-1 bound, ISBN 0-88833-089-8 (pbk.) Pages 69, 72, 107. 1982.

Dr. Huff Heads Normal School in Saskatoon. Appointed in Succession to Dr. George M. Weir, who has gone to British Columbia. The Morning Leader. December 13, 1923. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Dunn, Jeff. Brief History of Teacher Education. Edudemic. November 16, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2013.

École St. Paul School: History/L’histoire Archives Greater Saskatoon Catholic Schools SCS. Quote“The original St. Paul’s School was opened in the basement of St. Paul’s Church in September 1911. By 1913, enrolment had reached 240 students and classroom space was a problem. A temporary building was erected near 22nd Street and 4th Avenue and finally in 1926, St. Paul’s School was built on the 22nd Street site. This school continued to grow and it eventually became a collegiate for Catholic boys. In 1954 with enrolment growing, St. Paul’s North was built on our present site, 1527 Alexandra Avenue….” unquote Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Education absorbs 66 per cent of taxation dollars. Saskatoon’s original school now permanently located on university campus (image.) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 37. May 19, 1966. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Educationists Present Views to Commission. Thomson, Seeley and Quance all in favor of Large Units of School Administration. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 4, 1938. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Education thought everybody’s business. Saskatoon Educational Centre of Province: University City’s Biggest Industry: School Construction Persists. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 4, 1960. Page 70. Quote“No wonder education is big business in Saskatoon and the favorite slogan of a well-known educator, Dr. S.R. Layock, former dean of the College of Education, “Education is Everybody’s Business” is as timely today as it was years ago. unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Educationalist got start here. Saskatchewan Men among winners and losers at coast. Provincial Treasurer Beaten, Once of Wolseley, Pooley of Grenfell. The Leader Post. November 3, 1933. Page 2. Google News ARchives. Date Accessed May 20, 2013.

Emphasizes Great Task. Teachers will determine future of society, says Lazerte. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 8, 1938. Google News Archive. Quote“The teacher must be afforded security of tenure together with a salary commensurate with the task….Teachers…were the people who could be trusted to form educational policy and to carry that policy to a successful conclusion. In Alberta, … minimum salary for teachers had been arrived at and compulsory membership in a strong organization provided.” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Enrollment in Schools Falling Off. October Sees 368 Fewer Pupils than Same Month in 1941. Oulton Reports. Figure, However Shows Increase over Sept.; One Truant Case. Carlyle King Finds Five Faults in School System. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 2, 1942. Page 3. Google News Archive. May 20, 2013.

Enrolment up for January. Superintendent’s Report Shows New Record Created for Attendance. The Leader-Post. February 11, 1931. Page 6. Date accessed May 24, 2013.

Examination Results of Normal School. The Morning Leader. July 19, 1921. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Expect 450 to Enrol in 1st Year Education. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Final Function at Normal School Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 4, 1935. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Foght, Harold W. A Survey of Education, 1918. The Province of Saskatchewan Canada. A Report. Government of the Province of Saskatchewan. Regina. J.W. Reid King’s Printer. 2005. Transcribed online by J.D. King 2008. Quote “The normal school is housed temporarily in one of the residences on the grounds of the University of Saskatchewan, at Saskatoon. Several converted dormitory rooms. In Saskatchewan, … the normal school term ranges from 10 weeks for Third Class teachers to 16 weeks for Second and First Class teachers…The number of classroom periods per week for each instructor average 19.9 at Regina but only 13.8 at Saskatoon. This is because all “first class” and “second class’ students recite in their original groups. There may be thus 9 or 10 in the “first class” and 50 or more in the “second class.” The average number of students per class in the two schools is 50 and 42 respectively.”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Gallen, V. The Development of the Teaching Profession in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “The establishment of a four-year Bachelor of Education program at the University of Saskatchewan in 1946 was recognized as the STFs [Saskatchewan Teacher Federation] “baby”….However, …even then it was possible for individuals to enter teaching through a six-week “short normal course” offered by the department of education….The dozens of normal schools that operated around the province in the first half of the twentieth century were slowly consolidated into larger institutions that produced teachers on a provincial rather than a regional basis. In 1959 a major step towards consistency was taken when entrance requirements were standardized for the province’s normal schools and colleges of education…”unquote Page 150. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

The Glenbow Museum > Archives Photographs Search Results. Quote “Normal School students teacher’s residence, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Date: [ca. 1930]…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Education Building Campus Buildings University of Saskatchewan. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Education of Teachers. Edmonton Journal. July 19, 1961. Page 4. Quote  “Politicians who imagine they are meeting their responsibilities by filling classrooms with short-course trainees form one obstacle. Officials of departments of education, who follow the instructions of such political superiors without protest, form another. ” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Fall Normal Term opens on Sept. 3. Sessons will be held at three centres until June 5, 1931. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 7, 1930. Page 7. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Gidney, R.D. and W.P.J. Millar. How Schools Worked: Public Education in English Canada, 1900-1940
Volume 224 of Carleton Library Series.
Authors R.D. Gidney, W.P.J. Millar.
Publisher McGill-Queen’s Press – MQUP, 2012.
ISBN 0773587306, 9780773587304. Quote“In 1930, for example, at the Regina and Saskatoon normal schools, 30% of the students were of non-British origin, and at Moose Jaw normal school in 1929, the figure was 39%. By 1937 the principal of the Saskatoon normal School was reporting that 45% of the students were of non-English origin….Some returns from the Saskatoon normal schools during the interwar years, which reveal that a majority or near-majority came from farm families and many of the rest from small shopkeepers, skilled artisans’, and even labourers’ families. Take for example, the Saskatoon normal school in 193:0: 49% of its 383 students’ fathers were listed as farmers, 11% as “skilled mechanic”, 10% as “storekeepers”, 9.4% as “executive,” 6.5% as “unskilled labourer,” 5% as “professional,” and 6% as “deceased.”…Fifteen years later[1929] the principal of the Saskatoon normal school estimated that “over 40% of the teacher’s – in – training had no experience of rural schools.” He went on to point out, moreover, that of those who had attended rural schools, larger numbers had received only a part of their schooling in ungraded classrooms and at ages where the experience would leave few impressions. ” unquote Page 140, 141 Digitized online by Google Books 2012. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Graduation Staged At Normal School. Seeley Sees Indication of Sound Foundations of British Empire. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 3, 1939. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Hallman, D. Telling Tales in and out of school: Twentieth-century Women Teachers in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books.Quote “Rudimentary teacher training was first conducted in union schools and gradually became formalized in normal schools in Saskatoon, Regina, and Moose Jaw… An increasing demand for secondary school education facilitated the eventual establishment of the College of Education at the provincial university in 1928. The mandate of the college was to prepare its students for teaching in the high schools and collegiates, and to conduct research in education. The program of the college was open only to students who had undergraduate degrees. In 1946-47, the College of Education developed a four-year undergraduate program. However…the government insisted that intending elementary teachers take their first year of training at a normal school. …The names of the two remaining normal schools were changed in 1953 to teacher’s colleges, and “teacher training” became “teacher education.” Eleven years later both teacher’s colleges closed, and all teacher education moved to the University of Saskatchewan….Ina Jones Jorstad remembered her preparation at the normal school in Moose Jaw in 1930, as consisting of classes in “reading writing, literature, math, geography, health, home economics, physical education, psychology, drama the arts and…The Regina Normal School closed after World War II. It re-opened as Regina Teacher’s College in 1957, the same year the Moose Jaw Teacher’s College closed (from Campbell, Reflections of Light, 107-109; 151-2.”unquote Page 150. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Heide, Rachel Lea and Ross Herrington. British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. Quote No. 7 ITS [ Initial Training School had its living quarters and classrooms in the Saskatoon Normal School and Bedford Road Collegiate. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

History of Education, of Teacher Training and Teaching.
Educational History of Teacher Education and Training of Professional Teachers. Mirrored October 2009. Oocities. Date accessed May 26, 2013.

A concise Western history of education, educational reforms and training of qualified school teachers Philosophies, theories, systems-methods of teaching professional educators -social status of a teacher
History of Nutana Nutana Collegiate. Saskatoon Public School Division. Quote “In 1912, The Public School Board rented two basement rooms and the Normal School also rented a room, to be used for teacher training. In January 1913, Principal Mather wrote to the Collegiate Board that the entire school was needed for collegiate students. He reported that he had to convert the Reading Room into a classroom and one of the cloakrooms into a typing room. The four classrooms being used by the Normal School would be needed by September to accommodate an anticipated enrolment of 400 students. The Normal School was asked to vacate, but remained for another year because of difficulties in finding an alternate location.”unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Homeroom Timeline 1920s Edited by Patrick A. Dunae. Vancouver Island University VIU history department. April 3, 2011. Quote “The University of British Columbia establishes a Teachers; Training Course “for the purposes of giving professional training for students intending to become [secondary] school teachers.” Dr. George M. Weir, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, is appointed professor of education and director of the new pogramme.”unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Honeywood Heritage Nursery. Dr. A.J. (Bert) Porter. Quote “They homesteaded south and west of Parkside in the Honeywood school district. Bert, as he was known, attended public school in the Honeywood rural school house, high school in Moose Jaw and took a 6 week course in the first class of the new Saskatoon Normal School in 1919. He went back 3 years later for a 6 month course and graduated from Normal School in 1922” unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Horsman, Ken. Education The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. Quote The 1888 Ordinance that provided grants for Union high schools also permitted Union Schools to set up Normal departments for the training of teachers. The Moose Jaw Normal School opened in 1927.”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Howe, Constance Nina and Laurence Wayne Prochner editors. Early Childhood Care and Education in Canada. Edition illustrated.
Publisher UBC Press, 2000. ISBN 077484129X, 9780774841290. Quote “Saskatoon Normal School Founding Date 1912. In 1952, while the province still retained its normal schools, a four-year undergraduate program for elementary and secondary teachers was opened at the University of Saskatchewan. …Initially, normal school admission standards included a minimum age requirement (sometimes as young as fourteen, but generally sixteen years) and the successful passing of an entrance examination, rather than the completion of a particular level of prior schooling. A large proportion of the normal school curriculum was devoted to upgrading student knowledge in the subjects that they would be expected to teach, such as grammar, mathematics, geography and science.”unquote Page 69. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Education in Moral Values Stressed to Normal Students. School Board Adopts Policy on Classroom Collections. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 22, 1951. Page 3 and 6. Google News Archive. Principal G.R. Anderson. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Fall Sessions Normal School Are Announced. Courses Open in September for Training First, Second Class Teachers. The Leader-Post. April 22, 1933. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Ingles, Ernest Boyce. Bibliography of the Canadian Prairies to 1953.
G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series.
Editors Ernest Boyce Ingles, Bruce Peel, Norman Merrill Distad.
Contributors Ernest Boyce Ingles, Bruce Peel, Norman Merrill Distad.
Edition 3, illustrated, revised.
Publisher University of Toronto Press, 2003.
ISBN 0802048250, 9780802048257. Quote“Biography of Bruce Peel. Peel spent a year in 1936-1937 earning a teacher’s credential at the Normal School in Moose Jaw. This was a reliable choice to guarantee a career, or at least a job to fall back on in those hard times….Author index Asseltine, Robert Whiting 1870-1953 Teacher in Ontario; to Saskatchewan, 1911; inspector of schools at Rosetown; on staff of Saskatoon Normal School, 1918-1927; principal of Moose Jaw Normal School 1929-1930; principal of Saskatoon Normal School, 1930-1934. Saskatoon Star Phoenix March 24, 1953. The Story of Lodge Progress No. 92 5663. ” unquote page xxv. Digitized online by Google Books 2012. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Initial Training School is Opened Officially Today. First Student Group Marches from Quarters in Normal School to Classes at Bedford Road Collegiate. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 8, 1941. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 4 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… The Normal School on Avenue A (now known as Idylwyld Drive) in Saskatoon opened in 1912 and a third opened in Moose Jaw in 1929. By 19646, student teachers were learning their profession at university.) ” unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 61 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… Exterior Rear Saskatoon Normal School; Temporary Certificate; ” unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 18 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… Junior Literary Executive Saskatoon Normal School; Second Class students and staff, Saskatoon Normal School; Graduating Class, Saskatoon Normal School ” unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 48 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… Copy of blueprint showing front elevation of Saskatoon Normal School at 1030 Idylwyld Drive North. Designed by provincial architect Maurice W. Sharon, building was officially opened in March 1922. Blueprint circa 1920. ” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher:73 records Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote” Normal School location of Initial Training School No. 7. …British Commonwealth Air Training Plan operated two schools in Saskatoon during World War II. #7 was housed in the Normal School on Avenue A…#7 I.T.S. operated from December 30, 1941 to June 30, 1944… ” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Interesting Exhibits of Work Displayed by Normal School Pupils. Teachers of West Saskatoon Inspectorate in Convention; Many constructive addresses by members of staff. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 15, 1933. Google News Archive. May 15, 1933. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Interim Report of the Superannuation Committee, Normal School, Saskatoon, April 4 1919, (microform) Normal School (Saskatoon, Sask) Superannuation Committee: Free Download and Streaming: Internet Archive Date accessed May 15, 2013.

JMU – What’s a Normal School? Quote ” …What’s a Normal School?
…it means normal in the sense of setting an excellent model – or “norm” – for other schools. ‘Normal Schools derive their name from the French phrase ecole normale. These teacher-training institutions, the first of which was established in France by the Brothers of the Christian Schools in 1685, were intended to set a pattern, establish a “norm” after which all other schools would be modeled.’ …”unquote
James Madison University. May 24, 2011. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Kelly, Brendan. A City Reborn: Patriotism in Saskatoon During the Second World War. University of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon. April 2008. Quote ” …W C. P. Seeley,
the principal of the Normal School in Saskatoon, … Speaking to a large crowd at the Vimy Memorial in Kiwanis Park in May 1941…”unquote
Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Kerr, Don. University of Saskatchewan Archives. Building the University of Saskatchewan. The Beginnings. 1998. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Kerr, Don and Stan Hanson. Saskatoon: The First Half-Century. NeWest Publishers Ltd. Edmonton, Alberta. ISBN 0-920316-35-2 (bound), ISBN 0-920316-37-9 (pbk.) Pages 231, 241-2, 244, 246. 1982.

King Edward School closure to be studied further. The Phoenix. March 14, 1979. Page 5. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Last course for teachers. Normal School in Regina to close. The Leader-Post. September 1, 1944. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Latta Replies to Critics on Schools Policy. And Dr. C.E. Tran, Progressive Leader, Admits He Can’t Find Fault with Curricula. The Morning Leader. January 15, 1926. Page 33. Second Section. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Life Member 2013.
Lucienne Déschaine. Quote ” …She went to Normal School in Saskatoon in 1943. Classes began in early July. School board trustees began recruiting prospective teachers by the end of July and throughout August….The Saskatoon East Unit was looking for teachers to supervise Normal School students. She applied and was assigned to Blackstrap School, a rural school in Dundurn. The job was quite demanding. Three groups of two student teachers arrived in the fall and again in the spring. The students were expected to observe in the fall and to do some planning as well as teaching in the spring. “unquote James Madison University. May 24, 2011. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Permanently Settled in Saskatoon. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 9, 1959. Page 12. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

The light Saskatoon Normal School, The light (Peel 10193 Provincial Normal School (Saskatoon, Sask.). Provincial Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask.: 1931-1932. [Saskatoon: Provincial Normal School, 1932]. Complete yearbook online. Physical description: 24 p. : ill., ports. ; 27 cm. Language: English On cover: “Souvenir.” Content is similar to a conventional yearbook, but seems likely to have been issued as a separate commemorative item. The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light, [Saskatoon]: [Saskatoon Normal School], [19–?]- – is described separately in the bibliography. 2003-2009 | University of Alberta. Date e 15, 2013.

Local Normal School. Several Desire It – Other Applications Should be Sent in Now. The Daily Phoenix. August 20, 1909. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Look Over Public School Property. Education Heads Here in Regard to Proposed Transfer of Normal School. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 23, 1941. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Lord, Alexander Russell. Alex Lord’s British Columbia: Recollections of a Rural School Inspector, 1915-1936.
Pacific Maritime Studies Series / University of British Columbia.
Recollections of the pioneers of British Columbia.
Volume 9 of The Pioneers of British Columbia, ISSN 0847-0537.
Editor Calam, John.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher UBC Press, 1991.
ISBN 0774803851, 9780774803854. Page 8. Digitized online by Google Books. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Lyons, J. The Saskatchewan Way: Henry James and Curriculum Reform in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “The province [was kept] in a state of teacher shortage until the mid-1970s. Because the government continued to issue temporary certificates to applicants who had completed one year of normal school, many high school graduates saw the profession as a convenient short term job prior to marriage or another career. In 1947, for example, 1,264 students were enrolled in normal school, but there were only 5,869 students in grade twelve…Although the provinces’ Normal Schools in Regina, Saskatchewan and Moose Jaw had been renamed Teachers’ Colleges, they had remained under Department of Education jurisdiction. In 1964 all teacher education was consolidated at the University of Saskatchewan campuses in Regina and Saskatoon…”unquote Page 56 and 60. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Manzer, Ronald A. Educational regimes and Anglo-American democracy.
Volume 18 of G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series.
Volume 18 of Studies in comparative political economy and public policy, ISSN 1714-9339.
Edition 2, illustrated.
Publisher University of Toronto Press, 2003.
ISBN 0802087809, 9780802087805. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “George Weir, minister of education in British Columbia from 1933 to 1941 and again from 1945 to 1947, had been principal of Saskatoon Normal School, director of teacher training at University of British Columbia, and joint director of teacher training at University of British Columbia, and joint author with J.H. Putman of the seminal survey of British Columbia education in 1925.”Unquote Page 97, 221, 426 Date accessed May 15, 2013.

March, Ann. Webster, David (1885–1952). The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. QuoteBorn in 1885, David Webster was one of Saskatoon’s first architects… Post-war projects included the …. Saskatchewan Normal School, “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal Schools – ca. 1900-1947 – Saskatoon Normal School Photograph SAIN Photographs. Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Date  May 15, 2013.

Maurice W. Sharon Family, 1875- SAIN Collections. Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Quote Sharon remained in private practice until 1916, when he was appointed Provincial Architect with the Department of Public Works. Sharon prepared plans and specifications and supervised the construction of many of Saskatchewan’s public buildings, including the Provincial Normal School in Saskatoon. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

McCarthy alarmed over teacher shortage. Regina School should be used. The Leader Post. February 14, 1951. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Miss Wynona Mulcaster Appointed Art Teacher at Normal School here. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. April 7, 1945. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

M.L.A.’s discuss teacher problem. Normal School Discussed Again. The Leader-Post February 22, 1951. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

More than One New District per day formed. Thirty Two school Districts were Erected in Saskatchewan During March. The Morning Leader. April 7, 1914. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Must Raise Standards of Service. Seeley Gives Address on Citizenship to United Club Group. Over 400 present. Essential Canada Control Problems of Economics, Creed and Race. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 2, 1937. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Next Normal School to be in Saskatoon. Premier Scott States this as his personal opinion. The Saskatoon Phoenix. May 3, 1913. Google News Archives Search. Quote” “At Regina, where a normal school has been conducted for ages, there is no building yet; but one is now being erected. …My impression is that the next normal school will be in Saskatoon. That is a certainty,” said Hon. Walter Scott, premier of Saskatchewan. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

New Normal School Staffs Are Announced. Many Changes in Personnel Necessitated by Establishment of School at Moose Jaw. The Morning Leader September 24, 1927. Page 17. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Accommodation. The Morning Leader. September 12, 1927. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Normal Students Hold Interesting Debate on Friday. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 7, 1931. Page 8. Google News Archive. Names of debating club are recorded. Date access May 20, 2013.

Normal Schools – ca. 1900-1947 – Saskatoon Normal School Photograph SAIN Photographs. Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal School Results. The Morning Leader. July 5, 1920. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Site The Saskatoon Phoenix. April 5, 1919. Google News Archive. Page 6. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask. 5 December 1950 postcard photograph circa194os- Wish You Were Here Saskatchewan Postcard Collections University of Saskatchewan Archives. 2010. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal School Appointments are Announced. Principal at Saskatoon Will Be Replaced by Public Schools superintendent. The Morning Leader. September 12, 1927. Page 10. Google News Archive Search. Quote Dr. J.S. Huff, principal of Saskatoon Normal School, has been appointed principal of the new Normal School at Moose Jaw….Dr. J.A. Snell, superintendent of public schools at Saskatoon, has been appointed to succeed Dr. Huff as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School…In 1915 he became principal of the Regina Normal School…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Enrolment 500. The Leader Post. October 19, 1948. Google News Archive. Page 2. Date accessed May 24, 2013.

Normal School Here Jan. 5 to be Largely Attended. Sessions Open to Teachers who have completed Third Year Course in Normal. The Morning Leader. December 26, 1919. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Planning Another Short Session. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 18, 1929. Page 3. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Results. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. July 19, 1932. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Session Begins January 3rd. The Saskatoon Star-PHoenix. November 30, 1916. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Session Dates Are Announced. The Second Normal School Sessions for First, Second, and Third Class will commence Jan. 6 The Saskatoon Phoenix. October 25, 1919. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Sessions Open September First. Bona Fide Saskatchewan Residents and University Graduates Only Accepted. Training will be Given in Saskatoon, Regina. The Morning Leader. June 19, 1926. Page 17. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Staff and Students Hold Memorial Service for the King. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. January 21, 1936. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Staff to Hold Meetings. Schedule Drawn up Starting May 15 at Rosetown for Teachers in Rural Districts. The Saskatoon Phoenix. May 2, 1913. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School, Saskatoon Sask. circa 1922-1932 Postcard. – Wish You Were Here Saskatchewan Postcard Collections University of Saskatchewan Archives. 2010. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal School Work Extending. Training for First Class Certificates to be Given – Advantage of Having University Here. The Saskatoon Phoenix. December 18, 1912. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal Students Choose Officers. Seventeen Nominated Friday for Four Vacancies on Assembly Executive. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. January 12, 1935. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Normal Students Plan Activities. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 6. September 12, 1939. Quote “The 355 young men and women registered at the Saskatoon Normal School heard the constitution read and the nature of activities outlined at the first meeting of the Students Assembly Friday after noon in the auditorium…”unquote Google News Archives.

O’Brien, Jeff; Ruth W. Millar and William P. Delaney. Saskatoon: A History of Photographs
Edition illustrated.
Publisher Coteau Books, 2007.
ISBN 1550503669, 9781550503661. Page 72. Digitized online by Google Books 2012. Quote “A second BCATP (British Commonwealth Air Training Plan facility ` the NO. 7 Initial Training School – opened in 1941 next to the Normal School on Avenue A on the site of the present Kelsey Campus of SIAST. …New hangars and barracks were built at the airport and next to the Normal School to accommodate the BCATP trainees. …With university residences overflowing, the barracks of the former BCATP schools at the airport and by the Normal School on AVenue A accommodated the expanded student population….the Normal School (now the A.E. Davies Centre) on Avenue A…”unquote Pages 50, 72, 74 Date accessed May 15, 2013.

One New School District a Day. That was Record  That was Record of education Department For September”. The Morning Leader. October 2, 1913. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Only Yesterday. Thirty Years Ago (1935) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 15. Google News Archive.
Quote “C.P. Seeley, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, said probably 25 percent of those students wishing to enter the teaching profession were not fitted to the job and would be well advised to seek some other line of work….”unquote
Date accessed May 20, 2013.

In Ontario…Friends of Dr. G.R. Anderson and Mrs. Anderson will be interested to know that they have taken up residence in Madoc, Ontario. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 14, 1954. Page 8. Google News Archive. Quote “ADr. Anderson was principal of Saskatoon Teacher’s College until his retirement in June, and Mrs. Anderson was active in women’s organizations..”unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Opening of Normal School Suggested. February 24, 1951. Page 7. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Outstanding educational facilities abound in Saskatoon. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 43. May 19, 1966. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Phillips, John M> Saskatoon Hub City of the West. First Edition. Windsor Publications (Canada) Ltd. Canada. Page 37, 47, 66. 1983.

Postcard 2891: Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd, Souvenir Saskatoon, Sask., Canada (c1939) Specifically: PC002891.6. Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd (Publisher) . Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask.. Montreal: Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd. Montreal, c1939. PC002891: “Souvenir Saskatoon, Sask., Canada” is licensed by University of Alberta Libraries under the Attribution – Non-Commercial – Creative Commons license. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/permissions/postcards.html. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Provincial Normal School, Saskatoon Staff, and exterior views of the Saskatoon Normal School 1030 Avenue A North (now Idylwyld Drive) constructed between 1920-1922 by A.W. Cassidy, contractor. Normal School used to train military personnel, cadets and officers in flight courses for the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II, during this time Governor- general Viscount Alexander of Tunis and his wife, Lady Margaret Alexander visited the Normal School at the time when Mayor Angus Macpherson was installed for the city of Saskatoon. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Saskatoon Library. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Provincial Normal School Examination Results Announced. Regina, Saskatoon, and Moose Jaw Students to Get Interim Certificates. The Leader-Post. July 13, 1934. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

R.R.
Knight Gives Advice to Normal School students.
Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 5. November 22, 1947. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Regina Normal School Will Be Closed Soon. September 1, 1944. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Russell, E.T. Pete. The history of North Park : circuses, railways and the vanishing prairie. Saskatoon : Modern Press, [c1975].

Saskatchewan Settlement Experience. Saskatchewan Archives Board 2005. Quote “The Yorkton and Regina Normal Schools were the precursors to the Colleges of Education that were eventually established at the Universities. With such a high demand for teachers, the Normal Schools were used to give a basic amount of training in the shortest time possible before the teachers were dispersed to the many rural areas of the province…..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

St. Mary’s Community School | The Heritage Canada Foundation. 2012. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

St. Thomas Wesley United Church – Our History 2010. St. Thomas Wesley United Church. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatchewan Teachers’ College Gave Last of 20,588 Certificates. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 20, 1964. Page 13. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatoon Briefs. The Leader-Post. September 21, 1932. Page 6. Quote“Students of Saskatoon Normal School to the number of 285 Monday studied agriculture at the University of Saskatchewan…” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Saskatoon has builded wisely. Metroplis of Central Saskatchewan Contains Modern Structures of Every Type- In Architectural design and Finish they will compare very favorably with the older cities in Canada – is a city of homes. The Saskatoon Phoenix. December 4, 1913. Page 18. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatoon Panel “Takes a Look at our High Schools.” Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 24, 1955. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatoon school to use TV aid to teacher training. The Financial Post. April 11, 1964. Page 53. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Sass, Sean editor. Community. Buena Vista School History. Quote“The School is Opened: 1913 – 1914. The cornerstone was laid by school board secretary W.P. Bate on June 9, 1913. The cornerstone contains copies of the two daily newspapers of the time, the Daily Star and the Phoenix, as well as photographs of the city. Six rooms opened in the school on April 1, 1914 and six more rooms opened in September of that year. Four of the rooms were rented to the Normal School, the teacher’s college….” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Scharf, M.P. An Historical Overview of the Organization of Education in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “The selection of textbooks, enforcement of regulations, school attendance, teacher certification, normal schools, teacher institutes, examinations, inspection of schools, and curriculum, however were matters left under the authority of the Council of Public Instruction. In 1901 the Council of Public Instruction was abolished and the Department of Education was established with responsibility with the control and management of all kindergarten schools, public and separate schools, normal schools, teachers’ institutes, and the educations of the deaf and blind persons….”unquote Page 5. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

School Enrolment For January Biggest Yet in History of Regina. During Past Month 6,616 Pupils were enrolled, an increase over January 1927, of 323 students. The Morning Leader. February 14, 1928. Page 24. Date accessed May 24, 2013.

School Enrolment for Saskatchewan Increases Rapidly. Elementary Schools Show Greatest Growth, Education Report Shows. The Morning Leader. February 17, 1930. Page 3. Google News Archive.

School Inspectors Holding Convention Saskatoon, Easter. The Leader. February 18, 1918. Page 8. Google News Archive. Quote “The following topics will be discussed at the convention:
Languages in the Public School, Inspector Anderson;

Placing all Schools Under the Regulations of the Educational Department as to the Course of Study, Teachers and Inspection, Inspector Cram;

Public School Course of Study, Inspector Marshall;

Importance of Games on the Playground, round table discussion;

Water Supply for School, Inspector J.G. McKechnie;

Schools Plans, inspector Asselstine;

Regulations Governing Noon Hour and Noon Lunch in Schools, inspector Hawkins;

Placing Teachers on a Civil Service Basis, Inspector Hjalmarson;

The Training, Crediting and Certification of Teachers, Inspector J. Arch, McLeod, Dr. J.A. Snell.
…”unquote Page 5. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Scholarship Winners at Teachers College. (image) Saskatoon Star Phoenix. June 12, 1958. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Student Teachers Get Scholarships. (image) Teachers Meeting Here on June 25. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 14, 1956. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

School Inspectors Holding Convention Saskatoon, Easter. The Leader. The Morning Leader. February 18, 1918. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Secondary Sources about U of S History:: University of Saskatchewan Archives. Selected Bibliography. Affiliated Institutions. QuoteCampbell, Eleanor. Reflections of Light: A History of The Saskatoon Normal School (1912-1953) and The Saskatoon Teachers’ College (1953-1964). Saskatoon: College of Education, University of Saskatchewan, 1996.”unquote University of Saskatchewan Archives. 07-Apr-2013 Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Social and Personal. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 7, 1946. Page 8. Google News Archives. Quote“Ferns and flowers decorated the Saskatoon Normal School auditorium Friday evening when students gathered for their second large social of the year.”unquote Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1905. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 11. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1912. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 19. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1916-1917. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 74. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1919. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 128. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. QuoteIn general there are two fundamental systems of education throughout Canada, one that of the Protestant communities, free from the control of religious bodies, and the other that of the Roman Catholic French and Irish communities in which education is united with the religious teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.”unquote Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1931. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 124. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1941. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 48, 879 Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1951. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 112, 121, and 122. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1961. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 340. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Steffenhagen, Janet. Enrolment, tax benefits seen if King Edward School closes. The Phoenix. March 18, 1978. Page 61. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Student Teacher Executive (image) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 21, 1964. Page 22. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

STF Day – Saskatoon Teachers’ College 1962-63 – Audience – SAIN Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Study Curriculum At Sessions Here. School Superintendents and Normal School TEachers Attend Conference. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 27, 1941. Google News Archive. Page 3. Date Accessed May 20, 2013.

Success after much opposition. The Saskatoon Star Phoenix. April 12, 1928. Page 11. Google News Archives. Page 11. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Successful Students in Normal School “Exams” for Third Class Licenses. The Morning Leader. February 11, 1926. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Tenders Being Called for New Normal School. Cost of the Building Estimated at about $500,000 – A Magnificent Site. Will Overlook Saskatoon City from West Side at Top of Avenue A. The Morning Leader. June 7, 1920. Page 17. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Teachers Affect Eternity Anderson Tells Graduates. Not Merely Livelihoods. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 20, 1946. Page 3 and 5. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Teachers college ceremony Monday. The Leader-Post. January 27, 1960. Page 12. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Teacher’s College Graduates. “You are handling Most Precious Commodity” Douglas tells Teachers College Graduates. Saskatoon Star Phoenix. June 12, 1959. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Teachers college renamed. The Phoenix. February 11, 1986. Page 34. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Teachers Graduate Next Week. Largest Class Ever. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 3, 1960. Page 19. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Tests to Weed Out Teachers. Twenty Five Percent Starting Normal Courses Unfitted, Says Principal. The Leader-Post. August 7, 1935. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Third Avenue United Church
History of Third Avenue United Church. Dec 16, 2012. Quote “Over the years many graduates of the University of Saskatchewan, the Normal School, and City Hospital nurses’ training program convocated here.”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

To Change School Boundaries [reference North Park and Wilson Schools] Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 25, 1954. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Third Class Normal School Session Opens Jan. 3 The Saskatoon Phoenix. November 20, 1916. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

University of Saskatchewan Archives – Building the University of Saskatchewan.  Campus Buildings. Qu’Appelle Hall. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Vintage Saskatoon Quote Cone Patricia. “We called it “the Teacher’s College”. It became officially “The Avenue A Campus of the U. of S.” sometime before the Education Building was built and opened. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

University Registrations Rush Expected on Monday. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. September 12, 1964. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Varsity View History – Varisty View Yesterday and Today draft City of Saskatoon, Community Services, Planning Department, Neighborhood Planning, Varsity View. September 30, 2011. Quote Cone Patricia. ” 1110 Elliot Street: Teacher’s Hostel. The teacher’s hostel located at 1110 Elliot Street was built prior to 1913 by Thomas E. Farley and designed by Thomson and Crockart. The structure was built near the university to house young female teachers who were from out of town and were attending Normal School. When the Normal School opened a
new building on Avenue A (now Idylwyld Drive), the residents of the hostel were relocated to be closer to the school. From 1925 to the mid 1970’s, 1110 Elliot Street
served as a lodge for the staff of Emmanuel College and the hostel was renamed the Emmanuel Annex. Today, the house is a private residential dwelling and an integral part of Saskatoon’s history” unquote
Date accessed May 16, 2013.

WDM Prairie Gamble – Family History Album – WHEATON family. 2001-2013 Western Development Museum. Quote “The Wheaton Electric did the electrical work ni many buildings including the Saskatoon Normal School 1924…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

WDM Prairie Gamble – Family History Album – MARTIN, John Russell and Janet Mabel (Wilson). 2001-2013 Western Development Museum. Quote “During the Second World War many teachers had enlisted for active war duty, which resulted in an acute shortage of qualified teachers. To alleviate this shortage, short courses at the provincial normal schools were organized, sometimes just six weeks in length. For some “study supervisors”, as the graduates were called, this became their only training…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

WDM Prairie Gamble – Family History Album – PODILUK, Walter, Family. 2001-2013 Western Development Museum. Quote “In September 1945, I enrolled in the Saskatoon Normal School to commence my training to become a teacher. The Normal School academic year extended from September to June inclusive, which resulted in one gaining an Interim Standard Teaching Certificate. However, partly due to the drainage of young people into the armed forces there was a pronounced shortage of teachers in rural schools. As a result some students were selected to go teaching in January 1946 to fill vacancies, which existed in rural schools. Those that left in January could come back in July and August and complete their program for their Interim Certificate. ..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

When Saskatoon Was Younger. From the Files of the Phoenix and the Star. Twenty Years Ago. February 24, 1919. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 24, 1939. Google News Archive. Quote “G.M. Weir, Principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, said the location of the new normal school would be decided in a few days.~ ..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

When Saskatoon Was Younger. From the Files of the Phoenix and the Star. Twenty Years Ago. August 16, 1924. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 16, 1944 Google News Archive. Quote “August 15, 1925 Work was progressing on the new Teacher’s hostel on Avenue A. near the Saskatoon Normal School.~ ..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Work on Display at Normal School. Extension Service in Evidence; Teachers Addressed by Dr. Anderson. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 12, 1933. Google News Archive Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Walter Murray; The Lengthened Shadow. Applications and Appointments – J.A. Snell Correspondence relating to Joseph A. Snell of Macdonald College, Quebec, seeking employment at the University. In 1914 Snell was appointed Lecturer on Education. University of Saskatchewan. 2011. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Weir Leaves Trustee Body. Former Saskatonian Directs Rehabilitation Group of Federal Department. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 3, 1942. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 20, 2013.

What Makes Saskatoon Grow? Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. September 28, 1946. Page 13. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Wilson School Grounds Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 29, 1931. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 20 2013.

Women’s Page. Some Progress in Education.  Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 28, 1949.  Page 9. Quote“Dr. G.R. Anderson, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School gave a most interesting address…under the title, “What Progress Education in Our Society?” He traced briefly how great incidents and great thinkers had gradually moulded a line of thought in education….” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Worden, Dan. An Apple for the Teacher (William Holliston) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. April 8, 1950. Page 17. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Article ~ History of the Saskatoon Normal School. written by Julia Adamson

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Bibliography

Mirror Webpage on Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project

Additional Reading:

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Saskatchewan Roman Catholic Churches ~ Online Parish Registers ~ History

4 Jan
Blossom by Blossom the spring begins Easter Crocus- Saskatchewan Roman Catholic Church ONline  Parish Register History

Saskatchewan Roman Catholic Churches ~ Online Parish Registers ~ History

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints has recently released online Saskatchewan Catholic Church Records which include baptisms, confirmations, marriages, burials, and other records between 1846-1957. The following account is a brief history of the Roman Catholic churches, parishes, missions and their congregations in the localities which have released their pioneering church registers.

  • If priests could be formed, afire with zeal for men’s salvation, solidly grounded in virtue – in a word, apostolic men deeply conscious of the need to reform themselves, who would labor with all the resources at their command to convert others – then there would be ample reason to believe that in a short while people who had gone astray might be brought back to the long neglected duties of religion. We pledge ourselves to all the works of zeal that priestly charity can inspire… We must spare no effort to extend the Savior’s Empire and destroy the dominion of hell.– Saint Eugene de Mazenod (August 1, 1782 – May 21, 1861) founded the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate.

The Red River Settlement was the first western community establishing Christian missions and churches in western Canada (known as Rupert’s Land between May 6, 1670 and July 15, 1870). Two Roman Catholic priests, Father Joseph-Norbert Provencher (1787-1853) and Father Sévère-Joseph-Nicolas Dumoulin (1793-1853), arrived in 1818 at Red River and undertook missionary training. It wasn’t until 1840 that the Roman Catholic Church began expanding westward across the prairies to Fort Pitt, Fort Edmonton and to other Hudson Bay Company Forts in the plains under early missionary priests such as Father Jean-Baptiste Thibault (1810-1879) and Father Jean-Édouard Darveau (1816-1844).

Three main factors served the expansion of the Roman Catholic church. The “persons who eagerly left France to seek hardship of life in Canada were zealous priests and nuns who came to convert the Indians to Christianity.”~ Dorland p49 The French government was eager for an expansion of the fur trade, and the conversion and friendship of the Indians was deemed necessary. Father Le Caron began missionary work in Quebec as early as 1615. In 1818, a permanent mission arose in the Red River Settlement under Father Provencher. The Cathedral of St. Boniface was erected in 1844 by Bishop Provencher to serve the Apostolic Vicariate of North-West (established from the Archdiocese of Québec). From here, missionaries began traveling west, and Fathers Lafleche and Taché established the mission at Île-à-la-Crosse, Rupert’s Land in 1846 as a base for the Northern posts. The Diocese of St. Boniface was created in 1847 serving all of the northwestern areas of Canada. The pioneering works of early missionaries in Canada was published overseas, and these “Relations” were widely read, encouraging others in the church to serve as missionaries.

1867 marks the year when Canada formed as a nation, referred to as the Canadian confederation year. On March 20, 1869, Rupert’s Land was sold by The Hudson’s Bay Company to Canada. This great expanse of land became known as the North West Territories (NWT) (les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO). By 1871, the Suffragan Sees of St. Boniface, St. Albert and British Columbia were formed.

The Dominion Lands Act of 1872 made homesteads available for a $10 filing fee. On December 16, 1878, Patrick Gammie Laurie of the Saskatchewan Herald the North West Territories first newspaper, wrote, “Within the last five years…the buffalo-hunter is rapidly giving way to the farmer, and the Indian trader to the merchant.”~Hardy pp300 In 1882 the NWT was divided into districts ~ Assiniboia, Alberta, Keewatin, Athabaska and Saskatchewan. In the late 1800s, L’abbé Jean Gaire, l’abbé Louis Pierre-Gravel, and l’abbé Moise Blais all had designation of “missionnaire-colonisateur” for the Diocese of Saint-Boniface, recruiting, colonizing and acting as land agents as well as missionaries for the diocese and its several missions. In 1890, the Vicariate-Apostolic body of the Saskatchewan was created The railway reached Regina in 1883, both Saskatoon, Yorkton, and Prince Albert in 1890 and Willow Bunch in 1926. Along the iron tracks, frontier towns, villages and communities were springing up.

John Archer, summarizes the second factor, as, “The church contributed to the spiritual and educational life of pioneer communities, bringing hope, comfort and social contacts to the lonely and frequently disheartened homesteading families”~Archer 78. By the end of the 1800s church work shifted from mission work with the First Nations to also establishing parishes in the early pioneer agricultural communities. European Catholics joined the French Catholic immigrants, soon priests were not only trained in English and First Nation languages, but also learned the language of their community. The work of the sisters creating convents, hospitals, and schools complemented the spiritual services of the Roman Catholic church. Religious bloc settlements even immigrated with their missionary priest such as the German Catholic settlers in St. Peter’s, St. Joseph’s (Josephtal) and St. Joseph’s Colonies. Early settlements would remain faithful, with services held in pioneer homes, tents, school houses, hotel dining rooms, railway stations or even barn haylofts until the congregation constructed a church.

Western Canada began with mission churches serving ethnic bloc communities. “The Catholics had missions for the Métis at St. Laurent near Fort Carlton, and at St. Labert, Lac la Biche and Lac St. Anne.” ~Hardy p300 Wauchope, Bellegarde, Wolseley, Lebret, Willow Bunch and Montmartre were all listed as French centres in the Archdiocese of Regina. Whereas, Balgonie, Mariahilf (Grayson), Regina, Holdfast and Claybank served German congregations. Cedoux, Candiac and Ituna were predominantly Polish Roman Catholic parishioners. Moose Jaw, Weyburn, Swift Current were diverse Roman Catholic churches listed in the Archdiocese of Regina.

The third factor which affected the expansion of the Roman Catholic church in Canada occured when the government in France passed the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State (Loi du 9 décembre 1905 concernant la séparation des Églises et de l’État) caused an upheaval. No longer could religion be taught in public schools funded by the government of France. “As the clergy,” in France, “were in the main monarchist in their political sympathies this was a reason for fearing their influence on the educational system” said Alfred Cobban, Professor of French history. The teaching brothers and sisters were driven away by the government in France. The newspaper “La Croix” advertised teaching opportunities and freedoms of religion in Canada. Missionaries were needed by the Roman Catholic church in Western Canada for the rapidly growing population and villages which sprung up like wild fires along the rails. It was on September 1, of this same year, 1905, that the province of Saskatchewan formed from lands taken from the Districts of Athabaska, Assiniboia, and Saskatchewan North West Territories.

The early priest was often a homesteading farmer as well as postmaster, and school teacher. Appointments in the country side were met with long drives, and the missionary fathers “went their rounds by horse and buggy, on horseback, and sometimes on foot.” ~ MacDonald p.3 Priests would hitch a stoneboat to a team of horses to maneuver the winter snow drifts. “Sparsity of settlement meant long treks to church for many people and lengthy trips for the clergy when visiting parishioners.” ~ MacDonald p.69 At permanently established mission sites, the missionary now constructed chapel, home, established a garden and put in a crop for homestead duties.

  • In all matters one must act as if success depended on our skill and to put in God all our confidence as if all our efforts could produce nothing. ~(Saint Eugene de Mazenod founded the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. )

Index

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Related posts:

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

Where were Saskatchewan Homesteads Located?

How do I locate my ancstor’s home town in Saskatchewan?
Have you ever visited your ancestral home?

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Thank you for stopping by, your comments are much appreciated. All rights reserved. Copyright © Aum Kleem. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed throgh Getty images. Peace and love be with you. Namaste.

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Table of Contents Church Parish Localities

Cemetery Preservation: Preserving Landscapes of Memories

20 Dec

Graceful Delight

Cemetery Preservation: Preserving Landscapes of Memories

This is part 1 of a 7 part series

Cemeteries are revered as consecrated, sacred places in the community, a place of value to the residents in the community. The Saskatchewan Genealogy Society has launched the SCCMP “The Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program”. The program guidelines, and application information are available online. Through this project, the SCCMP provides matching grants as assistance to restore, and care for cemeteries which are in need of assistance.

As a first step of assistance, please ensure that all cemeteries are registered with the Saskatchewan Cemeteries Registry as per The Cemeteries Act of 1999. The Saskatchewan Genealogy Society has placed a Saskatchewan Cemetery Index online which records the designated Rural

Municipality for the area. All cemeteries need to be registered to protect burial sites in order to maintain and preserved these unmarked sites. Contact the Municipality Clerk in the Rural Municipality office.

As genealogists, archaeologists and historians are aware, cemeteries and their tombstone markers face many hazards, from weathering, commercial expansion, neglect and abandonment. Cemeteries in jeopardy benefit greatly from record creation. Multiple agencies across the province of Saskatchewan are transcribing, video taping and photographing over 3,430 cemeteries. Additionally cemetery indexes area available through Amicus at the Library and Archives Canada. However, the Registrar of Cemeteries has 406 cemetery plans 12% of recorded cemeteries, and the Land Titles Registry notes 700 cemetery land locations, 20% of known cemeteries. In many cases the rural municipality office will have cemetery plot records, however old cemeteries or older cemetery sections may have no known plot records available.

“The common conception that the cemetery holds the memory of all who died and were buried before us is a false one,” writes Meredith G. Watkins. Cemeteries have undertaken Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to ascertain the completeness of their cemetery internment records. The town of Langham, for instance, undertook such a venture to identify burial sites which would correlate with existing cemetery plot records. Such GPR surveys also prevent disarticulation in an inactive cemetery or where cemetery plot records were lost due to office fire or calamity. The resulting cemetery sketches and survey maps are invaluable tools showing all landscape features, height and age of vegetation, terrain type, contour, slopes as well as all burial sites.

Note: This program (Saskatchewan Genealogy Society ~ Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program SCCMP ) has been discontinued, however it ws intriguing, so the information is left here in this blog online

Additional Resources:

Links

Canada Gen Web Saskatchewan Cemeteries Project

Network Canadian Cemetery Management September 2010 Vol 24 No 10

Saskatchewan Gen Web Cemetery Resources and Organisations

Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Cemetery Index

Saskatchewan Historic Cemetery Manual

 SCCMP “The Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program”

Books

Victorian cemetery art by Edmund Vincent Gillon

Bibliography:

Links to sources are embedded in text above.

Additionally:

Redfield, Robert, Ralph Linton and Melville J. Herkovits

1936 Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation. American Anthropologist 38(1):149-
152.

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Cemeteries, the silent historian

20 Dec

Graceful Delight

Cemeteries, the silent historian

This is part 2 of a 7 part series

Cemeteries do indeed, silently document the past local histories and biographies. As William Dollarhide, notes, genealogists do make ancestral discoveries at cemeteries, and are not “obsessed with death, burials, or other ghoulish activities.” It is from the cemetery records or tombstone inscriptions that an ancestor can be located with certainty, unless there are no records, no tombstone erected or if the cemetery is unkempt. In Saskatchewan, it is invaluable to learn legal land nomenclature, the township, range and meridian survey system, to augment Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and view historical placenames in the vicinity of the cemetery. These placenames lead to compiled family histories published mainly for the 75th anniversary of the province (1980), however some books went to print in 1955 (50th provincial birthday) and others in 2005 (the 100th anniversary). These local history, family biography books contain a variety of records, cemetery history and occasionally the cemetery transcription as well. The imperative of keeping proper citations, digital records, differentiating between primary source and secondary source records is noted the book Evidence! Citation & Analysis for the Family Historian written by Elizabeth Shown Mills for genealogists.

Locating homestead locations will help to ascertain the locale, city or rural municipality. Then the cemetery, funeral home, newspaper used for an obituary and death certificate fall into place. However cemetery and probate records may fall short if the ancestor decided upon cremation or drawing up a personal will. Sharon Debartolo Carmack  delves into additional records of death such as “autopsy and coroners’ records, death certificates, obituaries, death notices, wills and probate, prayer and memorial cards and funeral home records, and mortality schedules.”

The practice of erecting a grave marker made of wood in the shape of a cross was erected to commemorate a grave site may have succumbed to one of the numerous prairie fires which historically ravaged the prairie grasslands in blazing sweeps hundreds of miles across. The lack of stone or permanent grave markers, erosion, surface land cultivation, landscaping, prairie fires, exodus of local families and the subsequent deterioration of community and services contribute to the neglect of a grave site, the location unknown to future generations. As John P. Nickel notes, “in the early days when there were no cemeteries, many burials were done in school yards, gardens or fields.” ” “When people died, they would essentially bury them there, wherever it happened, everywhere. There were no cemeteries,” said Germann in a CBC news report, “With settlement and erosion, these things get exposed.”

“Ever wonder what happens when a church closes, members move away, and a cemetery is left uncared for?” asks the Heritage Cemeteries Project. Unmarked cemeteries are particularly hard to find, and derelict abandoned cemeteries quite often have no burial register, cemetery plot map, death certificates, grave markers or other markers such as the case for Efremovka and Spasovoka Doukhovor Cemeteries. “In some cases, a burial spot may be an abandoned cemetery,” reports Colorado Cemeteries, “when the owners of the property have left the area, and the property is no longer the responsibility of anyone.”

Typically there are family cemeteries, church owned, private, national, city, town and municipal cemeteries. Cemeteries may have undefined property boundaries, no signage or access roadways creating difficulty when locating graveyards.

The dates of cemeteries can be reflected by the types of monuments demarking the grave sites. Tombstone markers have evolved from wooden markers, stone mounds or circles, sandstone slabs, marble stone work, granite tombstones and the contemporary polished granite and marble. Additionally, in a cemetery, there may be headstone, footstone, ground tablet, basal table grave, ruin, cross, pedestal obelisk, pedestal column, Funeral home plaque, or bedstead set in an urban, country, family, private, isolated or rural setting. Mausoleum architecture, be it Romanesque, Gothic Revial, or Art Deco, they, too, reflect time periods in history, social values and chronological trends.

From the inscriptions, the names and dates are vital to the genealogist assembling a family tree. Additionally, symbols, backgrounds, art, Religious iconography, accomplishments, commemorative items, epitaphs, carvings, and sentiments are recorded by those remembering their dearly departed. These symbols may indicate a social identity such as membership in organizations giving way to additional information and further genealogical research. Family burial plots show groupings or symbols indicated they are related in some way.

According to Robert Redfield, “acculturation” is the “phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups.” The adaptions of ethnic bloc settlements is evident in their burial customs, cemetery tombstone styles and the language chosen for the tombstone inscriptions.

Young pupils do not have to wait till University, they can be exposed to archaeological studies by visiting a cemetery and studying the culture of the community and the changes it its culture. Cemeteries tell the story of the deceased, those who mourned them, their views of death, and the society in which they lived.

Trends and customs in burial customs of ethnic, cultural and spiritual communities demark cemetery sections or complete graveyard styles of internment and tombstone design. Such was the case for Verna Elinor Gallén who detailed “variations in the expressions of social identity provided by the different Saskatchewan Finnish cemeteries” in Silence We Remember: The Historical Archaeology of Finnish Cemeteries in Saskatchewan. Noting the details of both tombstone and grave yard tells a story of communities in Saskatchewan, their growth and development, in times of sickness, war, and health.

Note: This program (Saskatchewan Genealogy Society ~ Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program SCCMP ) has been discontinued, however it ws intriguing, so the information is left here in this blog online

Additional Resources:

Links

Canada Gen Web Saskatchewan Cemeteries Project

Network Canadian Cemetery Management September 2010 Vol 24 No 10

Saskatchewan Gen Web Cemetery Resources and Organisations

Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Cemetery Index

Saskatchewan Historic Cemetery Manual

 SCCMP “The Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program”

Books

Victorian cemetery art by Edmund Vincent Gillon

Bibliography:

Links to sources are embedded in text above.

Additionally:

Redfield, Robert, Ralph Linton and Melville J. Herkovits

1936 Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation. American Anthropologist 38(1):149- 152.

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Saskatchewan’s Archaeological Cemeteries

20 Dec

Graceful Delight

Saskatchewan‘s Archaeological Cemeteries

This is Part 3 of a 7 part series
The Heritage Property Act oversees the burials not found in a registered cemetery. On discovery of an historical burial site, the Minister is contacted as well as the appropriate agency, church or church historical documents, Indian band, First Nation or Euro-Canadian descendants before any archaeological excavations would be considered. To confirm land ownership, information can be obtained from the Provincial land registry through Information Services Corporation (ISC). The “Central Burial Site” along the South Saskatchewan River has been established for respectful internment of ancient First Nations burials where appropriate and under consultation with appropriate interest groups to determine final re-burial. Here rest over 200 interments. “This is considered a very sacred burial ground to First Nations,” says Carlos Germann director of Saskatchewan’s heritage conservation branch, “unique in that it accommodates all different tribal affiliations.” If the burial site is not threatened or in jeopardy, the site is recorded, and restored. In the case of a discovered homestead burial, similar legal decisions are made regarding the burial site preservation or removal and relocation to a local cemetery. In Saskatchewan, if the soil is disturbed, a permit is required in Saskatchewan. Approximately five to fifteen archaeological burial sites are found each year.

Swift Current is south east of the Gray cemetery examined between 1970 and 1974 and documented in Quaternary Dates and Verebrate Faunas in Saskatchewan by R.E. Morlan,R. McNeely, S.A. Wolfe, and
B.T. Schreiner. In this pre-historic site, 304 interments were found here dating back 3,000 to 5,000 years. The Gray Cemetery, a National Historic Site, is part of the Oxbow Culture, a part of the Middle Precontact Period..

Archaeological study reveals vital cultural, architectural, spiritual and societal histories. The forgotten cemetery of the St. Vital Parish (1879-1885) located on the Battle River near Telegraph Flat, North West Territories was established in 1877. Telegraph Flat was later named Battleford. Following the 1885 North West Rebellion, the Roman Catholic Mission of St. Vital chose the North West Mounted Police (NWMP) Cemetery near Fort Battleford and later, the Town of Battleford Cemetery This meant that the original cemetery abandoned, and the location forgotten till its discovery in 1999. A meticulous archaeological survey uncovered mortuary practices, spiritual and cultural customs, health and disease, artifacts, and rituals providing an in-depth documentary of the early history of the Oblate priests, the community and the 19th century Battleford area. The names of those interred was derived from parish registers, national, provincial and municipal archive records, Battleford’s North West Historical Society and newspaper accounts. The extensive archaeological research was compared to the records held by the Parish register. Similar archaeological investigation was applied at the Industrial School Cemetery at Battleford, and the two sites studies were compared. A reburial cemetery was held in 2002, and commemorative marker erected in 2003.

Near Canora, Saskatchewan, the Doukhobor Cemetery of Besednoye village was excavated and studied in detail by archaeological investigation. Seventeen interments were found here, and according to Jon Kalmakoff, eight of these have been identified.

The third archaeological cemetery studied in Saskatchewan was the Nisbet Presbyterian Cemetery discovered in 2004. Between 1866 and 1874 twenty-one interments took place at the Nisbet Mission cemetery. “The examination of cemeteries proffers valuable, multi-faceted information pertaining to the past,” writes Lisa Marie Rudolph in, An Osteological and Historical Examination of the Presbyterian Forest Centre Cemetery Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, “the comprehensive nature of burial and cemetery projects necessitate the involvement of local interest groups and specialists for the study to be successfully completed in a considerate manner.” A re-burial ceremony was held the following year at the South Hill Cemetery in Prince Albert.

Communities benefit from historical areas of historic and aesthetic value which bear “a unique or exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared” and can be protected under the Heritage Property Act. The Heritage Conservation Branch of the Saskatchewan Ministry of Tourism, Parks, Culture and Sport (TPCS) has published the Guide to Preparing a Provincial Heritage Property Nomination. As such, “Heritage property is broadly defined as any property that is of interest for its architectural, historical, cultural, environmental, archaeological, palaeontological, aesthetic or scientific value and includes archaeological and palaeontological objects.” Under such designation and protection an historic cemetery would be listed in the provincial Heritage Conservation Branch’s Saskatchewan Register of Heritage Property and the Canadian Register of Historic Places.

The Globe and Mail reported that in 2008 the National Archives records were reviewed to locate cemeteries, and burial sites near Indian Residential Schools or IRS churches. Amongst these is the Regina Indian Industrial School cemetery, located on the west side of Pinkie road, unmarked but for a wooden fence. The Municipal Heritage Advisory Committee “believes that actions should be taken to develop recommendations to ensure that the site of the Regina Indian Industrial School cemetery be suitably and appropriately recognized.”

Note: This program (Saskatchewan Genealogy Society ~ Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program SCCMP ) has been discontinued, however it ws intriguing, so the information is left here in this blog online

Additional Resources:

Links

Canada Gen Web Saskatchewan Cemeteries Project

Network Canadian Cemetery Management September 2010 Vol 24 No 10

Saskatchewan Gen Web Cemetery Resources and Organisations

Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Cemetery Index

Saskatchewan Historic Cemetery Manual

 SCCMP “The Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program”

________________________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Word Press, Blogger, Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, Sask Gen Web Ancestry.com and Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________

Buy my work

Moon Fleur ~ Luna Rose by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
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Recording and Memorialising Cemeteries

20 Dec

Graceful Delight

Recording and Memorialising Cemeteries

Part 4 of a 7 part series.

Through the Rural Municipality office cemetery clean up committees are established throughout the province to care for active cemeteries. Volunteers come together with lawn mowers, weed whackers, and chain saws to maintain active burial grounds to comply with their community standards.

Education is the key, to preserve a derelict cemetery. For historical conservation purposes it is wise to learn what to do, and what not to do. The Saskatchewan Historic Cemetery Manual and the A Graveyard Preservation Primer by Lynette Strangstad outline precautions necessary to increase awareness about cemetery preservation. Use caution in an historic cemetery site near large cemetery monuments, as these too, may break and topple. Trained volunteer cemetery crews, archaeologists or professionals recommended by the Saskatchewan Heritage Foundation are required for preservation work on an historic graveyard in need of restoration. For such work, grants and assistance is available.

Non-invasive methods of reading fading inscriptions is imperative to preserve information for future generations of genealogists. Do no harm is mandated, headstones should not be sprayed with solvents or cleaning supplies as these may enter cracks, and further erode the stone. A simple mirror or plain rain water may help to bring out the shadow play on the inscription. “Rubbings” onto paper should never be made on stone which is soft and may break apart under the process further eroding a delicate stone. For example when attempting to read an eroded head stone, do not make rubbings with light weight paper that the wax or ink colour may bleed through.

Photographing a tombstone from a variety of angles and a tight close up opens up the capability for image enhancement in photo software to enlarge, and manipulate photos to bring out the natural contrasts, and highlights in the photographic image.

Share your photographs or transcriptions with one of the many agencies recording and memorializing cemeteries in Saskatchewan. A kind courtesy to other researchers is to take photos of all the tombstones, and then submit them online to an organisation such as the Canada Gen Web Saskatchewan Cemetery Project

Note: This program (Saskatchewan Genealogy Society ~ Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program SCCMP ) has been discontinued, however it ws intriguing, so the information is left here in this blog online

Additional Resources:

Links

Canada Gen Web Saskatchewan Cemeteries Project

Network Canadian Cemetery Management September 2010 Vol 24 No 10

Saskatchewan Gen Web Cemetery Resources and Organisations

Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Cemetery Index

Saskatchewan Historic Cemetery Manual

 SCCMP “The Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program”

Books

Victorian cemetery art by Edmund Vincent Gillon

Bibliography:

Links to sources are embedded in text above.

Additionally:

Redfield, Robert, Ralph Linton and Melville J. Herkovits

1936 Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation. American Anthropologist 38(1):149-
152.

________________________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Word Press, Blogger, Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, Sask Gen Web Ancestry.com and Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________

Buy my work

Moon Fleur ~ Luna Rose by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Moon Fleur ~ Luna Rose by Julia Adamson

Cemetery Vacations

20 Dec

Graceful Delight

Cemetery Vacations

Part 5 of a 7 part series.

Cemetery tours and historical cemetery guide books enhance the interpretation of the community’s evolution, providing information and cultural, historical and contemporary heritage interpretation. The Regina Ethnic Pioneers Cemetery Walking Tours and the associated books; Regina Ethnic Pioneers Cemetery Walking Tour Multicultural Tour 2 , Regina Cemetery Walking Tour Founding Fathers Blue Tour, and Cemetery Walking Tour : Multicultural. Tour 2  are examples of such an endeavour.

Such is the nature of the narrative documentation collected that this concise history becomes a significant source of information which honours and celebrates the memory of those who have gone before so they will never be forgotten ~ a source of community pride. Biographies of individuals, their families, occupations, and their spirituality commemorate the community and society in an historical viewpoint. Erecting monuments on cenotaphs, maps on billboard panels for visitors, pedestal mounted guest books during a commemorative re-dedication ceremony provide a link to achievements engaging visitors to recognize both the great individuals buried, along with the small pioneer families. “It is important because we are getting to the stage where, if we do nothing now, the memories of those people will vanish,” reported Oliver Evans, “I don’t think they should be forgotten.”

Vacation time and holidays create a rewarding experience and an opportunity to get the whole family involved in history, and introducing them to family ancestry. Memorable events are created when connecting with the memory and significance of ancestral events, pioneering days, and family traditions. Standing in the footsteps of your great great grandfather placing flowers on the grave on your great great great grandmother . “He gazed on that very same stone,” says Andy Linkins as he mourned his deceased mother. Remember to search respectfully, research as much as you can first and make contact with local organisations before you leave on your trip. Reaching “out to touch the final resting place of their ancestors,” writes Kory Meyerink, pries “the lid off a family story forgotten by most of the living relatives.”

Note: This program (Saskatchewan Genealogy Society ~ Saskatchewan Cemetery Care and Maintenance Program SCCMP ) has been discontinued, however it ws intriguing, so the information is left here in this blog online

________________________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Word Press, Blogger, Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, Sask Gen Web Ancestry.com and Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________

Buy my work

Moon Fleur ~ Luna Rose by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Moon Fleur ~ Luna Rose by Julia Adamson
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