Tag Archives: Sask Gen Web
Aside

Centenary Cemetery

11 Nov Poppies for Remembrance Day

Centenary Cemetery
mind not the weeper or the prayer,
all those who have the eyes to see,

The moon gives you light,
  And the bugles and drums, the night

To the Judge of Right and Wrong
Our purpose and our power belong,

with uncomprehending eyes
laid down immediate and wise;

Where now the Mother, comfort me?
Where Art Thou Father, can't you see?

Gather round the Centenary Cemetery over there
Old and young with hymn and prayer
Poppies for Remembrance Day

Poppy

Blow out, you bugles, over lads Dead!
These laid the world away; poured out the red
     What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?
        Only the stuttering rifles' rapid rattle

But yesterday amid glory and the prize,
          One strove to quiet the other's cries,

rules consider wise,
See whence the tear-filled eyes

O Best beloved can you see battle-corpses, myriads of them,
          And the white skeletons of young men, who saw them?

The banners play, the bugles call,
The air is blue and prodigal.

To death, because they never lived: but I
Have lived indeed, and so—(yet one more kiss)—can die!

No funerary for them; no prayers nor bells,
Just shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells;

with staring sightless eyes,
Hear around the many sighs

We see and hold the good—
For Freedom’s brotherhood.

Gather round the Centenary Cemetery over there
Citizen and Child with hymn and prayer

A steady rain, dark and thick
Now feel the stir of despair quick

My comrade’s eyes
holy glimmers of goodbyes.

So now the poppy in fields doth bloom’
For the day all fill’d with gloom,

Clearing your minds of all estranging blindness
Speak now of Freedom, Honour and Lovingkindness.

Upon sightless staring eyes
soft short broken sighs,

Only his collar with his honourable mark
Mankind’s best hope? Laid out this night in solitary dark

While man has power to perish and be free—
Men perished for their dream of Liberty

Here sit the haggard men that speak no word,
No voice of fellowship or strife is heard

The British War Medal World War I.

Medal.

The body now denies
To Sleep return, little eyes

Nary it shines in lurid light,
Tales of  terrors, and the  blight,

Naught broken save this body, lost but breath;
And the worst friend and enemy is but Death.

They shall feel earth enwrapt in silence deep;
Men pass the grave, and say, “‘Twere well to sleep,

The peace of death.
The lifeless breath

Before our eyes
Hear still the cries

upon earth’s peaceful breast
Each laid him down to rest,

Gather round the Centenary Cemetery over there
Generations ever after with hymn and prayer

The day is past and the battle doth cease;
And hearts rest, eventide brings peace

Now speak of the peace that comes after strife,
The calm that follows the battle-filled life —

Now come the prayers and the bell
To honour them as they fell

Resound in peace and glory long
Sing out no more the bugle song

To ancestors you must see
Will you ever remember me?

So here I pray thee lay me not
to Rest in no memory and Die for naught.

Where’s that poppy on your collar?
Stand up now for peace, shout and holler

Poppies for Remembrance Day

Poppies

Genealogy Hints and Tips: During the Centennial years following World War I (1914-1918), Search for the ancestor fallen. The tragedy has come to light, and diaries, battalions, battles, records, medals, reports, images, are coming online. From Vimy in the Classroom, Saskatchewan Virtual War Memorial, Library and Archives images online at Fickr. The internet abounds remembering, honouring and paying tribute to those who fell in the Great War.  Have you, yourself, come to know your ancestor of the Great War?

Read more:

 In Flanders Fields and Other Poems With an Essay in Character, by Sir Andrew Macphail Author: John McCrae

Drum Taps Author: Walt Whitman

A Treasury of War Poetry British and American Poems of the World War 1914-1917
Auhor: Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by George Herbert Clarke

1914 and other poems. Author Rupert Brooke

Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War Author: Herman Melville

Dramatic Romances Author: Robert Browning

Poems Author: Wilfred Owen

Country Roads Leading Home

9 Nov

1, 2, 3, 4 just a bit of Homestead Rapport.

Searching in the field for an ancestral homestead or legal land location requires a knowledge of meridians, four meridians. Four? you say, yes, historically genealogists applying themselves to Saskatchewan, Canada research may indeed, need to know about four meridians.

A homestead application form from the Provincial Archives of Saskatchewan or a certificate of land patent from the Canadian Library and Archives LAC would both have the legal land location of the pioneer homestead location showing the quarter, the section, township, range and meridian. These are survey notations, and the numbers for township, range and meridian can be found on Rural Municipality maps, and historic maps of the province. Land was also awarded as Métis scrip, and soldier settlement awards, however if this land location proved to be some distance from their family or prior residence it may have been sold. Land not suitable for agricultural development may have been abandoned, or farmers may have sought employment in an urban centre during the dirty thirties. Not all legal land locations became ancestral homes, indeed, however there are primary source documents for genealogy research which may prove useful even if the land were abandoned for whatever reason, or if the land was sold.

The Century Family Farm Award Program inaugurated 1981 by Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food for the 75th provincial anniversary (1980) to honour Saskatchewan’s farm families. Between 2007-2014 over 3,600 families received the award. “Farm and ranch families have played a significant role throughout our province’s history,” Agriculture Minister Bob Bjornerud said. “These Century Farm Family Award recipients continue to build on the traditions of their ancestors, bring new ideas and innovation to agriculture, and will be an essential part of Saskatchewan’s future.”source In 2010, 635 , over 300 (2007), over 350 (2013) and 85 families in 2016 were honoured by the Information Services Corporation (ISC) Century Farm Award. “The family farm has always been the backbone of Saskatchewan’s economy and has helped shape the rural traditions of our province,” Minister responsible for ISC June Draude said. “Homesteaders had a strong work ethic and today’s farm families have that same strength and character. I congratulate all recipients for reaching the centenary milestone.” source

The Rural Municipalities (RM) only occur in the southern portion of the province, the prairie, grasslands and aspen parkland eco-systems. The RMs occur where there is rural settlement upon. Agricultural land was surveyed during the Dominion Land Survey for homesteads. The RMs indicated on the map below have changed since their inception in the early 1900s. Those RMs larger than 18 square miles have subsumed adjacent RMs if the population was scarce, or to allow for uban centre expansion, &c. The Northern Municipality refers to the northern province ~ the Canadian shield, tundra, and boreal forest area~ an area not surveyed under the Dominion Land Survey system. Urban municipalities are towns, cities, hamlets with a separate civic government.

Province of Saskatchewan, Canada map Author Hwy43 Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

Province of Saskatchewan, Canada map after 1905 Adapted from Author Hwy43
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

The first task is to determine the ancestral homestead or quarter section. This may be written on the birth certificate, in the census, upon the homestead application form or Western Land Grant Certificate (1870-1930).

For researching a very common surname, it may be beneficial to delimit the search by meridian of the neighbouring post office, rail siding, town or village to the ancestral farm. Use the Geographical Names of Canada, an historical map index, the post office database at LAC, Atlas of Saskatchewan by the University of Saskatchewan, or Geographic Names of Saskatchewan book by Bill Barry to find the legal land location of the nearby locality to narrow the search.

For the sake of example, perhaps the research results came up with these legal land locations from the Battle of Iwuy soldier research. Randomly selecting: Belt, John Henry Army 73427 Canadian Infantry (Saskatchewan Regiment) “A” Coy. 28th Bn. Residence “Little Red River Reserve”, Alingly, SK SE-17-51-27-W2, Enlistment, Prince Albert, SK, Died Thun-Saint-Martin. Military Medal Born: February 21, 1893 Darlington, England Son of Robert and Elizabeth Belt, of Alingly, Saskatchewan. The following land locations may not be relevant, and obtaining the source homestead document and conducting further comparison to oral history, and other documents are required for confirmation.

Belt, John Henry SE 28 51 27 W2
Belt, Robert NW 28 51 27 W2
Belt, Elizabeth SE 28 51 27 W2
Belt, James Victor SW 27 51 27 W2
Belt, William Thomas SW, 28 51 27 W2

This study will focus on the above record for a Belt, John Henry Sout east quarter of section 28 township 51 range 27 West of the 2nd meridian.

Township can be abbreviated T, Tsp or Twp.
Range may be abbreviated R, or Rge.

Alingly, Saskatchewan at SE 17-51-27 W2 on the map is a nearby locale to SE 28-51-27 W2. The farm is within an acceptable distance to drive a horse and cart into town. Further to this, the surnames might also found on census, and in local history books. Homesteaders on application needed to prove up their land. The provincial archives online listings also indicate military personnel who received Soldier Settlement Grants. Homesteaders could cancel their application if they found the land unsuitable, if they procured occupation in town, &c. Soldier Settlement Grants, Scrip, and those homesteads which were successfully proved up, could be sold in private transactions. Whenever one ancestor is found in the listing, pay attention to those of the same surname farming nearby, – they be cousins, brothers, uncles, &c Family farmed together to helping each other in homestead duties, at seeding times and harvest.

So to locate the legal land location, look at an historical map or a Rural Municipality map, and find Alingly in this case. This is where the meridians come in handy. A meridian seeks to have congruency with the Geographic Coordinate System of latitude and longitude. Because the earth is a sphere, correction lines are built into the Dominion Lane Survey.

The first meridian is located in Manitoba and farms west and east of the “first” or “prime” meridian are those, of course in the province of Manitoba. Additionally Ranges 28, 29, 30 and 31 west of the first meridian are located in southern portion of the province of Saskatchewan as there is some overlap where the border comes across the meridian. There is an addendum here, perhaps the primary source document with the legal land location was dated 1870-1905, then the ancestor was indeed a resident of the North West Territories. To determine which provisional district of the NWT, the farm may have resided in, compare to the township and range numbers here.

1900 Map of Manitoba and the North-West Territories

1900 Map of Manitoba and the North-West Territories Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
(note the border north and west of the province of Manitoba does not correlate at all with the 1905 eastern border of Saskatchewan which is nearly true to the second meridian)

The second meridian is near the eastern limits of the province of Saskatchewan, and the entirety of homesteads west of the “second” meridian are all in the province of Saskatchewan.

The third meridian arrives next, and again, the entirety of homesteads west of the “second” meridian are all in the province of Saskatchewan.

The fourth meridian extends in conjunction with the Alberta and Saskatchewan border which was created in 1905. Before this time, land belonged to the North West Territories. The provisional districts of Assiniboia in the south, provisional district of Saskatchewan centrally located, and provisional district of Athabasca to the north had different boundaries not congruent with the fourth meridian. If the pioneer document was dated 1870-1905, then the homestead started up in the North West Territories. Check with the township and range numbers here to see which provisional district of the NWT the homestead may have fallen into.

800px-north-west_territory_canada_1894

1894 North West Territories Map showing Provisional Districts
(note the border west of the Assiniboia and Saskatchewan provisional districts does not correlate with the fourth meridian)

Once the meridian is located on the map, travel west to locate the range number, and also ascend north along the listing of township numbers. For John Henry Belt go north to township 51, and go west of the second meridian to range 27. This locates the 6 mile by 6 mile township in which he farmed. If the map shows quarter sections then also find section 28 which is 1 mile by 1 mile, and know that John Henry Belt farmed the 1/2 mile by 1/2 mile quarter in the south east of this section. If the map chosen does not show sections, then realize that the township is divided into sections as shown here on the chart.

As the farm is at SE 28-51-27 W2 and Alingly is at SE 17-51-27 W2 it is seen that as the townships are divided into sections that the farm section number being 28, and the town being 17 does make the farm section about 1-1/2 miles north of Alingly and 1/2 miles to the west. Ordering a rural municipality (RM) map from the RM office indicates where contemporary highways are situated in relation to legal land locations. historical maps mostly indicate the rail system, so they would indicate where the farm was in relation to the rail lines.

To drive to the ancestral homestead, now convert the legal land location into Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates using a handy online converter, and use this method to find the centre of the 1/2 mile by 1/2 mile quarter where this pioneer had farmed.

Country roads, take me home to the place I belong. ~ John Denver

Once driving in Saskatchewan, realize that Canadians have adopted the metric system in 1970, and distances and mileage is by kilometers and kilometer/hour. Without a GPS system the ancestral homestead will need to be found measuring miles traveled along the highway or grid road. A very quick way to get a good approximation and convert kilometers to miles is to multiply by 6 and move the decimal to the left one. For instance, a traffic sign posting a speed limit of 100 kilometers/hour is thus converted by multiplying by 6 (100 * 6 = 600), and then changing the decimal one backward arriving at 60 miles per hour. (an actual online conversion 100 km to miles is 62.1371) On an historic map showing miles, do the opposite, 10 miles divided by 6 would result in (10 / 6 = 1.6 and move the decimal) with a result of 16  kilometers. (an actual online conversion calculations shows that 10 miles is  16.0934 kilometers)

The other very handy item to know when traveling on Roads in Saskatchewan is to read the grid road signs! Range roads are those used when driving north or south, and township roads take the traveler in an east and west direction. Picturing the range lines on the map, will help to orient driving and using range road numbers in the field, and similarly with township lines and township roads.

The numbers on the signs are very handy, as they correlate to the Dominion Land Survey system and legal land coordinates.

1917-28-51-27-w2

1917 Scarborough Map showing a portion of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada (RM 491)

Range road signs begin with the meridian number. To locate John Henry Belt’ homestead the range road signs would all begin with 2 ~ (his farm was SE 28-51-27 W2). Ranges increment every 6 miles in distance traveled. On the Range road sign, the next two digits are the range number. So to find this particular farm, the Range Road sign should indicate 27 as the next two digits following the 2. Now the last number on a Range road sign is how many miles into the range that the road has been laid down, these miles increment east to west, and can number up to 5. Examining how a township is split into one mile by one mile sections it can be ascertained that the SE quarter section 28 is 3 miles west of range road 27, situating the farm between Range road 2273 and Range road 2274.

1924-28-51-27-w2

1924 Rand McNally Map showing a portion of Saskatchewan, Canada

A township road sign determines the road name when driving east or west, and the first number is the township number. All township numbers for the province of Saskatchewan begin at the United States and Canada international border (the 49 parallel), and the township numerals increment every 6 miles in a northerly direction. John Henry Belt farming at SE 28-51-27 w2 would have his farm along township road beginning with the numeral 51. As township numbers increment every 6 miles, the next numeral is the mile number within the township between 0 and 5 still increasing in value from the south to the north. Looking again at how a township is divided it can be ascertained that SE quarter section 28 is 4 miles north of township line 51; therefore  John Henry Belt’s farm is has an allocation between township road 514 and township road 515.

Township lines or roads begin and end around geological features, and urban centres, and then continue north to the tree line. The Range lines or roads also extend straight as an arrow, and there is a lake or city, similarly, the range will continue along in the same way as a latitude or longitude line. Gravel roads, highways, and municipal roads can all have concurrency with township and range road numbering. Historically, there was allowance for a township road every mile, and a range road allowance was allocated every two miles.

So, whether determining the location for a homestead applied for in the North West Territories or in the province of Saskatchewan between 1905-1930, these insturctions should assist in arriving successfully at the pre-requisite destination. These driving instructions should also apply for any legal land location, as perchance the pioneering ancestors, or contemporary family may reside on an agricultural rural allotment with a township, range and meridian number. Settlers could also buy pre-emptions, land from colonization companies, from the railway companies or once they proved up their land, they were free to sell it on the open market.

Think on this. Imagine that the pioneer who crossed the ocean in a steamer and the journey took a few weeks. Arrival would very likely be an eastern port of Canada or the USA, and then progress overland would continue via rail to the closest stopping off point to their destination in the west. The transcontinental rail way was completed on November 7, 1885, and it traversed through the southern portion of the provisional district of Assiniboia, North West Territories. From this date onward rail companies established their own lines at various speeds and times throughout the province. Branch lines and main trunks traversed the North West Territories, continuing on after the Saskatchewan became a province in 1905. (In many cases the current highway thoroughfares run parallel to the main trunk line railway grade.) From the furthest point of the rail, the pioneer would disembark and begin walking. If a relative arrived ahead of time, the early settler may be met at the rail station by horse and cart or ox and buggy, and receive transport. An early purchase was conveyance.

After traveling around the countryside, the pioneer would need to find a iron marker placed between four monuments (pits) on an unclaimed section of land. The iron marker with the section number on it stands in the North East corner of the one mile by one mile section. The wise new-comer would need to compare the soil sample on this land with the soil of his home country to have the greatest success with his learned agricultural tillage methods and implements brought forward on the long journey. If the section and land was acceptable, the potential homesteader would then hasten to the land titles office, to fill out an application form, and lay down a $10 filing fee, returning to the land to begin his duties.

Imagine again, if you will, finding an iron post driven into the ground without asphalt roads, no GPS, absolutely not a road sign anywhere, nestled into the grasslands, or within the Trembling Aspen bluffs, and in the 1800s amid herds of buffalo. Consider, also this, the iron marker in the north west corner of the section bears Roman Numerals for section township and range. As this in this example, John Henry Belt homestead was SE 28-51-27 w2) the iron post would have read XXIV XXX XII. Early immigrants may have settled in ethnic bloc settlements to facilitate communication, agricultural harvesting work bees and settlement chores in proving up the land.

NOTE: It is always wise and prudent to contact the nearby locality before driving out to an ancestral homestead to learn how to make contact with the current owners. Ask at the regional library, museum, RM office, or town hall for advice. Seek to purchase an up to date RM map from the RM office. Consider buying an historical Cummins map from the Provincial Archives of Saskatchewan and marked herein the ancestor’s name. Phone the current land owner perchance with Mysask.com or Canada411. Do not trespass on private property or farm land without permission, ever. Such practices can, indeed, be detrimental and even fatal to livestock, devastating to crops and violate the landowners sensibilities and legal rights. Also many historical township roads and range roads do not exist anymore. With the straightening and paving of highways, and the advent of motorized travel, it is not necessary for the Ministry of Highways nor the RM to maintain each and every single range road and township road from the Dominion survey system so the roads may not exist anymore. That former road allowance may now be in a farmer’s field, or pasture land. That is why a contemporary RM map is so handy for this journey to the homestead.

FOR MORE INFORMATION:

Saskatchewan Provincial Standard System of Rural Addressing. Adapted by Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipalities (SARM) Information Services Corporation. Regina, SK.

To find lands in the field part 1

To find lands in the field part 2

To find lands in the field part 3

Saskatchewan Clouds

8 Nov

By the Saskatchewan.
When the sun has dipt to the westward,
And has reddened the sky with its glow,
When the shadows o’er the soft clouds have deepened,
And the twittering skylarks fly low,
Then I wend my way home o’er the prairie
With a yearning that never does fail
And the mists of the mighty Saskatchewan
Rise, to meet me at the end of the trail.
~ Agnes Krogan

Aerial view of clouds

Aerial view of clouds

In the history of this province of Saskatchewan, Canada clouds have heralded both good fortune and terrible, horrendous bad luck.  And as thus, does Saskatchewan receive its apt slogan, “Land of Living Skies”.

For instance, take this example of prosperity in the roaring twenties;
“In 1928, Moffat shared with most of Saskatchewan in the bumper crop of the century. We bought a new car, an Essex super 6, with a plush lining and in a beautiful shade of blue, with a dashboard of simulated walnut. What a car! Most of the early cars in Moffat were Model T Fords, but variety was the by-word in the late Twenties. Bertenshaws bought a Flying Cloud, Wolseley Taylor a Nash, Reads a McLaughlin-Buick and Peter Ferguson a little Whippet. Star, Dore, Chevrolet roadster ~ they all appeared during that era. War years and the Twenties

And yet how does one even imagine the decade of drought in the “Dirty Thirties”, possibly best described by novelist Robert (Paul) Kroetsch ;
“I looked back just once and the sky in the west was positively black. AS if a great fist had closed the sun’s eye. As if a range of mountains had broken loose and was galloping straight at me. The whole west was one great galloping cloud of smothering dust. I reached to turn on the lights.

And the the shiver turned to elation. Because I saw the windshield again. A drop of rain had hit the windshield. A drop of genuine water. Even while I was watching, right before my eyes, a second drop hit.

My bowels melted. That’s when I first realized: I had forgotten what a rain cloud looks like.~Paustian, Shirley I.

“So, while we learned the most obvious lesson of the Dust Bowl – that is, how to retain soil on dry farmland – we have yet to learn the larger lessons: how to respect nature’s limits, and how to use natural processes to buffer drought’s impacts.” Kendy

Another devastation befalling the Saskatchewan prairies in cycles as regular as drought are the grasshoppers as described by Henry Youle Hind,a Canadian geologist and explorer:

“On the second of July [1858] we observed the grasshoppers in full flight towards the north, the air as far as the eye could penetrate appeared to be filled with them. They commenced their flight about nine in the morning, and continued until half-past three or four o’clock in the afternoon. After that hour they settled around us in countless multitudes, and immediately clung to the leaves of the grass and rested after their journey. On subsequent days when crossing the great prairie from Red Deer’s Head River to Fort Ellice, the hosts of grasshoppers were beyond all calculation: they appeared to be infinite in number. Early in the morning they fed upon the prairie grass, being always found most numerous in low, wet places where the grass was long. As soon as the sun had evaporated the dew, they took short flights, and as the hour of nine approached, cloud after cloud would rise from the prairie and pursue their flight in the direction of the wind, which was generally S.S.W. The number in the air seemed to be greatest about noon and at times they appeared in such infinite swarms as to lessen perceptibly the light of the sun. The whole horizon wore an unearthly ashen hue from the light reflected by their transparent wings. The airs was filled as with flakes of snow, and time after time, clouds of these insects forming a dense body casting a glimmering silvery light, flew swiftly towards the north-north-east, at altitudes varying from 500 to perhaps 1000 feet.” Hawkes

Grasshopper

Grasshopper

On the prairies, it is seen that the collective swarming behavior of grasshoppers is their survival mechanism in times of dry weather and food is scarce. Again, a healthy respect for nature, nourishing the land, preserving water all goes a long way to mitigate ruination, and defoliation of a crop.

However, the plight of the pioneer does not end with clouds of dust, nor clouds of grasshoppers. The early homesteader had to be on the look out for clouds of smoke on the horizon, signalling a massive grass fire approaching. A fire which could range in length for hundreds of miles devouring everything in its path.

“A hazard far less innocent than the howl of a prairie wolf or the wandering of livestock, however, was the menace of the prairie fire. The threat was a serious one during the warm days of spring and fall, when the grass was dry. The fall was a particularly hazardous time, when the September days were often hot and windy, and the whole country was covered by crisp prairie “Wool” and clumps of aspen and willows as inflammable as a vast timber box. Once started under such conditions a fire created its own wind and augmented any that already existed, and the results could often be tragic in a new and sparsely settled country. The most spectacular and dangerous fire in the history of our community….began in the Turtleford area…from a bush-burning operation, and once out of control it galloped wildly across the country at the speed of a race horse, in long, flaming tongues that beggared description. There was little or no defence against such a fire. The almost horizontal lead flames might be thirty to fifty fee long, with flying sparks, and small brands still farther in advance of the main fire. In the face of such an onslaught, the ordinary “Fire-guards” and sounds of men equipped with horses, water barrels, and wet burlap sacks for beating out the flames were hopelessly inadequate. Often during the spring or fall, large areas of the sky would be red with the reflections of grass fires. When the air was cool, moist and quiet, large scale danger was minimal, but especially for children the angry looking red cloud reflections of a prairie fire were always an awesome and frightening sight.”Wooff

Fire across the fields

Image of a small grass fire across the fields

In retrospect, those who reside in Saskatchewan welcome the spring clouds nourishing the crops in the field. The horrific and massive dangers of drought, prairie fire, and grasshopper are largely diminished because of adapted agricultural practices and lessons have been hard learned.

As did Joni Mitchell we, also, have “looked at clouds from both sides now, from up and down…from win and lose” and from it all, the resilient pioneer had many tales to tell about Winning the Prairie Gamble.

Genealogy hint and tip:  In regards to stories from your ancestors, please peruse the Saskatchewan local history books. To discover which book may be useful, try the Saskatchewan Resident’s Index offered by the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society. Or find your pioneer’s homestead location, locate the legal land location on an historic map. On the map ascertain the closest place name to the homestead and use this information to search an online library database listing. Solicit the assistance of some kind soul on a posting board, a mailing list, or just offering to do a look – up or by wander down to your library and use their reference room. Discover which here ~ ordered alphabetically by SK place name with relevant Sask Gen Web region. Rural Municipality offices or regional museums may know if any local history books of the province’s 50th and 75 anniversary (1955 and 1980) may yet be available for purchase, or if the community wrote a new one for the 100th provincial anniversary of 2005.

~written by Julia Adamson webmaster Sask Gen Web

“The fact that we have a Sahara (desert) is not entirely tragic. The very existence of the Sahara gives to the whole world a highly valuable lesson in ecology. It teaches us what not to do with a perfect countryside. The drifting sands and stony wastes tell us more eloquently than words, what will happen when we break certain natural laws. We cannot remove tree cover without running the risk of losing the blessing of the water cycle. We cannot denude the earth’s surface without creating the desiccation of sand the dust dunes. We cannot permit animals to devour whatever little is left of green growth. Excessive grazing of cattle, sheep and goats is as damaging to the land as a wholesale felling of trees…´ from Desert Challenge ~ Richard St. Barbe Baker

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Hawkes, John. Saskatchewan and its People on Sask Gen Web Volume I, II, III
Illustrated. Chicago – Regina. The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company. 1924.

Kendy, Eloise Ph.D.
Water Helping Nature Protect Us From Drought
The Nature Conservancy.

Krogan, Agnes E. Thorbergson. And a church was built.
Mulitgraph Service Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

Paustian, Shirley I. (Shirley Irene)Depression, 1929-1939, in the Prairie provinces of Canada.

War years and the twenties. They cast a long shadow: the story of Moffat, Saskatchewan.

Wooff, John. Harbinger Farm 1906-1920 Modern Press. Regina, Saskatchewan.

University of Saskatchewan Remembers World War I

9 Aug

World War One Remembered at the University of Saskatchewan

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration CommitteeHonourRollAddendum-Professor Dean McNeil trumpet solo-2
Honour Roll Addendum
Professor Dean McNeil Trumpet Solos The Last Post and Reveille

On Thursday August 7, 2014 the “Honouring our heroes” program commemorated those students, faculty and staff who fought in the First World War (1914-1918) in Convocation Hall, Peter MacKinnon Building on the University of Saskatchewan Campus. According to the University of Saskatchewan media advisory, Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer, Interim President and Vice-Chancellor Gordon Barnhart, and history student Eric Story related that this is the first of many commemorative events planned in honour of the centennial year. World War I commenced August 4, 1914.

Pezer recounted that while World War I “produced unprecedented slaughter” of those “sent forth to the Great War”, the effects of the war had a “profound effect upon the province” as well as established a “growing sense of national pride.” “Beyond fighting there were many ways that the University” contributed to the war effort, such as chaplin Edmund Oliver who joined the Western Universities Battalion with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). Edmund helped to establish the University of Vimy Ridge and worked on the battle fields in France serving the sick, the wounded soldiers, and advising families when enlisted personnel gave the supreme sacrifice.

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee veiled plaques honouring our heroes
Veiled Plaques Honouring our heroes
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee r, Interim President and Vice-Chancellor Gordon Barnhart - history student Eric Story-Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer
Interim President and Vice-Chancellor Gordon Barnhart, history student Eric Story, Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer.
Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee veiled plaques honouring our heroes Interim President and Vice-Chancellor Gordon Barnhart - history student Eric Story-Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer
Interim President and Vice-Chancellor Gordon Barnhart, history student Eric Story, Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer

Research conducted by Professor Emeritus of History, Michael Hayden, found those names missing during the original commemoration services held by the University of Saskatchewan. 349 men and one woman are named on the walls of the Peter McKinnon Building National Historic Site of Canada (the former College Building ). Memorial ribbons are inscribed with the names of 298 military personnel, noting additionally those who were wounded wounded, or killed in action. Accompanying the ribbons are 34 names mostly of the Royal Air Force. Another 23 names commemorate the volunteer nurses of the Emmanuel College Hospital who served during the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. The names of 18 service personnel were dedicated at this ceremony on a plaque unveiled August 7, 2014. This plaque will be mounted outside of Convocation Hall and in this way these eighteen heroes of World War I will be honoured prominently in the first building erected on the University of Saskatchewan grounds.

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee slide show
Slide Show
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Eric Story History Student
Eric Story History Student University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Interview of MichaelHayden at Honouring our Heroes
Interview of MichaelHayden at Honouring our Heroes
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee JGDiefenbakerMemorialRibbon
J.G. Diefenbaker Memorial Ribbon

Following speeches given by Pezer, Barnhart and Story, the names of those commemorated on the plaque were read out. The “Last Post” trumpet solo rang out by Professor Dean McNeil. A moment of silence followed and then the “Reveille” trumpet solo rung out paying especial tribute to those students, faculty and staff named upon the plaque.

O Valiant Hearts.

World War I hymn

O valiant hearts who to your glory came

Through dust of conflict and through battle flame;

Tranquil you lie, your knightly virtue proved,

Your memory hallowed in the land you loved.

~ Sir John Stanhope Arkwright

 

Barnhart related a lesson taken on by history students where each pupil in the class was assigned a country. The assignment was to “trace through hour by hour and day by day the events leading up to … August 4, 1914, the beginning of the first world war one”. Such an indepth study brings home the politics one hundred years ago, that even though August 4 officially started the war, there were many contributing factors and forces in play which finally gave way to the imminence of war.

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Memorial Ribbons Admiration
Memorial Ribbons Admiration
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Petty Officer 1st Class Warren Noble CD Recruiter
University of Saskatchewan
Memorial Ribbons Plaque
Petty Officer 1st Class Warren Noble CD Recruiter
HMCS Unicorn
National Defence
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Honour Roll Addendum Professor Dean McNeil Trumpet Solos
Honour Roll Addendum ~ Professor Dean McNeil Trumpet Solos
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Petty Officer 1st Class Warren Noble CD Recruiter Sub Lieutenant Alicia Morris
Petty Officer 1st Class Warren Noble CD Recruiter
Sub Lieutenant Alicia Morris
HMCS Unicorn
National Defence

Though the University had only been open for seven years, Barnhart recounts that within three months of the First World War commencement, a recruitment program was in place. Seventy five per cent of the student body saw active service. Alongside students, staff and faculty served in the war effort. So many were absent from the College of Engineering, that it was forced to close during the 1916-7 academic year amid the Great War.

Regarding the students enrolled on the University campus in 1914; “It’s highly traumatic for that small academic community, because these people were walking beside them a short time before, and now they’re in the army, and now they’re dead.” ~ James Pitsula retired University of Regina History Professor.[[1]

Students were given one year’s credit towards their degree program which at the time they felt was a triumphant entitlement as the war was predicted to last short of one year. Faculty positions were held for all those who had enlisted.

During the renovations of the Peter McKinnon building a special insulation was installed over the memorial ribbons which was then encased in plywood casings to preserve the historic carvings. In this way no paint, no hammer nor any construction event could damage the commemorative ribbons.

“War changed Canada,” Barnhart affirmed, “in many ways Canada was no longer a colony”. Canada may have entered the Great War as a colony, however emerged as a country in its own right signing the armistice alongside the Allies of World War I on November 11, 1918.

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Memorial GSwift-JDCumming-HJBlair-MemorialRibbons
G Swift-J D Cumming-H J Blair-Memorial Ribbons

Story spoke on behalf of the University of Saskatchewan’s Great War Commemoration Committee which is chaired by Professor Emeritus Bill Waiser. This ceremony, the “Remember Us – Honouring our heroes” unveiling ceremony is the inaugural event sponsored by the Great War Commemoration Committee, there will be many more memorial events upcoming in the next four years.

Joseph Boyden has been scheduled to give a talk about two aboriginal snipers of World War I whom he wrote about in the much acclaimed novel, “Three Day Road”. There is in the making the “Great War Soiree” which will feature a theatrical number, and a musical score in tribute to the First World War.

In the works, is a public talk by Brain Gable, University of Saskatchewan alumnus, and award winning cartoonist for the Globe and Mail. Gable depicts editorial or political cartoons, containing commentaries and illustrations relating to the effects that the Great War had on society during the contemporary news releases of the Great War Centenary. His cartoons provide insight into issues and historical context of World War I embracing sensitivity, seriousness and satire on the outcome of events with a point of view 100 years later.

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee College Building Plaque
College Building Plaque
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Memorial Peter McKinnon Building National Historic Site College Building
Peter McKinnon-(College Building) National Historic Site
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Peter McKinnon Building -College Building Plaque.
Peter McKinnon Building -College Building Plaque

Proposals yet to come from the Great War Commemoration Committee may feature the following. In 2016, a feature based upon the “The Antiques Road Show” will take place showcasing memorabilia, artefacts and antiques from the Great War. A culinary week is in progress studying the recipes and foods sustaining the appetites during the First World War years. Finally in 2018, the University of Saskatchewan Archives website will be completed and expanded with an grand ceremony unveiling featured topics such as “How to research”, blogs and articles on the Great War.

The Soul of the Soldier
Sketches from the Western Battle-Front

A Belgian Poem

“I came to a halt at the bend of the road;

I reached for my ration, and loosened my load;

I came to a halt at the bend of the road.

“For thee that I loved, I went down to the grave,

Pay thou the like forfeit thy Country to save;

For thee that I loved, I went down to the grave.

“Fulfilled is the sacrifice. Lord, is it well?

Be it said–for the dear sake of country he fell.

Fulfilled is the sacrifice. Lord, is it well?”

by Thomas Tiplady

While Story suggests these aformentioned ceremonies as tantalizing morsels of events yet to come over the next four years, it is by no means an exhaustive list. To follow more about plans undertaken by the Great War Commemoration Committee please see their facebook page and twitter page online.

World War I ~ “The war to end all wars”~ how is it remembered? The Great War Commemoration Committee tackles the issues, the evolution, and culture of the war years, and its impact on the University and its role in the greater community of the city of Saskatoon, the province of Saskatchewan the nation of Canada on the world stage. The evolution of the University was inevitable and dramatic during the war years contrasting sharply with the life of contemporary students, faculty and staff. The University of Saskatchewan’s motto Deo et Patriæ (Latin) translates to For God and Country.‘Deo et Patriæ’ has been the guiding slogan of the university since its foundation, and the strength and fervor of that slogan were amply demonstrated during the dark years of the War, when students and professors marched shoulder to shoulder in the grim chaos of Flanders.”
Saskatoon Star Phoenix [Saskatoon Daily Star] July 15, 1926.

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN HONOUR ROLL ADDENDUM
Andrew Melville Anderson
Albert F. Bailey
Louis Brehaut 28th Bn.
John Rich Bunn Can. Army Med. Corps.
Harry Ray Contelon 1st Univ. Co., PPCLI,D
William Kenneth Forbes
J.W. French R.A.F.
General Middleton Grant 1st Depot Bn.
David Robert Green 1st Depot Bn., R.F.C.
William James Hall
William Cameron MacIntosh 28th Bn., 65th Overseas BN.
Kenneth McKenzie 196th Bn.
Vernon Ulysses Miner
Andrew Ernest Stewart
Robert Stewart 65th Bn, 72nd Bn, Wounded.
George Moir Weir
John McIntyre White Y.M.C.A. 46th Bn
Paul Peter Wiklund 44th Bn., Killed

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Adamson, Julia. Archives ~Resources National, Provincial, City, and University archives. Saskatchewan Gen Web. April 10, 2014. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia. Libraries Resources Saskatchewan Gen Web. April 10, 2014. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia. War and Military resources Saskatchewan Gen Web. April 10, 2014. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia Millions of Archival Newspaper Pages set to go online Saskatchewan Gen Web E~Magazine May 27, 2014. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia. Michelle Lang. Canadian Journalist. Jan. 31, 1975-Dec 30, 2009. Afghanistan Casualty. Saskatchewan Gen Web E~Magazine November 11, 2012. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia. Naval Monument honours Royal Canadian Navy prairie seamen and RCN ships. H.M.C.S. Regina (K234) and H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173) Saskatchewan Gen Web E~Magazine September 25, 2013. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia. Montgomery Place Est. in 1946 by Our War Veterans. Saskatchewan Gen Web E~Magazine. October 9, 2013. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson Julia. H.W. Balfour’s Truly Impressive Career. Recognized for Outstanding Civic Service and Meritorious Military Achievement. Saskatchewan Gen Web E~Magazine April 7, 2013 Date accessed August 7,2014.

Barnhart, Gordon. Oliver, Edmund H. (1882–1935) Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Biber, Francois. Saskatoon Great War Memorial last of its kind in Canada. What began in 1923 remaing and has grown to more than 1,200 memorials CJME news. August 6, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Brian Gable. Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. July 30, 2013. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Brian Gable Editorial Cartoonist Bio. The Globe and Mail. June 3, 2009. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Brian Gable on Facebook Date accessed August 7, 2014.

[1] Charlton, Jonathan. Great War shaped Saskatoon and U of S The Saskatoon Star Phoenix. Page A5. Thursday July 31, 2014.

Coggins, Jack. A Chaplain’s War. Edmund Henry Oliver and the University of Vimy Ridge, 1916-1919 (pdf) Univeristy of Saskatchewan Library Archives. History Department Essays 2004. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Dawson, Anna-Lilja. The U of S held strong through the World Wars. The Sheaf. November 7, 2013. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

England declares war on Germany The Guardian. August 5, 1914. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Eric Story on Facebook Eric Story (The_RealEAS) on Twitter Date accessed August 7,2014.

Ferguson, Mark. The University of Saskatchewan will rename the historic College Building to the Peter MacKinnon Building to honour the outgoing U of S President. University of Saskatchewan News. June 14, 2012. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Gable, Brian 1949- Something about the author, Scholarly Magazines, Encyclopedia.com. January 2009. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Globe and Mail on Twitter (#globeandmail) ‘The war to end all wars’: Today’s editorial cartoon by Brian Gable. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Great War Commemoration Committee on Facebook. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Great War Commomoration Committee on Twitter (#GWCP306) Date accessed August 7,2014.

Halliwell, J. Joseph Boyden. The Agenda with Steve Paikin. Video. Joseph Boyden: First Nations and the First World War July 31, 2014. Author Joseph Boyden discusses the important role Aboriginals played in the First World War, and the real-life Ojibwe soldier that inspired his novel “Three Day Road.”2014. The Ontario Educational Communications Authority (TVO) Date accessed August 7,2014.

Harvey, Alban.
Joseph Boyden The Canadian Encyclopedia. Aboriginal Peoples. March 6, 2014. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Hayden, Michael. Why Are All Those Names on the Wall? The University of Saskatchewan and World War I. Saskatchewan History 58, no. 2 (2006): 4.14.

Higher Education. The University of Saskatchewan: The Start Saskatchewan News Index. Top News Stories. University of Saskatchewan Library. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Joseph Boyden. Wikipedia The free encyclopedia. March 7, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Lacey, Dana. Documents show Harper;s extreme political control The Canadian Journalism Project. June 8, 2010. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Long-lost names added to U of S War Memorial. 18 names will be added to the Roll of Honor. August 6, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Mattern, Ashleigh. Alumnus Profile: Brian Gable, editorial cartoonist for the Globe and Mail. Centennial Committee. April 16, 2012. The Sheaf, One Hundred Years.Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Nurse, Donna Bailey. Joseph Boyden Author Profile. Way of the Warrior. Joseph Boyden brings new voice to First World War epic. Quill and Quire, Canada’s magazine of Book News and Reviews. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Pitsula, James M. Manly Heroes: The University of Saskatchewan and the First World War. In Paul Stortz and E. Lisa Panayotidis, eds., Cultures, Communities, and Conflict: Histories of Canadian Universities and War. University of Toronto Press, 2012.

Preston, Richard. First World War centenary: how the events of August 1, 1914 unfolded. Telegraph. August 1, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014

Preston, Richard. First World War centenary: how the events of August 2, 1914 unfolded. Telegraph. August 2, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014

Preston, Richard. First World War centenary: how the events of August 3, 1914 unfolded. Telegraph. August 3, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014

Preston, Richard. First World War centenary: how the events of August 4, 1914 unfolded. Telegraph. August 4, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014

Remember Us Great War Commemoration project begins with plaque unveiling. Facebook.
Remember Us. University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Project begins with plaque unveiling University of Saskatchewan News. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Sibbald, Kirk. Cartoons and Calculus. Green and White. FAll 2010. Features. University of Saskatchewan. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Stoon Great War on twitter (#StoonGreatWar) Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Story, Eric. Saskatchewan History online. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Streck, Aaron. Eighteen alumni names complete U of S commemoration from WWI Global News. Shaw Media Inc. August 7, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Tipalady, Thomas. The Soul of the Soldier Sketches from the Western Battle-Front Fleming H. Revell Company. New York. 1918. Project Gutenberg.org Ebook #46323 Produced by Al Haines. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

University remembers those who served in First World War. CTV news. August 7, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

University of Saskatchewan Great War on Twitter (#usaskGW) Date accessed August 7, 2014.

University of Saskatchewan honours students, faculty and staff who fought in WWI August 7, 2014. University of SAskatchewan News. August 7, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Three Day Road [This novel written by Joseph Boyden follows the journey of two young Cree men, Xavier and Elijah, who volunteer for that war and become snipers during World War I] Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. August 2, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Waiser, Bill. Opinion: Let’s protect future census data. Edmonton Journal Reprinted by the Ottawa Citizen. May 26, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

World War I Campus History. University of Saskatchewan. University Library. University Archives and Special Collections. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

  • Database at World War I:
  • Killed, died or wounded
  • U of S affiliation at enlistment
  • Batallion/unit at enlistment
  • Batallion/unit – all assignments
  • U of S College
  • Date of death
  • Decoration type
  • Rank

 

World War one Centenary on Twitter. (#wwicentenary) Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Stewart, Les. Why won’t this federal government support our invisibly wounded soldiers? Cartoon from the Globe and Mail, re posted by the Springwater Park Citizen’s Coalition, a sustainbale business plan for Springwater Provincial Park in Midhurst, Ontario. December 20, 2013. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

WWI Canada Centennial Commemoration on facebook Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Notice and Disclaimer:

The purpose of the information on this site is to assist genealogists, historians and other interested parties in locating information regarding the World War One Centenary Celebrations. Please e-mail the author at saskgenweb@yahoo.com if you have any further updates or additions. Thank you.

To cite this article:

World War One Remembered at the University of Saskatchewan . Saskatchewan Gen Web. Rootsweb. Ancestry.com . Retrieved .

E-mail saskgenweb@yahoo.com

 

Thank you for stopping by #

Web Page title:

URL:

Copyright © Saskatchewan Gen Web. Web Publish Date: All Rights Reserved

________________________________________________________________________________

Follow on Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, 500 px, Flickr, and Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 

Buy my work

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Saskatchewan Genealogy Magazine

Saskatchewan Genealogy Web : Sask Gen Web E-Magazine

Answering Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

 

 

 

 

Reno Hill School District 5158; Memories of When the Water Came or The price paid for electricity

8 Mar

Rainy Days and Mondays

Reno Hill School District 5158; Memories of When the Water Came

~or~

The price paid for electricity

  • “Change is the parent of progress.” Steve Maraboli, Life, the Truth, and Being Free

The E.B. Campbell Dam was first proposed as the “Squaw Rapids Dam” by the Saskatchewan Power Corporation and the Government of Saskatchewan. This hydroelectric dam was the province’s inaugural venture into providing electrical power. By the mid 1900s it was recognised that the province’s growing electrical energy demand was to soon surpass the existing facilities. In 1961, the province required 1,500,000,000 kilowatt-hours, by late 1964, the Squaw Rapids plant was constructed to produce 1,000,000,000 kilowatt-hours of energy from six 33,500-kilowatt hydraulic turbine generators. The building of the 110 foot (33.5 m) high dam commenced in the beginning of 1960 at an estimated cost of $46 million dollars. The dam is 2,370 feet (722 m) across between the banks of the river, and 620 feet (189 m) wide at the base of the dam, and allows for a two-lane highway across the deck of the dam. The Saskatchewan River was diverted in 1961, and by the fall of 1962, with the $57 million dollar dam completed, the river was closed, filling the dam reservoir. By June of 1963, Premier W.S. Lloyd opened the Squaw Rapids Dam in front of a crowd of approximately 3,000.

  • “The creation of huge reservoirs allows some control over the flow of the river itself. . . . But the [river] is not just a machine. It is an organic machine. . . . For no matter how much we have created many of its spaces and altered its behavior, it is still tied to larger organic cycles beyond our control.” White p. 111-12

The Squaw Rapids hydroelectric station, renamed in 1988, honours E.B. (Bruce) Campbell who was the assistant chief engineer during the construction project. Bruce Campbell was also SaskPower president and CEO between 1983 to 1987 The name “Petaigan” for the reservoir was brought forward to honour the former river now under the reservoir waters. Others suggested that Major E.E. Andrews, a nurse of the Second World War from Carrot River should be honoured with the reservoir naming. William Thorburn employee and trader of the Northwest Trading Company constructed a home and trading post in the area in 1791. Common usage of the name Tobin rather than Thorburn, easier to pronounce, became the name of the trading post and the nearby “Tobin Rapids“. (However, the 1924 Rand McNally Map refers to this location as the Tobin Rof??ls Rapids (see attached enlargement Image) Carrot River suggested the reservoir be named ““Tobin Lake” after much controversy. 174 years after the Tobin NW trading post was established on the rocky bend in the Saskatchewan River, Saskatchewan’s first hydro electric power station was erected, and just as Tobin Rapids was named after William Thorburn, so to Tobin Lake bore his name.


  • “Dams for hydroelectric power generation are located at a site
    where the difference in elevations between the surface of the new reservoir and the outlet to the
    downstream river is adequate to power electrical-generating turbines.”Cech [2003, p150-15

Squaw Rapids, in northern bush lands, was selected because of two sets of rapids on the site. Water plunges 105 feet (32 m) in huge penstocks which channel the water into giant turbines.CP June 15, 1963.7,000,000 cubic yards (6,000,000 m3) of earth were excavated from the reservoir site and re-used creating embankments for the earth-filled dam and a 3,000 foot (900 m) long airstrip. The reservoir covers 75,000 acres (303.5 km3) of land, and when full, the water level rises to 1,013 feet (309 m). By the end of 1962, the water level had already reached 1008 feet (307 m) rising at about one foot (0.3 m) of water a day. Tobin Lake stores 1,780,000 acre-feet (21,965,000,000 cubic meters) of water or 271,322 gallons (about 1,000,000 liters). Plans for the reservoir included creating the reservoir at Squaw Rapids, encompassing Tobin Rapids and extending upstream to the town of Nipawin located 45 miles (72 km) from the dam site at Squaw Rapids. The Torch River Valley provides a natural floodway should the river exceed its highest known peak at spring thaw.


  • “Mr Schell always predicted that with the water power potential for cheap electricity and the abundance of natural resources, Nipawin would eventually grow into a city, and was very concerned when the townsite was laid out that the streets be kept wide, rather than the then popular narrow ones, and that as many pines as possible be left in and around the townsite.” [Mr Winn Schell printed the first newspaper in Nipawin – The Monitor in 1907 later called The Recorder]Schaible p. 842

The reservoir base 46 miles (74 km) by 11-12 miles (18-19 km) wide was prepared for the new lake, wells, dugouts, and basements were all filled in, sawdust piles removed, telephone and power poles, fences and buildings torn down or moved away. The Department of Natural Resources had the $817,000 assignment to clear the reservoir site, removing all useable lumber from crown lands, clearing the 40 by 10 mile (64 x 16 km) area. It was proposed to open the area to farmers who could take some two to three million feet (600,000 to 900,000 m) of spruce lumber from the area. Approximately 40 million feet (12,000,000 m) of white spruce timber, and four million feet (1,000,000 m) of jack pine timber, 17,000 cords (62,000 m3.) of jack pine or fence posts, and 50 million feet (15,000,000 m) of poplar timber needed to be cleared. Following the clearing, a forest fire was set deliberately, to reduce the site to ash, however this failed due to rains, but not before covering the dam construction site with thick smoke. Additionally the SPC put out another $50,000 on clearing and after the dam opened, another contract was needed to prevent logs jamming the dam. 50,000,000 board feet of pine and spruce were removed from the area.


  • It was known from experience where stands of pine and spruce had been flooded during water control projects that trees were still standing after 20 to 30 years…this would have destroyed the recreational potential of Tobin Lake for many years, and would have reduced its usable surface area by two-thirds,” said Resources Minister Eiling Kramer.Leader-Post Oct 2, 1963.

The steam-generating plants at Moose Jaw and Prince Albert were to be closed down in favour of the more economical hydroelectric station here. Water flow at the Squaw Rapids dam is regulated by remote control at the Queen Elizabeth Power Plant in Saskatoon and later from Regina. The hydro-electric project is located 150 miles from Prince Albert, 42 miles (68 km) from Nipawin, 30 miles (48 km) from Carrot River and 45 miles (72 km) upstream of Tobin Rapids.

  • “We should strive to welcome change and challenges, because they are what help us grow. With out them we grow weak like the Eloi in comfort and security. We need to constantly be challenging ourselves in order to strengthen our character and increase our intelligence. ”

120 farmers from the Petaigan, Mossey Vale, and Ravendale districts were estimated to be affected by the filling of the dam reservoir. The farmers who had lands expropriated for the project moved out before December 31, 1961. “SPC has purchased 134 quarter sections of their farm land…most of these farmers have relocated on similar farms in the same general area.Longman 1961 Archdeacon Payton related that the Anglican Church was removed before the region was flooded. About 205 sections or 131,200 acres (531 km2) of land were needed for the Squaw Rapids Hydro Electric project, of which 55 sections (143 km2 were owned by the Crown leaving 600 quarter sections (390 km2) of land in private hands. By October 24, 1962, SPC had only six quarter sections ( 4 km2 ) left to negotiate. SPC also allowed homesteaders to have a lease on their the portion of the land which was above the water line, the Government not only bought the land that would be flooded, but they also paid for improvements done upon the land. After purchase, SPC put buildings up for tender on the condition of sale that the buildings be completely moved or dismantled before December 1961.

  • In all, 100 families were affected, most of them already located in the same general area. They received an average of $55 an acre (4000 m2 or .004 km2 $35,200 a section or $8,800 a quarter section.)).”CP Oct 26, 1962

Compensation packages first proposed considered 2-1/2 the value of the assessment with an additional percentage paid out based on individual needs. In 1924, the Canadian Pacific Railway was offering agricultural land for $11.66 per acre on average with irrigated land fetching $43.74 per acre reported The Financial Post. Whereas, in 1954 the Saskatoon Star Phoenix published that land selling in the Nipawin area was listed for approximately $100 per acre and prices across the provinces were down about 15 per cent from 1953 sales. Land elsewhere in the province was listed at $60 to $70 an acre, and lighter lands may only receive a listed sale price of $25 to 50 per acre. Farm lands for sale in the Rural Municipalities of Torch River, Nipawin and Moose Range, were listed at $50 to $100 per acre in 1966.

  • When the water backs up after the 1962 spring breakup in the river ice, the Petaigan River will burst its banks and disappear, and a church, a school, a curling rink and a farmer’s union lodge, as well as scores of farm homes, will vanish in the Petaigan district.Hooper March 1960

As Daniel Baird relates, “maps present a picture of the complex relationship between water and land as they intersect with human life…driven by the politics of settlement and energy. [Tegan Smith’s] exhibit gestures toward the depths of the lake, which we then have to imagine. The image of long abandoned, rotted out barns in the silty green murk of lake water, fish drifting through their open doors and windows, long spikes of light descending from the surface, everything in suspended animation, in slow motion, is haunting and even funereal. The sparsely settled Mossy Vale, with its isolated farms, traditional hunters and trappers, has become a place of memory.


  • Having no electricity, we were fortunate to have an ice well; our milk and cream we hung down the well in cans. We canned everything we could; meat, game, chicken, turkey, and all kinds of fruit wild and cultivated – so we were rarely at a loss for a quick meal if somebody unexpected dropped in.Horn p. 260

The Nipawin School Unit No. 61 school board advertised for teachers for the 1961 school term. 16 pupils between grades one and eight were enrolled at Reno Hill School District 21 miles out of Carrot River. The Labalm School District was another one room school district nestled in the hamlet of Moose Range serving 15 pupils in the primary grades as well. Squaw Rapids school was a newly established one room school operating out of a trailer for the approximately 20 children of the Saskatchewan Power Corporation Squaw Rapids Dam site area. By the fall of 1961, the Squaw Rapids hydroelectric development project saw a community population of 1,955 necessitating the construction of a two room school building for 61 children. Over the summer of 1961, 275 pioneers came together at the Mossy Vale school near Nipawin for a re-union. The Nipawin Public School saw a huge enrollment, jumping to 834 students in September of 1961. The school enrollment was expected yet to rise to 864 pupils. Five rural schools closed. Mossy Vale, Glen Horne SD 5048, Grassy Lake, Kirkwell (Kirkwall SD 4647) and Welland SD 4473 schools closed their doors. At Nipawin public school, grade seven students attended classes at the high school and at a separate building. The staff room, library, and electrical rooms have been converted to classrooms. The Nipawin ten room school expected to open in 1962 will alleviate some of the over-crowding. In grade one alone, there were 124 students at the beginning of the 1962 school year.


  • Miss Dengate began teaching at Inkster School, with an enrollment of some 37 children spanning ten grades. She hadn’t any experience with one-room schools, and so had to learn a lot in a short time. The school was far from luxurious, with its outdoor plumbing and water pail and dipper, quite a change for someone from England, used to having electricity and indoor plumbing. There was a big stove on which the children would leave their lunch pails to thaw, as it would freeze on the way to school and stay frozen if left on the floor.Haywood p. 681

Cumberland House (“Waskahiganihk” ) settled in 1774 upon an island in the middle of the Saskatchewan River delta region surrounded by swamps, marshes and lakes. It is here that Father Ovide Charlebois erected The first log building schoolhouse in the 1890s inaugurating a system of instruction with both Catholics and Protestants teaching the curriculum. Cumberland House residents depended on a ferry crossing during the summer months, and an ice road in the winter.  The dam is approximately 30 miles(48 km) upstream from the delta area.


  • In 1945, a new home was built, but still no plumbing or electricity.Pihowich p. 777

The Space Shuttle Challenger (STS-41-G) which was launched on 5 October 1984 was able to photograph the Squaw Rapids Dam on October 9, 1984.

“Reshaping life! People who can say that have never understood a thing about life—they have never felt its breath, its heartbeat—however much they have seen or done. They look on it as a lump of raw material that needs to be processed by them, to be ennobled by their touch. But life is never a material, a substance to be molded. If you want to know, life is the principle of self-renewal, it is constantly renewing and remaking and changing and transfiguring itself, it is infinitely beyond your or my obtuse theories about it.”
Boris Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago

With other companies pushing forward in potash production, in 10 years time provincial potash production should reach $100,000,000 a year,” said Premier Woodrow Stanley Lloyd, “The estimated power production for 1963 is 2,000,000,000 kilowatts, five times the production of 10 years ago….This kind of development and announced intention will help keep our place as the fourth largest producer of minerals among Canadian provinces. Leader-Post Jan 1963. Lloyd was also quoted as saying, “there are good reasons for satisfaction in a review of developments in Saskatchewan during 1962. One of the highlights of the economic year has been the surge of activity in connection with our mineral resources. With the opening of the world’s largest potash production plant at Esterhazy, and with 15 other firms actively engaged in potash exploration or development Saskatchewan now has a claim to the title of “World Potash Capital.” Our farm electrification program has nearly reached completion this year and the total of farm homes electrified has been brought to nearly 63,000.”Saskatoon Star-Phoenix Dec 1962.

  • “People who want a cure, provided they can have it without pain, are like those who favour progress, provided they can have it without change.”
    Anthony de Mello, Awareness: A de Mello Spirituality Conference in His Own Words

When Bill and Clara Weighill reminisced on the Mossy Vale area, a quote popped to mind, “We’re all in favor of progress, providing we can have it without change.” For the settlers in the area, there were a lot of ups and downs, and lots of hard work. Homesteading in the area was challenging, there were swarms of bull flies, hordes of mosquitoes, horse flies by the dozens, deep snow, muskeg, swamps, mud holes, and as Kristan and Ellen Sogen relate, the pioneers took it all in stride. The farmers who moved left their homes with sentimental reluctance, regret and melancholy, and yet there was an overall feeling of congratulations towards the Saskatchewan Power Plant, which serves the electrical needs of northern Saskatchewan residents.

The area was filled with settlers who did not give up. The Ravendale Frienship club grew together as ladies of the community gathered for an afternoon outing. Well, as the Squaw Rapids Development commenced, the club dwindled as folks gave up their land, and moved away. But, there was no despair, there was no wailing, with steady faith, the club soon built up again, flourishing and able once again to help the community wherever they were able. They were open to love, light and laughter.

The rail finally came through over hill and dale, through swamp and over river, however it arrived four miles outside of the town of Nipawin. This did not mean the end of Nipawin, resilient, forward thinking and stalwart, the townspeople picked up their houses and their buildings and moved them north beside the rail. These were a people looking at the glass half full, not half empty.

  • “When we least expect it, life sets us a challenge to test our courage and willingness to change… The challenge will not wait. Life does not look back…[It is] time for us to decide whether or not to accept our destiny.” Paulo Coelho, The Devil and Miss Prym 

Settlers made a living the hard way, yet it was felt that it was a healthy life. Making success from the challenges in life, coming together with family and friends to meet the next opportunity allowed these pioneers to be truly grateful and able to celebrate the next step forward for the community when the hydro-electric construction began. Electricity, a much needed, and most desired service and life has changed forever.

Article written by Julia Adamson, Sask Gen Webmaster.

Squaw Rapids Reel

By Don Messer

Squaw Rapids dam a symbol of might,Brings steady power both day and night,

Through summer, winter, spring and fall

Steady power – now reverse all.

The SPC’s pledged to bring

Reliable power for everything.

To serve you well that is their aim

Now all get set, four ladies chain

Reno Hill School District 5158
South east section 18 township 53 range 11 west of the 2nd meridian

near Mossy Vale, SK, CA
Located at north west section 28 township 53 range 11 west of the 2 meridian
E.B. Campbell Hydroelectric Station, Squaw Rapids Dam, Tobin Lake
Located at Section 12 Township 54 range 10 west of the 2nd meridian

Other neighbouring school districts and placenames

Moose Range Rural Municipality 486

Glen Horne School District 5048 SE quarter of section 2 township 51 range 10 west of the 2 meridian.

Grassy Lake School District Unknown School District number and location. Please E-mail if you know

Kirkwell (Kirkwall) School District 4647 SE section ? township 52 range 16 west of the 2nd meridian

Wellands school district 4473 south west section 27 township 50 range 15 west of the 2 meridian (1922-1961)

Labalm School District 4573 unknown location. Please E-mail if you know

Squaw Rapids School District Unknown School District number Located near dam Section 12 Township 54 range 10 west of the 2nd meridian (temporary school)

Mossy Vale, SaskatchewanMossy Vale Saskatchewan: Mossy Vale/Reno Hill Get-Together: 50 years later!
Prepared site for the Mossy Vale cairn.

Neighbouring places

Petaigan post office had three locations:

  • north west quarter of section 33 township 51 range 11 west of the 2nd meridian 1953
  • NW quarter section 22, township 51, range 11, west of the 2 meridian
  • SE Section 4, Township 52, Range 11, west of the 2 meridian

Ravendale post office SW Section 3, Township 53, R.10, West of the 2nd Meridian

Moose Range post office North west quarter of section 16 township 49 range 12 west of the 2nd meridian

Petaigan River geographical feature (waterway)

Garrick hamlet Northwest section 17 township 52 range 16 west of the 2nd meridian

Beaver House post office north east quarter section 34 township 50 range 15 west of the 2 meridian

Ravine Bank (two locations) Section 14, Township 51, Range 14, west of the 2nd meridian

and Section 16, Township 50, Range 14, west of the 2nd meridian

Prince Albert township 38 range 26 west of the 2nd meridian

Carrot River section 17 township 49 range 11 west of the 2 meridian

Nipawin section 16 township 50 range 14 west of the 2 meridian


Pioneer Ways to Modern Days : history of the town of Carrot River and the Rural Municipality of Moose Range.

Carrot River & District History (Association). Carrot River, Saskatchewan: Carrot River & District History, 1985

Jess. Reno Hill School District 5158, south east section 18 township 53 range 11 west of the 2 meridian near Mossy Vale- Saskatchewan Gen Web – One room School Project March 8, 2013.

Bibliography

______________________________________________________________________________

For more information:

________________________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Word Press, Blogger, Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, Sask Gen Web Ancestry.com and Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________

Buy my work

Delicate Beauty Phalaenopsis Orchid by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Delicate Beauty Phalaenopsis Orchid by Julia Adamson

School, Reno Hill School District 5158, Mossy Vale School District 5159, Carrot River, Nipawin, Petaigan River, Garrick, Beaver House, RAvine Bank, Prince Albert, Ravendale, squaw Rapids Dam, Tobin Lake, E.B. Campbell Hydroelectric Power Plant, Sask Power, reminiscing, memories, wistful nostalgia, melancholy, regret, sentimenal reluctance, underwater, flooded, reservoir, man made lake

Saskatchewan Census News Release

6 Feb

The Time of His Life

Saskatchewan Census News Release

It is truly an exciting time for genealogists and historians researching roots in Canada, as public record keeping which began in pre-confederation times, and in the early years of Canada can now be released to the general public.

Census records provide invaluable information to the genealogical researcher. A primary source record when gives the family members in relation to the head of the family, the address. The agricultural census provides a look at land holdings and livestock to get an idea how a homesteader was faring proving up his land in the early twentieth century.

The census taken every ten years between 1851 to 1911 have been indexed and offered online at ancestry.com. Searchable as well is the census of western Canada taken in 1906 and 1916. This was part of a project initiated in 2008 when the Library and Archives Canada partnered up with Ancestry.ca Additionally the historical census are also searchable online via Ancestry.com covering the era between 1851-1916.

The original holdings of the census or the primary source records are at the Library and Archives Canada. To search for a particular family or surname, the census originals on the LAC web site are arranged by Federal enumeration district. To determine the district you can search for the land location through the homestead (land) records, by reading a local history / family biography book, the census records transcribed on automated genealogy, using a rural municipality or historical map to determine township, range and meridian, searchable database, finding the cemetery, birth, death or marriage (bmd) record which would record the place of residence

Ancestry.ca took it upon themselves to digitize and index the microfilm records in the LAC holdings. At some time the complete digitized records will be available free of charge to visitors of the LAC website. At this time, the Census of the Northwest Provinces, 1906 is fully searchable on Library and Archives Canada by surname, given name, age and province.

When using the census for other years at Library and Archives Canada to locate an ancestral family, a knowledge of historical geography will be of assistance. Saskatchewan became a province in 1905, and before this the population was enumerated as part of the Northwest Territories. In 1882 the Northwest Territories were divided into provisional districts using distinct and different borders than the current provinces.

To determine other Saskatchewan census information and web sites online, a collection is assembled at the Saskatchewan Gen Web Census Information web page. This web page includes the Census for the Hamlet of Insinger, Saskatchewan taken in 1921, the Census for the Hamlet of Duff, Saskatchewan 1920, as well as the Census for the Hamlet of Duff, Saskatchewan 1920 which were compiled online by Sue (Kesiah).

Provincial archives additionally have a number of other village and town census records. These records done on the years when the National census was not being taken were compiled to determine the localities eligibility to incorporate as a town and the need to show the pre-requisite population of 500 or more residents. If a town, the locality may choose to incorporate as a city with a population of 5,000 or more persons, if the census count so warrants.

Public libraries have on file the census 1666-1916 available on microfilm or can obtain it via interlibrary loan if they have a microfilm reader. Along with the Census of Canada, the 1918 Census of Independent Doukhobors: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia compiled into a finding aid by Jonathon Kalmakoff is available through the provincial archives and libraries.

“Library and Archives Canada is pleased to be part of this collaborative agreement with Ancestry.ca, which” said Mr. Ian E. Wilson, Librarian and Archivist of Canada, “…will truly enhance Canadians’ ability to fully explore their documentary heritage and will also be of great interest to those around the world with ancestors who immigrated to or visited Canada.”

“This is a win-win relationship for Library and Archives Canada and Ancestry.ca as the partnership,” says Josh Hanna, Senior VP, Ancestry International reports, “…will create a seamless flow for digitizing and indexing vast Canadian records and will be a huge benefit to family history researchers in Canada who will soon have the opportunity to access more collections than ever before.”

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints also partnered with Ancestry.com providing the expertise, experience and person hours in the indexing of the 1916 census. Family Search now provides the 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, and 1916 census online . The
1911
census is in the Family History libraries.

First partnering with the LAC back in 2008 in regards to the census, now Ancestry.com is partnering with the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society. Look toward the addition of the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Indexes in 2013 to the Ancestry.com Canadian collections.

The Library and Archives Canada has indeed become “your gateway to Canadian’s past.” It is with pleasure and inspiration to see the several diverse communities and organizations come together to share the information in the new digital age. Enjoy the new records being released which provide an insight into diverse peoples and settlers. The information reveals a fascinating insight into Saskatchewan’s rich agricultural history and multicultural heritage. ~ Article written by J. Adamson

Further Information:

Census Information

Saskatchewan History and Ethnic Roots

1919 Alberta, Saskatchewan Manitoba Waghorn’s Guide

1925 Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba Waghorn’s Guide

Gazetteer of U.S. and Canadian Railroads 1922

Saskatchewan Highway Map 1925

Rand McNally 1924 Indexed Pocket Map

Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Maps 1924

______________________________________________________________________________

Bibliography:

Archives Canada Directory of Selected Genealogical Resources.

Canadian Census Collection 1997-2013 Ancestry.com

Censuses of Canada 1851, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1906, 1911 and 1916. Library and Archives Canada.

The Historical Canadian Census Collection 1851-1916 ~ Ancestry.com 1997-2013 Ancestry.com

Library and Archives Canada Partners with Ancestry.ca ~ What’s New ~ Library and Archives Canada Partnership allows unprecedented online access to Canadian historical records.
2008-11-10

Saskatchewan Gen Web Project ~ Census

What to Search Topics: Genealogy and Family History ~ Library and Archives Canada 2011-08-22.

______________________________________________________________________________

Related posts:

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

Where were Saskatchewan Homesteads Located?

How do I locate my ancestor’s home town in Saskatchewan? Have you ever visited your ancestral home?

______________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Flickr, Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, 500 px and Flickriver

______________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

______________________________________________________________________________

Thank you for stopping by, your comments are much appreciated. All rights reserved. Images copyright © Aum Kleem; Article copyright © J Adamson. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed through Getty images. Peace and love be with you. Namaste.

______________________________________________________________________________

William Wallace Gibson ~ First Flight of a Canadian Airplane

22 Nov

Shadow Dancing - Explore

William Wallace (Billy) GIBSON (March 28, 1876 – November 25, 1965)

Nothing ever built arose to touch the skies unless some man dreamed that it should, some man believed that it could, and some man willed that it must.

~Charles Kettering

William Wallace (Billy) GIBSON was born March 28, 1876 in Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland to William GIBSON and Margaret LEES. W.W. Gibson or Billy arrived in Canada on June 20, 1883 when he was just seven years old. His kites flew across the prairies as GIBSON learned the basic principals of aerodynamics succeeding at launching a craft heavier than air into flight ~ detailed crafts carried aloft behind a galloping pony ridden by a young boy with a dream.

These kites, powered by wind were instrumental in the research and development of airplane design. The GIBSON Twin Plane and GIBSON Multi Plane pioneer aircraft to come utilized both motor and propellor for their propulsion system. Without formal schooling, without a team of engineers, Gibson mastered lift, aspect ratio, stability and construction flying his gopher piloted kites – his initial tethered aircrafts before launching the first successful all Canadian airplane.

“Man must rise above the Earth—to the top of the atmosphere and beyond—for only thus will he fully understand the world in which he lives,”

~ Socrates.

LOGANSTON

“Dreams do come true, if we only wish hard enough.You can have anything in life if you will sacrifice everything else for it.”

James Matthew Barrie

His father, William Gibson born February 14, 1847 in Auchinleck, Ayrshire, Scotland, was one of three stonemasons who arrived in the Moffat area of Saskatchewan June 1, 1883, and erected a fine stone house over the years 1884 to 1885, naming it Loganston, the very first stone house of the district. This stone mason, noticed the limestone and granite stones across his field, and decided to erect a kiln, and as Haensel wrote in Western People, Loganston house is still standing. The family followed these two years of hard labour with more, constructing as well a fine barn. Moffat, Assiniboia, North West Territories is reminiscent of the historic romance movie Brigadoon according to author Kay Parley of They cast a long shadow: the story of Moffat, Saskatchewan.

Forty families left from the shores of the Bonnie Doon river, and re-located near Wolseley on the banks of Wolf Creek. As William Gibson said of the Canadian North West, “Strawberry, raspberry, brambleberry, gooseberry, black currant, cherry, cranberry, saskatoon berry, and others. Mrs. Gibson has made over 100 lbs of jelly this summer from wild fruit” He also spoke of fertilizers, “I have used manure to a few potatoes to try the effect it had along with others planted without manure, and they did no better with it.” in the book “What settlers say of the Canadian North-West a plain document of the experiences of farmers residing in the country; The Canadian Pacific Railway Manitoba, the Canadian north-west testimony of actual settlers. GIBSON’s father also wrote a journal, which was published in the Ayrshire post from which the early experiences of these hardworking Scottish pioneer families is recorded and known.

BILLY GIBSON CHILDHOOD YEARS

“Pale Face Jumping Deer”

Oh, oh, oh!
Let’s go fly a kite
Up to the highest height!
Let’s go fly a kite and send it soaring
Up through the atmosphere
Up where the air is clear
Let’s go fly a kite!

— from “Mary Poppins” Written by Robert B. Sherman

Kites were always a passion, and gophers were his first pilots as they flew above the prairie fields. Known as the Bird Man of Balgonie GIBSON spent years on his hobby experimenting with flight. His power plant propelling his kites from the spring end of the window blinds encouraged to go further. One of his kites measured in at seven feet (2.1 meters) and carried a basket packed full of nine gophers. Just imagine GIBSON galloping across the Saskatchewan prairies on his little pony flying his elaborately designed kite in his wake, learning and studying the principals of aerodynamics.

In 1883, a small seven year old is often found playing with the grandson of the great Chief Piapot, the Cree Indian Reserve of Piapot being 25 miles northwest of Regina was near the Loganston Farm of Moffat. The book Silver Cloud by GIBSON reminisces about the friendship that had developed amongst these friends. Little Billy Gibson soon became friends with the children of Grey Eagle, and Billy received the name “Pale Face Jumping Deer” as he could outjump his playmates from page 22 of Canada’s flying heritage by Frank Henry Ellis (1896-1979.

GIBSON attended the Abbotsford School as a child, and the first school classes were held in the attic of Loganston house for the first month which began approximately the spring of 1886 under Andrew T. Fotheringham. The classes then took place in the abandoned Robert Yule log home under Mr. Argue, a University student. By December 18, 1885, the Abbotsford Protestant School District #37 was organized. The school building was erected in 1888, and classes began May 6, 1889. At the age of 13, (1889) he left school to assist the family on the farm located at the SE quarter of section 4 township 16 range 10 west of the 2nd meridian. The family adopted one of the many British Home Children, Johnny Vipond another 13 year old arriving in Canada from the Dr. Bernardo Home in the spring of 1889.

BIRD MAN OF BALGONIE

“When once you have tasted flight, you will forever walk the earth with your eyes turned skyward, for there you have been, and there you will always long to return.”

~Leonardo Da Vinci.

It was in 1900, when he set out on his own starting up a blacksmith in Wolseley. Purchasing hardware dry goods in Regina, he re-located to Balgonie and started a hardware venture there about a year later which had become quite prosperous. The very first automobile in Saskatchewan was owned by GIBSON IN 1902. Around 1903, at the age of 27, GIBSON blossomed. He invested in a railway construction venture. He accepts a contract to construct 42 miles of right-of-way; 20 miles north of Wolseley, and another 22 miles west of the Touchwood Hills. As a railway contractor, he completed 40 miles of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway.[4]

GIBSON also founded a hardware business in Craven, Saskatchewan with a partner, Olin Abner Beach (1882-1966) in 1904, Beach and Gibson Hardware Store. Business warranted another hardware and implement business in Cupar, Saskatchewan.[1][2]

News of the Wright brother’s success in 1903 spurred GIBSON onward. During these years GIBSON had switched from flying kites to experimenting with model airplanes. The spring in a Venetian blind roller powered his model airplanes. He launched a large paper glider from the roof top of his hardware store in Balgonie using it as a prototype model for a man carrying aeroplane with engine.

Privacy was a determining Scottish trait inherited by the young inventor. He tested out aviation engines in the early hours of daybreak to avoid scepticism and mockery as well thus protecting his credit rating. It was in this time he developed a four cylinder air cooled engine, testing this aeroplane engine at Balgonie, Saskatchewan June 19, 1904.

The railroad fever had the potential for a large payoff, however GIBSON’s gamble failed. The Railway venture caused GIBSON to loose $40,0000 within a year and a half. To make ends meet, he was required to sell off his chain of hardware stores which had arisen in Balgonie, Cupar and Craven. William Gibson, his father, began employment with the Forestry Division of British Columbia’s Department of Education. GIBSON also left for British Columbia with his family in 1906.[3]

GIBSON, an adventurous soul, had traveled to Victoria seeking fortune in the gold rush. Around and about 1908, he meets Lucky Grant who had his gold mine prospect up for sale. GIBSON purchased a 17 foot boat and set sail up the ocean coast, arriving in Clayoquot eight days later. Here He re-united with Grant and they traversed overland to the Leora Mine. Immediately GIBSON purchased the prospect selling Locky, his boat, camera, rifle, field glasses and some cash. GIBSON knew what was required to mine this spot, and traveled back to Victoria for a water wheel driven small stamp-mill. The mining venture at the Blackpearl Mine was productive, and GIBSON was able to flip the mine for $10,000 cash early in 1910.

FIRST SUCCESSFUL CANADIAN AIRPLANE ENGINE

GIBSON TWIN PLANE

“”This plane can teach you more things and give you more gifts than I ever could. It won’t get you a better job, a faster car, or a bigger house. But if you treat it with respect and keep your eyes open, it may remind you of some things you used to know — that life is in the moment, joy matters more than money, the world is a beautiful place, and that dreams really, truly are possible.”

~ Lane Wallace

He was now financed for the era of “aeromania” fueled by the Wright Brother’s flight in North Carolina. Tristan Hopper of the British Columbia Magazine, relates that France’s Louis Blériot was embarking on his dream to fly cross the English Channel, Magician Harry Houdini was working upon a French biplane in Australia. Even the Canadian inventor Alexander Graham Bell assembled together an American engineering team and embarked on a mission to build a flying machine.

Now GIBSON had the means to return to his aviation hobby and settle in at Victoria B.C. He purchased a large home on 146 Clarence Street in the James Bay region of Victoria. He was able to make use of Beacon Hill for test flights. Neighbors would flap their arms and just at his experiments, so again he took to the early morning hours, and night time trial runs. His initial hand built engine did not take to the air, however GIBSON persevered. In an interview with the Victoria Colonist July 1909, GIBSON states, “The machine is [intended to be] 65 feet long and 14 feet width at its widest part. There it differs radically from all the machines hitherto made. They all present their widest part to the wind, proceeding, so to speak, sideways. I go straight ahead, like a steamboat or a fish.” Gibson was convinced that a long, narrow air craft was the best design promoting flight and diminishing the risk of capsizing in the air.

On the other side of the world, Bleriot was undertaking a flight across the English Channel, July 25, 1909. And coincidentally, GIBSON make a wager of $1000 that he would achieve a flight to Seattle or Vancouver before the end of the year crossing the Gulf of Georgia.

Working in a local machine shop, and partnering with the Hutchinson Brothers, he soon had a six cylinder, air cooled 40-60 horsepower aircraft engine weighing in at 210 pounds constructed. With the aid of Tom Pimley of the Plimley Bicycle Company, a four wheel undercarriage was fashioned from bicycle tires. Fred Jeune proprietor of Jeune brothers supplied the blue silk to cover the 20 foot wings which were mounted lengthwise providing 330 square feet of lifting surface area. The monoplane designed by Blériot had only 160 square feet. The plane is twenty feet long, and eight feet wide. GIBSON fashioned two propellers and mounted a saddle in front of the engine. The entire craft was 54 feet in length with contra propellers before and aft of the engine. Ahead of his time, GIBSON’s use of gull wings, baffle plates within the fuel tanks, and the direct drive contra-rotating propellers are innovations used in contemporary aeronautical design.

At Tolmie, Victoria, on September 8, 1910, GIBSON set off on his inaugural flight in the GIBSON twin plane on the Dean Farm, now the locality of the Victoria Landsdowne Airport. He reached a height of about 20 feet and a distance of 200 feet! As pilot of this craft, GIBSON cut short the flight early as he needed to cut the engine to avoid the trees at the far end of the runway. The landing completely broke the riding wheels.

GIBSON survived, having been thrown from the plane, but the aircraft hit the trees. GIBSON surpassed the initial flight record of the Wright Brothers which had maintained a distance of only 120 feet. Aviation pioneer A.V. Roe in England also did not meet this achievement with his inaugural flight of 100 feet.

“His flight this week was seen by several people who wondered what the enormous moving thing in the air could be as they saw it sailing across fields towards Mount Tolmie,” was the extent of the September 9, 1910 Daily Times newspaper write up. However this great feat is now reported thusly, “in 1910, William Wiallace Gibson of Victoria, without formal training, designed and built the first successful Canadian aircraft engine,” recognizing the contributions GIBSON made to aviation in British Columbia, GIBSON was inducted into The British Columbia Aviation Hall of Fame.

The first flight was followed by another on September 24, 1910. This flight recorded in the article Pioneer Flying in British Columbia, 1910-1911 by Frank H. Ellis in the The British Columbia Historical Quarterly, October 1939 related that the plane rose about fifty feet, “passing the shelter of a clump of trees a strong cross wind was encountered with the result that the aeroplane was drifted dangerously near some trees, Mr Gibson not using his rudder. He shut off his engine to avoid collision and came down, but unfortunately his wheels were not equipped with brakes and the momentum drove the aeroplane into an oak tree at the rate of about 25 miles an hour….on discussing the flight, Mr. Gibson said he was under the disadvantage of having to learn the art of aviation by experience, there being no “flying schools” in British Columbia” The National Aeronautical Museum in Ottawa has preserved this engine which powered his twin plane.[3] The Twin plane was re-built to size and is on display in the British Columbia Aviation Museum near Victoria.

GIBSON MULTI PLANE ~ THE FLYING VENETIAN BLIND

To most people, the sky is the limit. To those who love aviation, the sky is home.

– anonymous

GIBSON sold his home for $14,000 to continue financing his aviation hobby. GIBSON honestly came by a true Scottish character, a “tenacious nature”, with a “willful stubbornness” and very patient to achieve his long term goal. Lieutenant Governor Thomas Wilson Paterson (1851-1921 Lt Gov 1909-1914) offered the use of the Paterson Ranch located near Ladner, British Columbia in the Fraser River delta providing a flat surface. It is here that GIBSON made test flights in his multi plane. The new design incorporated forty planes of Spruce wood which gave rise to the name; the flying Venetian Blind. Again, the craft had two propellers, and a new 60 horse power engine invented entirely by GIBSON. It was reported in the 1952 edition of The Beaver that this airship could bear the weight of twelve men.

GIBSON’s wife, now worried about his safely, made him promise to take no more test flights. On May 31, Paterson, joined by Frank J. McKenzie, M.L.A. and other residents were present at the Paterson Farm to watch the first attempt. J.B. Woods of the Western Motor and Supply Company in Victoria is to be the “demonstrator”.[5] In an unfortunate twist of fate, the day was calm resulting in a failed flight due to the lack of wind.

GIBSON tested his craft around Kamloops, B.C. before trying the drier air in Alberta, near Calgary. Partnering now with Alex Japp, GIBSON tries again. A new 6 cylinder air cooled, 2 cycle engine is developed producing 40 horsepower on a tandem, gull-wing monoplane. The flight on September 8, 1910, the landing gear is needing repairs. The on September 24, another flight, and a side wind took the plane resulting in a landing without power crashing into an oak tree.

The book Artificial and natural flight was published in 1908 by Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, (1840-1916). Following his father’s dream to conquer the air, Maxim chose to construct an airplane rather than a helicopter. Maxim’s first attempt at flight was made August 31, 1894. Conveyed along railway tracks like a roller coaster, it did not lift off, and crashed at the end of the line. His next models were all tested in wind tunnels, but did not become successful.

Japp reads Maxim’s book, and makes design changes to GIBSON’s multi plane incorporating ailerons amongst other tweaks. on August 12, 1911 completing a flight of one mile in the GIBSON multi plane. He used Spruce for the wings, and tried it out on the flat plains near Calgary. Here GIBSON made successful test flights, and to settle his wife’s fears while she is abroad on vacation, Alex Japp became the pilot. Japp steers the aeroplane trying to avoid the badger holes on the runway upon landing, ditching the plane into a swamp, and the craft is destroyed. In honor of his flying feat, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington built a model of his airplane for display.[3]

Following these aeronautical experiments, GIBSON returned to gold mining along the Kennedy river Leora Gold Mine inventing his own mill and mining machinery. GIBSON was able to produce $20,000 worth of gold from a mine which was most active between the years 1902 and 1915.

GIBSON MILLS MANUFACTURING COMPANY ENTERPRENEUR

Genius is the gold in the mine; talent is the miner who works and brings it out.”

~ Marguerite Blessington

Gibson abandoned the mine in 1933, embarking on the GIBSON MILLS manufacturing company in San Francisco. A successful inventor, GIBSONs mining machines were successful and in demand internationally.

GIBSON RETIRES WITH JESSIE

In 1940 he was 64 and living in the Oakland Judicial Township, Alameda, California with his wife Jessie P, born in Michigan, 1895. Here GIBSON retires, and yet to quote Seneca, “many discoveries are reserved for ages still to come . . . . Our universe is a sorry little affair unless it has in it something for every age to investigate.”

INDUCTION INTO THE CREE TRIBE AS A GREAT CHIEF

Kisikaw Wawasam ~ “Flash in the Sky Boy” ~ Great Chief Piapot

Name bestowed upon William Wallace Gibson

The traditions of our people are handed down from father to son. The Chief is considered to be the most learned, and the leader of the tribe.

~ Sarah Winnemucca Paiute

It was Thursday, July 15, 1948, when over 600 First Nations people were present at a large dramatic ceremony. GIBSON, now a resident of San Fransisco, was present, fulfilling the prophecy told to him in 1883, some sixty five years earlier. Now at 72 years of age, GIBSON received the name “Kisikaw Wawasam“, the name of the Great Chief Piapot which translated literally to English means “Flash in the sky boy.”

GIBSON was thus inducted as a great chief of the Cree Nation in Saskatchewan, the prophecy told to the seven year old boy, “Pale Face Jumping Deer” was now complete. First Nations of the Piapot Reserve, the Qu’Appelle and Crooked Lake Indian agencies unveiled a memorial cairn to Chief Piapot at the ceremonies.

This induction honour had only been bestowed twice earlier, upon John Phillip Sosa, the American band leader, and upon D.C. Coleman president of the Canadian Pacific Railway who had both been previously inducted as a chief of the tribe. GIBSON traveled to Ottawa on his trip to Canada, where he took in the Dominion Archives display of his first airplane engine assembled in British Columbia before returning home.

OTHER HONOURS

Throughout the centuries there were men who took first steps, down new roads, armed with nothing but their own vision.

~ Ayn Rand

A commemorative cairn was erected on Richmond Road. According to Bill Irvine, the locations is ” former site of Landsdowne Airfield (Victoria’s first airstrip), beside Knox Presbyterian Church 2964 Richmond Road, Victoria BC, Canada” and it reads:

HONOURING

WILLIAM WALLACE GIBSON

WHO DESIGNED AND BUILT AND

FLEW THE FIRST ALL

CANADIAN AIRCRAFT AT THIS

SITE ON SEPTEMBER 8th 1910

*

ERECTED BY : EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION

CHAPTER 142

CORPORATION OF THE DISTRICT OF SAANICH

8 SEPTEMBER 1985

PUBLICATIONS

Authored by William Wallace Gibson

“Your vision will become clear only when you look into your heart. Who looks outside, dreams. Who looks inside awakens.”

~ Carl Jung

He wrote several books:

Title The Birdmen
Author William Wallace Gibson
Published 1923 republished 1942
Length 23 pages

Title Flash-in-the-sky-boy: From the Letters, Manuscripts, and Published Works of William Wallace Gibson
Author William Gibson
Editor with additions by Kay Parley
Published 1967

Title: Silver Cloud OR the Last Buffalo
by W.W. Gibson
It is the “story of the love affair of a young Indian girl and a white settler boy.”
The pamphlet has a photo showing Gibson attired in full Cree regalia
published 1900, and c1905
Regina Saskatchewan
Re-published c 1940 California

WILLIAM WALLACE GIBSON FAMILY TREE

All successful people men and women are big dreamers. They imagine what their future could be, ideal in every respect, and then they work every day toward their distant vision, that goal or purpose.

~ Brian Tracy

The tombstone for William Wallace GIBSON’s parents is in the Ross Bay Cemetery

Erected
by
Margaret Gibson
In memory of
Her husband
WILLIAM GIBSON
Born
Auchinleck, Scotland
Aug. 23, 1847
Died at Victoria
July 11, 1918
MARGARET GIBSON
Born at Patna
Scotland
March 22, 1849
Died April 13, 1940

[Margaret – daughter of James F. Lees & Margaret McConnachie]

On the sides of this stone are entries for both – Margaret & Jean Gibson – their daughters –

Jean Wilson GIBSON
Ross Bay Cemetery
Vancouver Island Region, British Columbia

Also their daughter
Margaret
M. C. GIBSON
Born at Dalmellington
Scotland
July 18, 1874
Died April 9, 1921
Jean W. GIBSON
Born at Wolseley, SK
Sept. 8, 1886

[Daughters of William & Margaret McConnachie Gibson – their details on side of this stone. Jean died 16 Mar. 1973, aged 86. Both single & died in Victoria]

Photos of the Gibson family; Mrs. William Gibson, William Gibson, Hugh Gibson and William Wallace Gibson.

Parents:

WM Gibson 1847-1918 Margaret (Maggie) Mcconnachie Lees 1874-1940

  • Gibson William
    Head born Auguest 27 1847 Patna Ayrshire, Scotland died July 11, 1918 Victoria, British Columbia
  • Gibson Margaret McConnachie
    Wife born March 22 1849 Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland died April 13, 1940 Victoria, British Columbia Parents James Lees, Margaret Mcconnachie

Married April 6, 1871 in Straiton,Ayrshire,Scotland
emigrated to Canada June 1, 1883 settled on SE quarter of section 4 township 16 range 10 west of the 2nd meridian homestead in Moffatt, Assiniboia, North West Territories. (location changed names to Moffatt region near Wolseley, Saskatchewan, Canada in 1905)

Family Siblings

  • Gibson John Son born June 29, 1871 Dalmellington, Ayrshire, Scotland died November 22, 1954 Victoria, British Columbia
  • Gibson Jas James Lees Son born November 11, 1872 Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland died September 10, 1924 Essondale, British Columbia married to Maggie Campbell died 1903
  • Gibson Margaret McConnachie Daughter born July 18 1874 Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland April 9, 1921 Victoria, British Columbia age 45
  • Gibson William Wallace Son March 28 1876 Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland died November 25, 1965 Oakland, Alameda, California married to Jessie P died 1978
    • Lived in Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland 1881 to June 1, 1883>>Winnpeg, MB June 1 1883-June 20, 1883>> Moffatt, Assiniboia, Northwest Territories (later Saskatchewan) June 20, 1883 to 1901 >>Wolseley, Saskatchewan >> Balgonie, Saskatchewan (with ties to Craven, Saskatchewan and Cupar, Saskatchewan)>> Victoria, British Columbia >> Kennedy river region, British Columbia >>San Fransisco, California>> Oakland, Alameda, California
  • Gibson Hugh Wilson Son March 7 1881 Dellmellington, East Ayrshire, Scotland died September 10, 1964 Victoria, British Columbia married Edna Catherine Robinson
  • Lees Thomas Nephew April 25 1884
  • Gibson Jeanie Jean Wilaon Daughter September 8 1886 Moffatt, Assiniboia, North West Territories (later province of Saskatchewan) died March 16, 1973 Ross Bay
    Vancouver Island Region, British Columbia

Grandchild of Wm and Maggie:

  • James Gordon Gibson born January 8, 1906 Craik, Saskatchewan died March 7 1969 Victoria, British Columbia s/o John Gibson and Jane Paul Loree married on June 10, 1927 in Craik Saskatchewan to Bessie Loree age 23 b1904 London England d/o John E. Loree and Alice Baldwin.
  • Baby Gibson died December 18, 1934 at Victoria, British Columbia c/o Hugh Wilson Gibson and Edna Catherine Robinson.
  • Margaret Gibson d/o James Lees Gibson and Maggie Campbell daughter Margaret was raised by wife Maggie’s parents Donald Campbell and his wife Helen Cameron; this family left the Moffat, Saskatchewan area in 1916

Family of Margaret Gibson nee Lees wife of William Gibson

William Wallace Gibson Maternal Ancestry

Lees, John Head married June 29, 1838, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
married McConnachie, Margaret

  • Lees James born May 1, 1840, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees Jean born June 15, 1842, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees Thomas born Oct 21, 1844, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees Mary born Dec 22 1846, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees Mcconnachie, Margaret born March 22 1849 Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland died April 13, 1940 Victoria, British Columbia
  • Lees John born May 10 1851, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees William born March 22, 1856, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland
  • Lees Janet Born August 29, 1858, Straiton, Ayrshire, Scotland

BIBLIOGRAPHY

“No person was ever honored for what he received. Honor has been the reward for what he gave.”

~
Calvin Coolidge

[1] Title: Beach in Canada, A Pictorial Genealogy

Abbrev: Beach in Canada

Author: Mahlon W. Beach

Publication: Privately published, December 1978

[2] Title: A Brief History of David Beach and Phoebe Daniels Beach and their Descendants

Abbrev: Brief History

Author: Wilfred Warren Beach

Publication: Unpublished manuscript, Chicago, 1932

[3] Bridging the Past.
Wolseley and District. 1880-1980.

Wolseley and District History Book Committee.

ISBN 0-88925+27+0

Friesen Printers. Altona, MB.

Pages6 and 57

[4] Victoria Colonist, July 7, 1909

[5] Victoria Colonist, May 2, 1911.

[6] Victoria Colonist, June 2, 1911.

[7] Letter from A.D. Paterson to Frank H. Ellis dated June 1, 1939.

[8] Daily Colonist, Victoria, September 10, 1910.

[9] From Cordwood to Campus in Gordon Head 1852-1959

Ursula Jupp

ISBN 10: 0969065027 / 0-9690650-2-7

ISBN 13: 9780969065029

Publisher: estate of Ursula Jupp

Publication Date: 1975

[10] Title The Beaver

Contributors Hudson’s Bay Company, Canada’s National History Society

Publisher Hudson’s Bay Co., 1952

[11]People who lived in stone houses

Western People

August 26, 1982

[12] Understanding Saskatchewan through “Our Towns”

Publisher Leader Post
Date May 23, 2008

[13] Title Saskatchewan History, Volumes 28-30

Contributors University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan. Archives

Publisher University of Saskatchewan., 1975

[14] Title Canada’s flying heritage

Author Frank Henry Ellis

Edition revised

Publisher University of Toronto Press, 1973

Original from the University of Michigan

Digitized 12 Feb 2008

[15] Uncharted skies : Canadian bush pilot stories / Walter Henry and the Canadian Bush Pilot 1993.

[16] Riders on the wind / Laurence Swinburne ; illustrated by Dan Hubrich. 1980

[17] Canada’s aviation pioneers : 50 years of McKee trophy winners / Alice Gibson Sutherland ; foreword by C – Headquarters:
[18] Title Indian fall: the last great days of the Plains Cree and the Blackfoot confederacy

Page 203

Author D’Arcy Jenish

Edition illustrated

Publisher Viking, 1999

Original from the University of Wisconsin – Madison

Digitized 18 May 2010

ISBN 0670880906, 9780670880904

[19] Title Recollections of an Assiniboine chief

Authors Dan Kennedy, James R. Stevens

Editor James R. Stevens

Contributors Dan Kennedy, James R. Stevens

Edition illustrated

Publisher McClelland and Stewart, 1972

ISBN 0771045107, 9780771045103

Page 57

Frank Ellis, O.C., a noted aviation historian, Canada’s first parachute jumper and aviation pioneer who flew his own biplane in 1914 wrote several articles about GIBSON:

[20] Gibson, William Wallace. “William Wallace Gibson; a Canadian pioneer of the air by Frank H. Ellis, in The British Columbia Historical Quarterly, April, 1944.

[21] – Flash in the sky boy, by Frank H. Ellis, in Western Wings, July-August 1960.

[22] ” Ellis, Frank. “First Flying wing; the story of an attempt to conquer the air made by three ingenious farmers of Alberta in 1907-8, The Beaver, outfit 277 (March 1977), 6-9. illus.”

[23] Ellis, Frank. “Pioneer flying in British Columbia, The British Columbia Historical Quarterly, III (October 1939), 227-261.”

William Wallace Gibson: A Canadian Pioneer of the Air

[24] A biography

Author Frank Ellis

Published 1946-45

held at the City of Vancouver Archives

[25] Additionally, the Saanich Archives has a Gibson Displayset up honouring the achievements of William Wallace Gibson’s first flight at “George Deans’ farm near Mount Tolme.”[9] The photograph of the cairn and plaque erected at Landsdowne and Richmond roads in 1985 at Landsdowne Airfield. This commemoration came twenty years posthumously.

[26] Coming in On a Wing and Some Wire

The Montreal Gazetter
March 9, 1968

[27] AS well, Partners in Motion produced an episode “The Balgonie Birdman” for the one hour documentary series, The Canadians, Biographies of a Nation which aired on History Television NOvember 15, 1998.

[28] “The Balgonie Birdman”, a nine minute animation feature film, produced by the National Film Board of Canada, was directed by Brian Duchscherer and released in 1991.

[29] Photographs exist attesting to the achievements of W.W. GIBSON at the Glenbow archives. An image of his aircraft engine on display at the National Air Museum, Ottawa, Ontario, and his wooden plane built in Victoria, British Columbia, 1911.

[30] Also a photo exists of the very first airplane built in Regina, Saskatchewan by William Wallace Gibson in 1907.

[31] A photo (#8551) of the GIBSON twin plane is held at the Canadian Aviation and Space Museum

[32] On September 10, 2010, the B.C. Aviation Museum honoured the 100th Anniversary of Flight in Victoria B.C., (100 years Gibson’s flight) reported Bill Irvine, the event was hosted by Caroline Duncin of the Saanich archives, and Dave Marratt was the master of Ceremonies.

[33] Saturday July 17, 1948 a Canadian Press story entitled “Inducted into Cree tribe as Great Chief Piapot,” published by the Lethbridge Herald.

[34] The 1952 edition of The Beaver published by the Hudson’s Bay Company with contributions from Hudson’s Bay Company, Canada’s National History Society, quoting the Canadian Press Induction into Cree Tribe story first published in Regina on July 17, 1948

[35] Induction Ceremony Story published by the Winnipeg Free Press Page 2, Friday August 6, 1948.

 

________________________________________________________________________________

For more information:

Saskatchewan Gen Web Ethnic History – Scottish Roots

Saskatchewan Gen Web – Transportation

Yorkton Gen Web Region

________________________________________________________________________________

Related Posts:

•The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

•Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?
________________________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Word Press, Blogger, Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, Sask Gen Web Ancestry.com and Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________

Buy my work

Tears in my Eyes ~ Bleeding Heart by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Tears in my Eyes ~ Bleeding Heart
by Julia Adamson

Michelle Lang- Canadian Journalist Jan 31, 1975-Dec 30, 2009

12 Nov

Spring's Sweet Cantata

Michelle Lang- Canadian Journalist, Jan 31, 1975-Dec 30, 2009

Lest We Forget

Michelle Justine Lang, (January 31, 1975-December 30, 2009) journalist had ties to Saskatchewan, holding a position in Moose Jaw at the Moose Jaw Times Herald. She followed by an agricultural breaking news for the Regina Leader-Post, as her career took her to Regina.

Throughout her formative years in journalism she embraced dedication, tenacity, and enthusiasm.

Graduating from Simon Fraser University, her first journalism position was out of Prince George, British Columbia at the Prince George Free Press. Staying on at the Cariboo Press community newspaper, she was honoured as outstanding junior reporter in 1999.

Her final posting was with The Calgary Herald, Postmedia News.

Her unique interviewing style placed others at ease, enhancing her investigative reporting abilities.

National Newspaper Award was conferred upon Lang in 2008 for outstanding journalism.

It was soon to follow, that in 2009 she traveled to Kandahar to report first hand on the efforts of the Canadian military seeking to improve life for the Afghan people. On December 11, 2009, Lang set down at the NATO military base at Kandahar Airfield for a six week assignment with Canwest News Service (later Postmedia News) which was cut short in her third week abroad.

It was here that she lived on the Kandahar Airfield base in a tent, and she was free to go off base accompanying the soldiers doing their manoeuvres.

“Prior to her leaving she asked me what I wanted to read, and I said I wanted to read about the good stuff that they’re doing over there. She died trying to get those types of stories,” reminisced her fiancé, Michael Louie.

Canwest, editor Randy Newell spoke of Lang’s desire to follow up on her experience as a medical reporter in Calgary, and report on hospital care during her visit to Kandahar.

Wednesday morning, December 30, Lang boarded a helicopter and flew to the Kandahar Military-Civilian base, leaving the comparative safety of the airfield base behind.

Lang, wearing both helmet and body armour traveled along with nine soldiers in the Dand District Centre, Kandahar District, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan aboard a Light Armored Vehicle (LAV-3) as part of the Stabilization Company A convoy.

The Dand District Centre construction project was one of two major initiatives undertaken in December of 2009 by the Canadians following a suicide bombing by two Taliban insurgents in March of 2009.

Lieutenant Colonel Roch Pelletier, chief of operations for the Canadian brigade in Kandahar reported that the 12 ton vehicle was flipped completely over, and flung off the road by the homemade explosive device, also called an improvised explosive device (IED), set under the road dubbed Route Molson Ice.

Lang, and four Canadian soldiers lost their lives along this quiet dirt road about four kilometers outside of Kandahar City at about 4:00 p.m. Private Garrett Chidley, Corporal Zachery McCormack, Sergeant George Miok, Sergeant Kirk Taylor lost their lives that fateful Wednesday.

The other four Canadian soldiers sustained injuries in the blast along with their Afghan interpreter and a civilian. Corporal Bradly Darren Quast required a number of surgeries to mend injuries to his leg and foot.

The Kandahar City-based Provincial Reconstruction Team was on its second routine patrol when the second vehicle exploded. They were reportedly heading to the Hosi Aziz village at 16:00 to meet with local residents regarding further projects.

“They look for quick-fix projects or longer term projects to (give jobs to) those who could be possible insurgents — fighting age males, said Lieutenant-Colonel Pelletier, “It gives them a reason to earn money and that is better than working for the insurgents planting IEDs. At the same time it improves their quality of life. They often work on irrigation canals, wells, schools, mosques.”.

Lang, embedded with embedded with Joint Task Force Afghanistan (JTF-Afg), interviewed civilians, and soldiers in her twenty days abroad focusing on development and reconstruction of cities and rural villages. Federal cabinet minister Gary Lunn and Canada’s chief of defence staff, General Walter Natynczyk also met with Lang over the Christmas season.

Michelle Lang’s online blog headlines of her time at Kandahar:

Lang, the first Canadian journalist killed during the Afghan conflict received military honours at a ramp ceremony on January 1, 2010.

I believe the Canadian Forces did it to recognize the people who take the same risks, who are here for the right reasons . . . who are here to learn more and help,” spake Adam Sweet, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade officer with Canada’s Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT), “She was a real sweetheart. When you talked to her you felt good. Even if you didn’t have the answer she wanted, she’d just laugh. She was very easygoing.

The ramp ceremony was followed by a repatriation ceremony in Trenton at the Canadian Forces Base there.

Lang answered the call to duty and although not donned in uniform is engraved with honour on a Saskatchewan plaque remembering fourteen soldiers who fell in Afghanistan as part of the Canadian military mission.

The Afghanistan Plaque carries the names of those with ties to Saskatchewan, honouring,

  • Corporal Jordan Anderson
  • Corporal James Hayward Arnal
  • Corporal Cole Barsch
  • Lieutenant Justin Boyes
  • Corporal David Braun
  • Captain Nichola Goddard
  • Corporal Shane Keating
  • Corporal Bryce Keller
  • Michelle Lang
  • Sergeant Darby Morin
  • Lieutenant Andrew Nutall
  • Master Corporal Josh Roberts
  • Sergeant Prescott (Scott) Shipway
  • Corporal Dustin Waden
  • Master Corporal Jeffrey Walsh

The Joint Task Force Cenotaph erected in 2006 paid tribute to the soldiers at Kandahar Field. The marble cenotaph was shipped to Ottawa November 10, 2011. This memorial honoured 149 fallen Canadian Forces soldiers, Lang, civilian Marc Cyr, and Foreign Affairs official Glyn Berry.

Their memories were also preserved upon the Afghanistan Repatriation Memorial astride the Bay of Quinte in Bain Park near the largest Canadian Forces Base, Trenton was unveiled Saturday November 10, 2012.

Canada’s price in the Afghanistan mission took the lives of 158 armed forces personnel, one diplomat, two aid workers along with Lang. Even though Canada has withdrawn from combat operations in Kandahar, Canada is still active in training Afghan military and police forces for another two years involving 900 soldiers.

The Saskatchewan War Memorial on the Legislative grounds, west of the Provincial Legislature Buildings on Memorial Way, Regina, Saskatchewan, honours over 10,000 Canadian Forces personnel who offered the ultimate sacrifice in wartime and peacetime missions.

Art and Sandra Lang, her parents, attended the unveiling ceremony in Regina, Saskatchewan on Saturday, October 23, 2010.

Along with her parents, her immediate family includes her brother Cameron Lang, and his fiancee Sandra Benavide, and many relatives who mourn their loss. Lang was engaged to Louie from Calgary, Alberta with a proposed marriage date of July 3, 2010.

The Michelle Lang Fellowship, created posthumously in her honour, provides a rookie journalist with six months employment at Postmedia News, Ottawa, and six months at The Calgary Herald. The experience provides networking and first hand journalism orientation facilitating confidence and success for a rewarding career in journalism.

In the preceding decade, over 500 journalists have been killed reported the Canadian Journalists for Free Expression. In 2008, Melissa Fung, a CBC reporter was held kidnapped by Afghn rebels. In Afghanistan, three journalists had been previously injured.

The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) created a listing online comemmorating over close to 950 journalists killed in action since 1992 providing timelines and narrative biographies.

“While not regularly the subject of news, those journalists who risk their lives reporting alongside the men and women of the Canadian Forces in one of the most dangerous regions in the world should not be forgotten,” affirmed Director of Communications / Press Secretary Prime Minister’s Office, Dimitri Soudas.

Natynczyk honoured her memory along with the fallen soldiers, “She was a tremendous Canadian, tremendous professional journalist and a role model for all young people and young women striking out on a career that is very difficult,” Natynczyk says, “”You know to some, those are names. To me, those are great people. Great soldiers. Great journalist. People who have gone across to the other side of the world to try to bring peace right here. … It’s very humbling to be here today and to share this with all the families so that they know that their loved ones’ service and sacrifice will never be forgotten by our country.“

Bibliography:

________________________________________________________________________________

For more information:

Related Posts:

________________________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Word Press, Blogger, Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, Sask Gen Web Ancestry.com and Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________

Buy my work

The Debate Regarding Saskatchewan Consolidated Schools

30 Sep

Viburnum Trilobum ~ High Bush Cranberry ~ Explore

The Debate Regarding Saskatchewan Consolidated Schools

Wherever there were ten school aged children within a 36 square mile area, early Saskatchewan pioneers and homesteaders could apply for a One Room Schoolhouse District. The little white schoolhouse soon began dotting the prairie landscape, and along with it came a host of attendant responsibilities. Communities elected school trustees to apply to the provincial government and the rural municipality for funding towards schoolhouse, teacherage and barn construction costs, teacher, secretary salary. A teacher was required along with support structure of water, books, maps, desks, stove and heating fuel.

Rural farmers or homesteaders were faced with the challenge of proving up their homestead which necessitate that the new settler must build a residence, live on the land for three years, make improvements and break a minimum of fifteen acres. Times were hard, money was scarce, community residents could pay taxes or supply a couple days per quarter section labour constructing much needed roads, bridges, and fireguards in lieu of paying taxes. However, it was the taxes which kept the one room schoolhouse operational and paid the school teacher‘s salary.

The prairie school system began in 1884 with four established school districts Moose Jaw #1, Qu’Appelle #2, Prince Albert #3, and Regina #4. By 1913 in the province of Saskatchewan alone, there were 3,214 school districts, 15 Roman Catholic Separate Schools and two Protestant Separate School Districts.

Dr. Harold W. Foght, reported in A Survey of Education 1918 that Saskatchewan had 3,608 school districts operating in 1916 under 4,279 teachers, with another 406 school districts which had been organised. “By the early 1930s, Saskatchewan possessed 4,371 rural schools…These schools were administered by 4,371 autonomous school boards, composed of 13,113 duly elected trustees, 4,371 paid secretaries, and a retinue of odd jobs people, who kept the school clean, hauled and cut wood for the classroom’s pot bellied stove, and supplied water to schools which were without their own wells ~ that is, where these chores were not part of the teacher’s duties,” reported Robert Tyre page 3 in Tales out of School ~ The Little Red Schoolhouse.

To maintain a one room schoolhouse in 1915 ratepayers were apportioned taxes based upon the number of students attending school which covered half the teacher’s salary. The remaining portion of the salary was collected from taxes based on a fixed rate per quarter section of land in the school district area. On average a resident may pay between $17.00 to $23.00.

Teachers during this era may receive $20 ro $30 per teaching month along with housing and the lower salary supplemented with farm goods. Teacher’s were expected to work out or farm when school was not in operation.

“There are too many School Districts with summer schools only, a scarcity of duly qualified teachers to man the existing districts and the new ones daily created, …four-fifths of Saskatchewan’s school children are denied the advantages of an education which town and city people can and do enjoy,” reported Arthur A. Frye on interviewing a rural school teacher. The system of non-education set in place in 1915 was considered more expensive than Consolidated Schools with qualified teachers.

Even though legislation was passed in Saskatchewan as early as 1920 had passed legislation in favour of consolidated schools, but as Sir Frederick Haultain, chief justice of Saskatchewan and chancellor of the Saskatchewan University, pointed out that Saskatchewan’s small population did not support such provision.

Mr. Morris secretary-treasurer of the Ontario School Trustees’ Association felt that consolidated schools in Ontario, of which there were 16 in 1922 would be more successful in that province. Saskatchewan being more sparsely populated would face higher operation costs.

Premier W.M. Martin, Saskatchewan’s minister of education in 1921 spoke of the costs to maintain both the consolidated schools and the transportation costs. “The law calls for the province to provide one-third of the cost of conveying the children to school in the consolidated districts. If all the districts in the province were to consolidate, I do not know where we would get the money to pay the costs. Earlier, Martin mentioned that Saskatchewan had about 4,500 schools in the province. The rate of taxation is at $40 to $75 a section to maintain a consolidated school.

It was in 1939, that Mr. Justice W.M. Martin leading a commission on Education advised that a fair and equitable salary for teachers. Schools were managed jointly by the provincial government authority and locally by the school district, and during this time the government was finding it difficult to collect taxes to pay for the schools, and the school district, as well was hard pressed to raise funds. A new system for collection of school taxes wax implemented in 1939 which helped to impose a minimum wage of $700 for teachers. Rural districts reviewed their taxation rate to raise the operational costs of $950 for a one room schoolhouse.

Problems arose in 1946 trying to transport children to consolidated schools over roads which could not be cleared of snow due to a lack of equipment.

Rural municipality borders should be set before those of the consolidated school units to ensure more uniform tax rates collected by RMs advised J.M. Wheatley of Chancellor, AB president of the Alberta Union of Municipal Districts addressing the 1946 Rural Municipalities Association delegation.

The provincial government underwent a crisis in logistical coordination of local government services stated J.H. Brockelbank, Resources Minister in 1956.
Larger school units meet with on average ten RMs up to as many as 17 to coordinate planning of road systems. The RM may itself be divided by larger school units, and collect taxes for two, three or four school units along with any rural consolidated schools not within the larger school unit and any remaining one room school districts. This means that the rural municipality council must collaborate with up to four larger school unit boards to collect taxes and plan the needed road programs. Province wide in 1956 there were 300 school districts, 29 consolidated school districts, and 56 larger school units coordinating with 296 rural municipalities, 370 towns, 98 villages, and eight cities.

Historically, in 1916 each rural municipality had dealt with on average about fifteen one room schoolhouse districts.

The evolution from the one room schoolhouse to consolidated schools was made possible by

  1. Improvements in transportation as society shifted from horse and cart upon Red River Cart trails to automotive transport on asphalt roads and highways.
  2. A shift from rural areas to urban regional centres during the “Dirty Thirties”.
  3. Emergence of the larger farm and improved wheat yields due to new machinery fueling the growth of urban service centres.
  4. A need to downsize the number of school organizational units to reduce financial costs and to eliminate duplication of administration services which could be amalgamated.<
  5. Declining enrolment in rural one room schoolhouses resulted in school closures as early as July 26, 1944. Any schools which had less than 15 students enrolled were closed in an effort to relieve the shortage of teachers according to The Calgary Herald.
  6. A restructuring of the taxation system.

Jointly these were the main factors which enabled the shift from thousands of rural one room school houses to the “modern” consolidated school unit and transportation system.

“Education is simply the soul of a society as it passes from one generation to another.”~G. K. Chesterson

Further Reading

______________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Flickr, Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, and Flickriver

______________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________

Buy my work

Landmarks and Geophysical Saskatchewan Placenames. Quiz Two.

29 Jun

Loyal and True KISS

Landmarks and Geophysical Saskatchewan Placenames.

This is an additional bit of fun. Following up on the previous Saskatchewan placenames quiz Here is yet another.

In the early days of the northwest plains when Saskatchewan was named Rupert’s Land or the North West Territories, travel followed animal trails on foot, horseback, or ox-drawn Red River cart. Egress was supplemented by bull boat and canoe over rivers and lakes. During these days, there were sparse settlements and no highway signs. Travelers identified their journey by geophysical features. The earliest resting stops, and settlements were generally speaking named after these landmarks.

Quiz Two.

Directions: Complete the quiz by identifying a Saskatchewan placename that best fits each clue.

1. Algae, Water basin.

2. Sight, Summit.

3. Grand earth.

4. Rapid, Waves.

5. Expansive panorama.

6. A bend or half turn.

7. Gigantic, Watercourse.

8. Colour, Meadow.

9. Diminutive Mountains.

10. Colour, Soil.

Give your hand at these crossword type puzzlers, and the answers will be published with the next entry! In taking time to do a fun and relaxing puzzle such as this one, not only does it stimulate the brain cells, but it also helps identify great resources in the way of finding out the names of Saskatchewan’s several placenames.

The geophysical features of Saskatchewan change between the grasslands, the aspen parkland and north of the tree line. Each biome has its own distinct water features, steppe, and hilly areas which were noted by early travelers as navigational aids. These changed slowly in the course of geological evolution, and were very reliable markers.

Following the fur trade era, the ecosystem was still invaluable to agricultural entrepreneurs. Settlers heeding Clifford Sifton‘s immigration call to the “Last Best West” would settle in areas where the soil types were similar to their home land. The agricultural methods and implements brought over on the long journey then met with success. A homesteader could fill out an Application for Entry for a Homestead, a Pre-emption or a Purchased Homestead. If the land was unsuitable the pioneer could file a Declaration of Abandonment with the provincial land titles office. Not only immigration settlers used the terrain and soil type to select a site, but aboriginal peoples would choose a reserve site similarly when signing a First Nations Treaty. Land agents traversing the plains by train would also check out the earth type which may be suitable to sell to large numbers of prospective clients.

Try to uncover the names of these Saskatchewan’s places. It may be helpful to use the Search Saskatchewan Placenames web page or perhaps one of the several map indexes at the Online Historical Map Digitization Project. Other resources would include the Saskatchewan One Room School House Project, or a reference chosen from the general Map Resources. Any number of atlases, gazetteers, census, or books may also be of assistance offering up some clues to these puzzlers.

Saskatchewan’s naming patterns are intriguing and convoluted, and to make matters easier Natural Resources Canada has published several helpful web pages amongst them Geographical Names. Try your hand at traveling via your arm chair discovering the various features of Saskatchewan’s landscape as did the forefather’s of this province. In this way discover a bit more of the surroundings for the early Coeur de Bois, First Nation and fur trading traveler.

________________________________________________________________________________

For more information:

•Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project

•Online Historical Map Digitization Project

•Search Saskatchewan Placenames

•How do I locate my Ancestors Home Town in Saskatchewan?

•Maybe the Ghosts Will Live Again
Saskatchewan Ghost Towns…

________________________________________________________________________________

Related Posts:

•The Value of Standardizing Placenames for Genealogists. First Quiz Answers.

•Test Your Knowledge of Saskatchewan’s Placenames. First Quiz.

•What can be found at the NEW Saskatchewan Provincial Archives website?

•The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

•Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•Love and Marriage in Saskatchewan- a comprehensive guide

•How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

•Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•How to locate birth, marriage and death certificates in Saskatchewan, Canada

•Are there genealogy sites that can compete with Ancestry.com?

________________________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Word Press, Blogger, Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, Sask Gen Web Ancestry.com and Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

________________________________________________________________________________

Buy my work

%d bloggers like this: