1921 Canada Census: Place of Habitation :: Rural Municipalities

24 Mar

Cummins map 144 Tuscola, Saskatchewan

1921 Canada Census: Place of Habitation

Rural Municipalities

This is an examination of the “Place of Habitation” on the Canadian 1921 Census in regards to the agricultural lands of the prairie provinces to better meet the needs of genealogists and other researchers who will make use of information and data from the Canadian 1921 census. It is erroneous to use the census enumeration district or sub-district name as a place of residence, as it would be incorrect to use the rural municipality name as an ancestor’s address. A rural municipality does not correspond to a city, town, village or hamlet.

A rural municipality is a region which is governed by reeve and councilors in much the same way that a city’s infrastructure needs are determined by a mayor and aldermen. Rural Municipality is often abbreviated R.M. In the prairie provinces, an average sized rural municipality is approximately six townships in size, each township encompasses an area of six miles by six miles making a rural municipality eighteen miles by eighteen miles. A rural municipality has the closest correspondence to the usage of the term “county” in other countries. The seat of the rural municipality may be an office located in a town or city within the perimeter of the rural municipality, however the town or city is governed independently with its own mayor and town(city) council. A rural municipality formed to make local improvements to the area in the form of sidewalks, roads, bridges, fire protection, &c. Early homesteaders could help in these community projects in lieu of paying taxes under special arrangements.

For a place of residence, early farming residents would provide the nearest Post Office to their homestead location as their address as is often seen on the World War I Canadian Expeditionary Force application files. As towns, villages and cities became established, post offices became established in these urban centers, and there was a departure from the rural postmaster operating a post office in their residence. In correspondence, a rural land owner may say they live in a certain “district”, which usually would refer to the school district in which their farm was located and where the family children attended the one room schoolhouse.

When referring to the 1921 census it is important to distinguish between the terms used on the census enumeration form. The first few columns refer to column 1) number of dwelling in order of visitation by the census enumerator, column 2) number of family, household, or institution in order of visitation column 3) name of each person whose place of abode was in the household. The next set of columns refer to place of habitation. For rural dwellers with agricultural holdings, this location was usually referred to with the legal land description with columns allocating the section, township, range and meridian. The next column was entitled “Municipality”.

For rural residents, this “Municipality” column holds the name of the “Rural Municipality”. For an example; referring to the original document District 217, Sub district 11 in the province of Saskatchewan Page 5 It cannot be said that the city, town nor village is named King George. Looking at the 1924 Rand McNally Map (or another historical map) for the area of the first entry on page 5 of the census mentioned above, a John Smith, who is the head of the household residing at section 13 township 26 range 12 west of the third meridian – Municipality King George.

It is easily determined by using the township and range nomenclature that the cities, towns and villages which are near to township 26, range 12 west of the third meridian are the placenames of Mosten, Steeledale, and Wiseton which happens to be on the Canadian National Railway line. In this case, the municipality does indeed refer to the King George Rural Municipality Number 256. Unless it is a specific rural municipality map, rural municipality names are not mentioned on provincial highway or historic railway maps. If a larger area is shown for example on an atlas map, it usually refers to an electoral district, either provincial or federal depending on the atlas and its key.

Placing the legal land location for the John Smith residence, section 13 township 26 range 12 west of the third meridian, into the Prairie locator one obtains the GPS conversion. The resulting GPS location, in this case, is 51.2198, -107.5509 which would locate the section which is an area of one mile by one mile. Now this GPS location is approximate for the actual farm land holdings, as some farmers did own an entire section of land, but pioneer homesteaders usually started out on a quarter section of land, which would be one half mile by one half mile in size, and usually referred to as either the south west, south east, north west or north east quarter of the section [see diagram]. There are on the internet a number of listings for the western land grants which were issued to prospective homesteaders to narrow down the quarter section of residence.

Now then, incorporating these GPS coordinates into the Canadian Geographical Names Data Base (CGNDB) by coordinates (latitude/longitude) reveals that the following towns, villages and cities are within a twenty kilometer (12 mile) radius from the aforementioned GPS location.

Placenames twenty kilometer (12 mile) radius:

Anerley is a nearby Unincorporated area 23 kilometers – 14 miles away.

Dinsmore is a nearby Village 14 kilometers – 9 miles away.

Forgan is a nearby Unincorporated area 18 kilometers – 11 miles away.

Glamis is a nearby Unincorporated area 27 kilometers – 17 miles away.

King George No. 256 is a nearby Rural Municipality

Leach Siding is a nearby Unincorporated area 11 kilometers – 7 miles away.

Steeledale is a nearby Unincorporated area 5 kilometers – 3 miles away.

Wiseton is a nearby Village 12 kilometers – 8 miles away.

Using the CGNDB one can easily click on any of the above placenames to determine their exact location as well. So if one wanted to know the location of Wiseton, CGNDB provides the facts that Wiseton locates at section 17- township 27- range 12-West of the 3rd meridian at Latitude – Longitude : 51º 18′ 41” N, 107º 39′ 1” W and Latitude – Longitude (decimal) : 51.3113471, -107.6503142. Any location can be searched by place name or the name of the geographical feature as well.

Another source of locations would be the book, Geographic Names of Saskatchewan, written by Bill Barry, or the Library and Archives Canada Post offices listing which is online. The Post Offices and Postmasters Library and Archives Canada location result for Mosten – the closest placename to the John Smith 1921 census “place of habitation” is Section 6, township 27, range 11 west of the third meridian. The postal listing also lets us know that Mosten operated a post office between 1908 and 1941 under W.J. Stewart and Mrs. Eva Stewart (postmasters).

Studying the Search Saskatchewan Placenames will provide which Saskatchewan Gen Web area would be most likely to further genealogical or historical exploration on query boards, and mailing lists. The Search Saskatchewan Placenames listing provides over 3,000 Saskatchewan places some of which are no longer in existence. Contemporary Saskatchewan listings provide a very short amount of placenames in comparison to Search Saskatchewan Placenames as can be seen at the Saskatchewan City & Town Maps – Directory or the Saskatchewan Municipal Directory System . Many previous bustling centers which were villages or towns in the early twentieth century have now become unincorporated areas, ghost towns or hamlets.

When transportation was mainly done by walking or horse and buggy, settlements with stores, elevators and other amenities were located much closer together. It was quite common that homesteaders would walk from their farm into town for meetings or grocery supplies, and walk the distance of seventeen miles (27 kilometers) back home again. When the population relied upon automotive transport after the second World War, and highways were straightened and paved, the main urban centres grew exponentially, and the smaller towns, villages and rural areas began to see a shift of their population to the cities.

On the 1921 census, not every resident on the 1921 census lived rurally. The family of John Alfred Reynolds for example lived in the city of Regina in 1921. The first entry on the 1921 census for District Number: 225 Sub-District: Regina (City) Sub-District Number: 32 Page 4 does in fact provide the house address of 2040 Dewdney Avenue in the city of Regina. In another instance, Sidney Gordon Zapp is the first entry on District: Assiniboia District Number: 214 Sub-District Number: 52 Page 5
residing at 626 Second Street in the town of Estevan. (Estevan incorporated as a city in 1957 after the 1921 census).

Besides towns and villages which have disappeared since the early 1900s as mentioned earlier, rural municipality names and boundaries have also changed. The listing which follows provides a few of the name changes and mergers which have occurred historically in the province of Saskatchewan. The listing is not complete, as new updates regarding regional mergers and amalgamations come to light, they will be added.

Some of the Rural Municipality mergers and name changes:



  • Storkoaks Rural Municipality 31 adopted the new name; Storthoaks Rural Municipality 31 on March 15, 1912. Storthoaks Rural Municipality 31 originally incorporated on December 11, 1911.Source 1 2

  • Hastings Rural Municipality 66 adopted the new name; Griffin Rural Municipality 66 on January 30, 1910. Griffin Rural Municipality 66 originally incorporated on December 13, 1909. Source 1 2

  • Pipestone Rural Municipality 92 was renamed Walpole Rural Municipality 92 on February 15, 1911. Walpole Rural Municipality 92 originally incorporated on December 12, 1910. Source 1
  • 2

  • Bitter Lake Rural Municipality 142 disorganised January 1, 1951. Enterprise Rural Municipality 142 originally incorporated on April 18, 1913. Source 1 2

  • Rural Municipality of Waldeck 166 was renamed Rural Municipality of Excelsior 166 on March 1, 1916. Rural Municipality of Excelsior 166 incorporated on December 13, 1909.Source 1 2


  • The Rural Municipality of Keebleville, now named Fox Valley No. 171 as of November 27, 1926 On October 29, 1913 the Rural Municipality of Fox Valley No. 171 was incorporated.Source 1 2

  • Enterprise Rural Municipality 172 disorganised January, 1951. [See entry under RM 142 above.]Source

  • Vermillion Hills Rural Municipality 195 disorganised December 31, 1965. In the area of RM 195, is Rural Municipality Morse 165, larger than 3 x 3 townships, so investigating a merger there.Source

  • Local Improvement District formed May 26, 1905. The Rural Municipality of Strasbourg 220 held their first council election December 6, 1909. On July 15, 1919, theRural Municipality of Strassburg 220 was renamed Rural Municipality of McKillop 220. Rural Municipality of McKillop 220 originally formed December 13, 1909. Source 1 2 3

  • Millington Rural Municipality 249 disorganised December 31, 1951. In the area of RM 249 is the Rural Municipality of Mount Hope 279, a RM with boundaries larger than 18 mi x 18 mi, so investigating an amalgamation of area there.Source

  • On June 29, 1912, the Rural Municipality of Girvin 252 was renamed Rural Municipality of Arm River 252. Rural Municipality of Arm River 252 was initially formed December 13, 1909. Source 1 2

  • Mantario Rural Municipality 262 disorganised December 31, 1968. The Rural Municipality of Chesterfield 261 was formed from the merger of the Royual Canadian Rural Municipality and the Mantario Rural Municipality in 1968.Source 1 2

  • Devil’s Lake Rural Municipality 274 disorganised November 29, 1909. Good Lake Rural Municipality 274 came together on January 1, 1913. Source 1 2

  • Foam Lake No. 276, rural municipality was incorporated December 12, 1910. Foam Lake rural municipality No. 306 and Beaver No. 276 dissolved on December 31, 1952 becoming Foam Lake No. 276. Source 1 2

  • “In 1966 the neighbouring Rural Municipality of Fairview #258 was disbanded to join adjacent municipalities. The western half of Fairview was amalgamated with the Rural Municipality of Snipe Lake #259, and the eastern half was joined to the Rural Municipality of Monet #257 to form larger, more financially viable municipal entities.” December 13, 1909 was the initial incorporation date of Rural Municipality of Monet No. 257. Rural Municipality of Snipe Lake #259 incorporated on December 11, 1911, whereas the Rural Municipality of Monet #257 incorporated on December 13, 1909. Source 1 2

  • Kutawa Rural Municipality 278 disorganised June January 1, 2004. There would have been a boundary area change between the neighbouring Rural Municipalities, 279 to the west, 308 to the north, 277 to the east and 248 to the south.Source

  • Hillsburgh Rural Municipality 289 disorganised December 31, 1965. Amalgation took place with the Kindersley Rural Municipality No. 290 in 1965, and the Rural Municipality of Elma No. 291 amalgamated in 1951.Source Email RM 290

  • Elma Rural Municipality 291 disorganised June 1, 1951. Kindersley Rural Municipality 290 appears larger than an 18 square mile area, and there is also no RM 289 on current Rural Municipality listings.Source

  • On March 14, 1914, the Rural Municipality of Roach 339 was absorbed into the Rural Municipality of Ayr. On February 27, 1931, the Rural Municipality of Roach 339 was also absorbed into the Rural Municipality of Leroy. On January 1, 1913, the original boundaries for the Rural Municipality of Leroy 339 were formed. Source 1 2

  • Plasterfield Rural Municipality 340 adopted the new name; Wolverine Rural Municipality 340 on March 15, 1912. Initally, the Rural Municipality boundaries were set on December 13, 1909 for the Wolverine Rural Municipality 340 Source 1 2

  • Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344 started as a 3 x 3 township square RM, and expanded to a very large RM. It was formed in 1970 according to the Saskatchewan Gazette by combining the smaller rural municipalities of Cory 344, Warman 374, and Park 375. Rural Municipality 374 Warman and Rural Municipality 375 Park were disorganized at the end of 1969. Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344 incorporated January 1, 1970.Source 1 2

  • On April 16, 1934, the Rural Municipality of Richland 345 was absorbed into the Rural Municipality of Loganton. The Rural Municipality of Vanscoy 345 incorporated December 13, 1909. Source 1 2

  • Bushville Rural Municipality 348 disorganised September 1, 1950. Biggar No. 347, a neighbouring RM on old maps is larger than an 18 square mile area on current maps.Source

  • Hudson Bay Rural Municipality 394 and Porcupine 395 both incorporated after 1921.Source

  • Prairie Rural Municipality 408 disorganised June January 1, 1999. To the south of the historic location of RM 408 are RM 378 and RM 379, to the west is RM 409, to the east is RM 377 and to the north is RM 438.Source

  • On January 15, 1921 the Rural Municipality of Eldersley 427 was renamed the Rural Municipality of Tisdale 427. On December 9, 1912, the Rural Municipality of Tisdale 427 was established. Source 1 2

  • On February 28, 1938 the Rural Municipality of Carrot River 429 was renamed the Rural Municipality of Flett’s Springs. Rural Municipality of Flett’s Springs 429 incorporated initially on December 13, 1909. Source 1 2

  • Rural Municipality West Eagle Hills formed in June of 1910 from Local Improvement District 438. The name changed to the Rural Municipality of Battle River No. 438 in 1911. On December 12, 1910, the Rural Municipality of Battle River No. 438 incorporated.Source 1 2

  • Royal Rural Municipality 465 disorganised September 1,1950. On the subsequent boundary changes, the area was absorbed by the neighbouring RMs of Rural municipality Leask No. 464 and Rural municipality Meeting Lake No. 466 Source email RM 464

  • Torch River Rural Municipality 488 incorporated after 1921.Source

  • On February 28, 1938 the Russia 490 Rural Municipality was renamed the Garden River Rural Municipality. Garden River Rural Municipality 490 incorporated on January 1, 1913.Source 1 2

  • Rural Municipality of Rozilee No. 493 incorporated on January 1, 1913, and changed the name to Shellbrook No. 493 on October 20, 1923. Shellbrook Rural Municipality No. 493 came together on January 1, 1913. Source 1 2


  • Rural Municipality of Thompson No. 494 changed the name to Canwood on April 29,1916. Canwood Rural Municipality 494 incorporated on January 1, 1913. Source 1 2


  • Shell River Rural Municipality 495 changed names to Shell Lake Rural Municipality 495 on November 30, 1935, then Shell Lake Rural Municipality 495 disorganised December 31, 1953.Source 12

  • Paradise Hill Rural Municipality 501 disorganised December 31, 1953. Frenchman Butte Rural Municipality 501 organised on January 1, 1954.Source 1 2

  • Lakeland Rural Municipality 521 which had incorporated on August 1, 1977, adopted the new name; District of Lakeland Rural Municipality 521 on June 1, 2011.Source 1 2

  • On February 2, 1926 the Bright Sand 529 Rural Municipality was renamed Greenfield Rural Municipality. Greenfield Rural Municipality 529 disorganised June June 1, 1990. The Rural Municipality of Mervin 499 is a merger between Rural Municipality Greenfield 529 which had initially incorporated in 1915, and the original Rural Municipality of Mervin 499 formed in 1913.Source 1 2 3 Email Butch

  • North Star Rural Municipality 531 disorganised December 31, 1951. This is the approximate area of the Prince Albert National Park on current maps.Source

  • Paddockwood Rural Municipality 520, Big River 555, Loon Lake 561,Meadow Lake 588, Meadow Lake 588, and Beaver River 622 all incorporated after 1921.Source

 

 

Larger centers in Saskatchewan 1921

 

Populations of Cities and Towns having over 5,000 inhabitants in 1921, compared with 1901-11. [page 108-109 1921 CYB]
Cities and Towns 1901 1911 1921
Moose Jaw 1558 13823 19285
Prince Albert 1785 6598 7558
Regina 2249 30213 34432
Saskatoon 113 12004 25739
Yorkton 700 2309 5151
Population of Towns and Villages having between 1,000 and 5,000 inhabitants in 1921, as compared with 1901 and 1911 [page 112 1921 CYB]
Towns and Villages 1901 1911 1921
Assinboia - - 1006
Battleford 609 1335 1229
Biggar - 315 1535
Canora - 435 1230
Estevan 141 1981 2290
Gravelbourg - - 1106
Humboldt - 859 1822
Indian Head 768 1285 1439
Kamsack - 473 2002
Kindersley - 4586 1003
Maple Creek 382 936 1002
Melfort - 599 1746
Melville - 1816 2808
Moosomin 868 1143 1099
North Battleford (city) - 2105 4108
Rosthern 413 1172 1074
Shaunavon - - 1146
Swift Current (city) 121 1852 3518
Watrous - 781 1101
Weyburn (City) 113 2210 3193

In summary, the census do provide the place of habitation for ancestral research, corresponding with ancestral name and date. Realising the place of habitation correctly eliminates discrepancies and errors in future research. For example recording an ancestral address as “Kindersley” from the “Municipality” column, the researcher needs to take due care and diligence to determine whether it is meant the rural municipality of Kindersley No. 290 which has the communities of Brock, Flaxcombe, Kindersley and Netherhill within its perimeter, or if it is the town of Kindersley. The difference between allocating the address to the town of Kindersley or the rural municipality of Kindersley No. 290, for example, may mean the difference in locating or becoming lost in the search for the cemetery records or exploring a family biography or running into a brick wall when trying to delve into a local history / family biography book.

As an example, Delbert Acker has a place of habitation on fourth avenue in the town of Kindersley on page 14 Census enumeration district name Kindersley District Number: 217 Sub-District Number: 65 City, Town or Village: Town of Kindersley. Whereas on page 10 of Census District Name: Kindersley District Number: 217 Sub-District Number: 38 City, Town or Village: RM Kindersley records Angus Fletcher, a farmer, on section 6 township 30 range 22 west of the third meridian, municipality “Kin”. The placenames closest to 6 tsp 30 rge 22 W3 are Beadle, Viewfair, Kindersley and Netherhill. Online are a few listings of current rural municipality names in use now on wikipedia, Saskatchewan Genealogy Society cemetery index, the Saskatchewan Government’s Municipal Directory System or the Canada Gen Web’s Cemetery project listing. From these it can be seen that in all liklihood, the municipality listed as “Kin” above was an enumerator’s abbreviation for Kindersley when recording (in the case of these agricultural lands with sections, township and ranges, that the abbreviation “Kin” means the Rural Municipality of Kindersley No. 290. The abbreviation for “Kin” meaning the Rural Municipality of Kindersley No. 290 can also be confirmed by scrolling to the very top of the page to see that the enumeration sub-district No. 217 is located in R.M. Kindersley.

The overlap of placenames between census district name, placename [city, town, village or hamlet], and rural municipality may indeed be the same name, however each describes a totally different region. A census district name is allocated by the Department of Statistics, Government of Canada. The rural municipality is a rural civic administration district in the agricultural region of the prairie provinces, usually eighteen miles by eighteen miles in area with independently governed cities, towns, villages and hamlets within its perimeter. Please record the “Place of Habitation” information correctly in your genealogical or historical research so that yourself and others can follow the data flow, continue in their research endeavours with fewer brick walls, and many more successes.

Another note on abbreviations:
Using John Smith’s legal land location from above:
section 13 township 26 range 12 west of the third meridian this full nomenclature can be abbreviated as follows:

S. 13 Tsp. 26 Rge. 12 W3
Sec. 13 Twp. 26 R. 12 W of 3rd
13 – 26 – 12 – W3

For more information:

Municipal System History – Municipal Relations –

1921 Canadian Census

Saskatchewan in 1921 and the 1921 Census. ~ The Forgotten Depression.

Bibliography:

Pioneer Ways and Bygone Days in the West Eagle Hills. Prongua, Battle River, Lindequist, Drummond Creek, Cleveland. Prongua, Battle River and Lindequist History Book Committee. Turner-Warwick Publications Inc. North Battleford, SK. 1983.

Many of the sources for this article are embedded in the text.

Some of the sources came from email correspondences with the current Rural Municipalities as indicated.

Notice and Disclaimer:

The purpose of the information on this site is to assist genealogists, historians and other interested parties in locating information from various cemetery records. Please e-mail saskgenweb@yahoo.com if you have any further updates or additions. Thank you.

To cite this article:

Adamson, Julia. 1921 Canada Census: Place of Habitation . Saskatchewan Gen Web. Rootsweb. Ancestry.com . Retrieved .

Please E-mail saskgenweb@yahoo.com if you know of other historic rural municipality names which are no longer in existence. Thank you.

Copyright © Adamson, Julia. All Rights Reserved

Saskatchewan Genealogy MagazineSaskatchewan Genealogy Web : Sask Gen Web E-Magazine
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Finnish Canadian Genealogical Research

21 Mar

Below is a list and description of the most recent genealogy records for Finnish research.
This report begins with Microfilm 1832 and Microfilm 1833 held by the Canadian Library and Archives, LAC and continues with new submissions of the New Finland District on the Saskatchewan Gen web.

The microfilmed records of the LAC include Finnish plays, musical scores dating between 1905-1967. Included are regional and local records of the Finnish Organisation of Canada and activities of locals and district committees and church congregations across Canada between the time of the Finnish Organisation in 1902 to about 1977. Records of district committees for instance from Manitoba and Saskatchewan, comprise volumes 34-35,134,187 dating between 1915-1968. As well, from Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the locals of Lake Coteau, Manna, Mina/Nummola, New Finland, Pointe du Bois, Sherridon, and Steeledale/Coteau Hill have been preserved, the various Canadian local records date between 1903-1983 and are contained in volumes 46-57, 120, 128, 143-144,187-188,189,190-191,193. Youth Organization Records are local youth clubs whose archived documents date between 1934 to 1940. Separate to the above organizations were the Sports Organization Records which are held by the National Library and Archives dating between 1906 to 1973.

The online digitization from Microfilm 1832 and Microfilm 1833 provided by Heritage Canadiana include the sections related to the Finnish language newspaper edition of Työmies . The microfilms contain newspapers published by the Finnish Publishing Company Limited and Vapaus Publishing Company Limited including Työkansa “The Workpeople” and Vapaus.

The October 8, 1908 Finnish language newspaper edition of Työmies can be seen starting on “Image 20″ through Image 27 on Digitized Microfilm 1833. The January 4, 1098 edition of Työmies can be found starting on digitized reel 1832 at “Image 26″,

The next record on microfilm 1832 in the New York Times Magazine dated November 18, 1927 on “Image 323″.
The Työmies Finnish newspaper collection begins again at “Image 347″,

Continuing on in Digitized Microfilm 1833 the October 10, 1908 edition begins at “Image 28″ through Image 35;

The newspapers and publications have been collected since 1881.

The majority of records on the two actual microfilms [1832 and 1833] held by the LAC are in the Finnish Language, however many are in English. The above digitized Työmies Finnish newspaper collection which is on the internet is written in Finnish.

So, indeed, it looks like a considerable amount of information is contained in the Library and Archives reels 1832 and 1833 and it is most wonderful that the digitisation of records has commenced through Heritage Canadiana beginning with the historical Työmies Finnish newspaper.

Additionally, the Central Organisation of Finns which became the Finnish Club; Winnipeg Branch has submitted digitised historical images at the New Finland District web pages on the Saskatchewan Gen Web. These historical Finnish Club images compliment the Martta Norlen Memories Scrapbook 1937-1974 which includes information online about the Central Organization of Loyal Finns in Canada Suomalainen Kansallisseura Winnipeg Branch Nov. 6 1931, Helene Schjerfbeck 1862-1947,Kirjoitettu Suomeksi, Newspaper Clippings, Pastori A Koski, Ration Books, and a collection of Various Letters Section.

If you know of Finnish genealogy or historical records on the internet that have not been included at the New Finland District web site then please send us an email at newfinland201 AT @hotmail.com Please include the URL [http://www...] of the webpages which would link to the new records in your email.

We wish you every success in your genealogical endeavours. In summary, the Library and Archives Canada (LAC) has a treasure of Finnish information contained on the two microfilms, 1832 and 1833, of which the Työmies Finnish Newspaper 1908 editions are online through Heritage Canadiana. The New Finland District in coordination with the Finnish Club have come together to bring historical information online in the form of historical images and letters, newspaper clippings, and ration books. Through these collaborations, and endeavours, it is hoped that those family historians are assisted with their genealogical and historical research.

Notice and Disclaimer:

The purpose of the information on this site is to assist genealogists, historians and other interested parties in locating information from various cemetery records. Please e-mail saskgenweb@yahoo.com if you have any further updates or additions. Thank you.

Saskatchewan Genealogy Web : Sask Gen Web E-Magazine

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Is my ancestor’s grave marked with a tombstone?

6 Jan
Tears in my Eyes ~ Bleeding Heart by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Tears in my Eyes ~ Bleeding Heart by Julia Adamson

Is my ancestor’s grave marked with a tombstone?

To answer this query, “Is my ancestor’s grave marked with a tombstone,” it is necessary to determine the cemetery used for the burial site. As genealogists start researching by moving from the “known” towards the “unknown” locating a person’s place of burial can be researched in this same method. It is best to consult with relatives, family records, cemetery and church records, newspaper obituaries, professional genealogists and historians. In this way the cemetery can be located, then the next step would be to contact the local infrastructure department, church or private individual who maintain Saskatchewan cemeteries.

Once the internment location has been found, through research it may be that the burial site is unmarked. The plot may not have received a tombstone perhaps due to neglect, inattention, or hard times. The cemetery itself may have a policy of no tombstones such as at Forest Hills Memorial Park in Berks County, Reading, Pennsylvannia. In some cases the family or the person themselves may request no tombstone. Steve Jobs, Apple Inc. founder, has no tombstone. The internment sites of notable comedian John Belushi, and American author, H.P. Lovecraft, remain unmarked, and the family erected a cenotaph in a separate location.

Descendants may decide to erect a gravestone upon discovering this ancestor in their family tree, and honour their ancestor with a memorial. Genealogy societies such as the African Atlantic Genealogical Society (AAGS) joined with the he American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) to honour the unmarked gravesite of Eubie Blake, an African American composer. In researching notable local figures, societies, historians or agencies first must contact family descendants to receive permission to erect a tombstone. A similar project honoured and memorialised the unmarked gravesite of blues guitarist, Tommy Bankhead, by the Killer Blues Headstone Project in St. Louis.

For most of Saskatchewan’s cemeteries volunteers from various agencies have initiated their own cemetery projects to record burials. It is then possible to search internet grave registries to locate internment sites. There are global sites such as Find a Grave, Internment.net, or the Cemetery Junction Directory. In Saskatchewan alone several agencies have come together to compile listings of cemetery burials. These agencies are listed at Saskatchewan Gen Web – Cemetery Records – Obituary Records Just a very few agencies recorded at the aforementioned site are the Ancestor Recognition Project – Cemetery Preservation: Online Digitization, Canada Gen Web Cemeteries Project, City and town infrastructure departments, Odessa Library — a German-Russian Genealogical Library, Doukhobor.org, GRHS (Germans from Russia Heritage Society), International Internet Genealogical Society Library, Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness, Rural Municipality offices, Saskatchewan Cemeteries Project, Saskatchewan Mennonite Cemetery Finding Aid, Saskatchewan Genealogy Society and branches.

In Saskatchewan the Genealogy Index Search listing is online by the Government of Saskatchewan eHealth Vital Statistics division providing searchable information on “births registered with Vital Statistics more than 100 years ago, and deaths registered more than 70 years ago”. The burial index is searchable online available from research done by Saskatchewan Genealogy Society SGS members from their volunteer cemetery transcription projects. Many of the SGS transcriptions have been put on microfilm and are held with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Family Search centre.

It may aid the individual to search in the family biography / local history books published locally in the province by various communities during the province’s 50th anniversary celebrations (1955), 75th anniversary, (1980) and 100th anniversary (2005). Indexed books can be searched through the Saskatchewan Resident’s Index SRI or Our Roots Nos Racines to see if there are any family names within these resources. The local history committees who came together to write these books are an invaluable source of information as are the local museum curators and librarians.

If the town or placename that the individual resided is unknown, check the homestead records to determine the legal land location (address) for the pioneering family residence. Pinpointing this location on a map will indicate the closest rural placename and the nearest large centre. Entering these placenames in a library catalogue may assist in finding the relevant local history / family biography book. At times these books will also profer cemetery listings as well as biographies of the local residents submitted by the families themselves.

Locating the homestead on a map is actually very wise to assist narrow down the closest or most likely cemetery for the family to adopt. For instance the Rural Municipality of Excelsior #166 maintains 40 cemetery records and Sliding Hills RM #273 maintains 49 cemeteries. On average a rural municipality encompasses 9 townships each 6 miles by 6 miles square, so the RM itself would be an 18 mile by 18 mile area unless boundaries were altered due to population or natural boundaries such as rivers. Such a cemetery density would offer the family a choice of cemetery locations close to their homestead. They may opt for a church yard corresponding to their religious beliefs, desire to be interred in family plot, or choose a town or city plot if the final years were spent residing in an urban centre near senior’s or healthcare resources.

Without a cemetery transcription nor photographs of headstones available, it may be fruitful to ask the assistance of a professional genealogical researcher or some kind soul on the local mailing list or query board for the relevant region of Saskatchewan to check the cemetery for the ancestral burial site. If this is the case, do not expect an answer during the winter months. Between the months of October and April, snow covers the ground making traipsing through cemeteries difficult, and rendering headstones buried beneath the snow invisible to the sight.

To determine if a person is actually interred in a specific cemetery it would be helpful to consult church records, newspaper obituaries, cemetery burial certificates, census records or perhaps family records.

Cemetery burial records are held by the local administration; city or town authorities usually handle cemetery queries in their infrastructure department, parks and cemeteries. Similarly cemetery plot maps, and internment certificates are held by the rural municipality, the civic administration overseeing private rural farm and ranch lands, unorganised hamlets, unincorporated areas, localities, villages and former towns. Burial registers are held by religious denominations officiating at churchyard burials.

If the cemetery plot is located on private land, it is necessary to contact the private land owners for access to the site. This can be done by contacting the rural municipality office and purchasing an RM map of the area.

At times the cemetery may have unmarked graves, and cemetery owners may indulge in ground penetrating radar surveys to find and document all historic internment sites. If a cemetery has a paper trail, such as death certificates, or obituaries to show that an internment had taken place in the graveyard, then radar technology or grave dowsing may help to locate any unmarked sites.

In regards unmarked older cemeteries, it is necessary to contact the local historians for information and directions to a cemetery. For public cemeteries, a local resident would be able to offer directions to a cemetery currently in use. A rural municipality map purchased from the rural municipality would demark cemeteries, townships, ranges along with current roadways.

If a researcher is fortunate in finding the cemetery gravestones photographed online or the cemetery transcribed on the internet, that may help in locating the gravesite, unless the name is not listed. Such may be the case for the Ogema Cemetery in the RM of Key West 70, located in the northwest quarter of section 22 township 7 range 22 West of the 2nd meridian where both a cemetery transcription and tombstone photographs are online from two different agencies. If the ancestor’s name is not listed from either of these listings, but does indeed show up in the provincial genealogy index search where the Government of Saskatchewan eHealth Vital Statistics division indicates “births registered with Vital Statistics more than 100 years ago, and deaths registered more than 70 years ago”, then it would be wise to follow up with further research.

In the case of Key West 70 there are 27 local cemeteries, which are listed at in at least two sites online; Canada Gen Web or the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Cemetery Index . Another note to consider is that the town of Ogema is located in the southeastern portion of the rural municipality there is a chance that the family may have chosen a cemetery in a neighbouring RM such as Norton RM # 69 to the east, The Gap RM # 39 to the southeast, or Bengough RM # 40 to the south.

If one encounters such an experience of finding the death certificate in Saskatchewan with the Vital Statistics division, but no record of the ancestral name in the expected cemetery listings, it may be necessary to apply for the death certificate from Vital Statistics and or the burial (internment) permit from the Rural Municipality or in the case of this example, the Ogema town office. Most rural municipalities, cities and towns have their own individual websites online along with their contact information. The Government of Saskatchewan also has the Municipal Directory System online with contact information. MySask.com and Canada 411 are two online phone (and address) directories.

Officially civic registration of births, marriages and deaths did begin in 1905 with the formation of the province, registration did not become a regular practice until 1920. The government system to register deaths began in 1888 when the area was still part of the Northwest Territories. These early records of the Northwest Territories may be included in the Saskatchewan Provincial Archives or Manitoba Provincial Archives (Hudson Bay records) vital records collection. If the family chose to be buried in a churchyard, the church burial registers may indicate where an ancestral loved one may be found. If the deceased were registered under the terms of the Indian Act, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) maintains the Indian Register containing dates of birth, death, marriage and divorce information.

Equipped with a date of passing provided by the provincial EHealth genealogy index search another venue opens up. It becomes easier to follow up on an obituary search in an historic newspaper. However as indicated previously if families did not regularly register for a death certificate in the early pioneering years, they may not run an obituary, especially if the passing occurred in the dearth of winter, 40 degrees below zero, no plowed roads, actually no formal paved roads at all, and only horse and buggy for conveyance, or ox and cart. However, there were newspapers, and indeed some obituaries were run. Newspapers were published in the Northwest Territories in the late 1800s serving all of northwestern Canada. As settlement expanded out west, additional local newspapers sprang up across the province. Some these newspapers can be researched online as a few historic newspapers have been placed online by Google News for instance. Various editions of historic newspapers are held on microfilm in the provincial archives and public library system.

Additionally, with the known departure date, application can be made to the Saskatchewan Law Courts to search for wills, letters probate, letters of administration, estate titles which are held in the Wills and Estates Registry dating back to 1883. If desiring to erect a gravesite marker on an unmarked grave, it may behoove one to check if there is a will to honour any requests made by the departed if they wished to lie in an unmarked grave.

So in this way, by starting with the known, and working towards the unknown, steps can be taken to determine cemeteries in the locality where an ancestor resided. Searches can be made of transcriptions made by local residents to determine if the internment took place in a cemetery in the region. Many of these transcriptions are coming online. It is wise to investigate several regional cemeteries to cover all the bases. Without an ancestor’s name listed on a transcription made from tombstones, local church or civic registries can be consulted for historic burials in unmarked gravesites. Additionally the death certificate can be ordered from Vital Statics, Ministry of Health. Without a primary source document, to show that an ancestor was buried in the cemetery, it may not be possible to erect a tombstone, in such a case, perhaps a bench, cenotaph, a tree planting or commemorative sign could be placed in the cemetery honouring the relative and acknowledging their unmarked gravesite.

Article written by Julia Adamson

Bibliography

Saskatchewan Genealogy MagazineSaskatchewan Genealogy Web : Sask Gen Web E-Magazine
Answering Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

 

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Who Maintains Saskatchewan Cemeteries?

11 Dec

Rainy Days and Mondays

Who Maintains Saskatchewan Cemeteries?

To purchase a cemetery plot in the same cemetery as one’s family, to make a donation to the cemetery or to erect a tombstone for an ancestor it may be necessary to know the contact information for the owner/operators of the cemetery. Many cemetery owners and operators rely upon the sale of burial plots to fund maintenance and development of their cemetery land tracts. Technically “the operation of cemeteries in Saskatchewan,” reported Morgan, Don, Q.C., Minister of Justice and Attorney General, “falls under the purview of the Ministry of Justice and Attorney General.” The genealogist or family historian is offered more than just this one path of locating the cemetery owner, operator in order to discover if an ancestor is interred in a cemetery in Saskatchewan. wonderfully there are numerous organisations involved in transcribing around 3,500 cemeteries across the province.

To determine who maintains a cemetery in Saskatchewan, one way would be to contact the local funeral home. This information can be located in the phone directory located at either Mysask.com Directory Search or through Canada 411.

There are different levels of cemetery ownership in the province. Homestead pioneer interments may be located on private land. religious denominations may establish their own cemetery and care for them within their spiritual community. The Right Honourable George John Diefenbaker (a former Prime Ministers) is an historic site listed in Government of Canada’s Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada . Diefenbaker is interred beside the Diefenbaker Canada Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

Community or public cemeteries are usually owned at a municipal level. Cities may have a parks a parks and infrastructure department to look after cemeteries. Saskatchewan has 16 cities including Lloydminster, which traverses the provincial border with Alberta, but not including Flin Flon, which traverses the provincial border with Manitoba. The cities are (in alphabetical order) Estevan, Flin Flon, Humboldt, Lloydminster, Martensville, Meadow Lake, Melfort, Melville, Moose Jaw, North Battleford, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon, Swift Current, Warman, Weyburn, and Yorkton. Towns, and villages also maintain their own cemeteries.

Smaller communities may be cared for the by the rural municipality consisting of reeve (undertaking a similar capacity to the mayor of a city), councillors and administrator. Rural cemeteries may appoint a cemetery committee for the seasonal upkeep of the public cemetery grounds, weeding, mowing and general care, repair and grooming.

The Saskatchewan Genealogy has recorded the legal land locations, and names over 3,430 cemeteries in the province which is online “SGS Cemetery Index.” This index identifies the owner operator where known, and also if the transcript is available through the family search library maintained by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

There are a number of organisations actively involved in transcribing, documenting and photographing cemetery tombstones. The Saskatchewan Gen Web has a listing of them online.

So now lets take an example. Suppose that in using the Canada Gen Web Saskatchewan Cemetery Projet that one finds the Richard Cemetery is located near Speers, Saskatchewan at legal land location SW quarter of section 08- township 43- range 12 West of the 3rd meridian in the rural municipality of Douglas 436 which happens to be in the northwest area of Saskatchewan. Who would maintain this cemetery? Going to the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Cemetery Index and searching under he , one finds that in fact there are two Richard Cemeteries, however the ownership of both of them are unknown and neither have been transcribed by the SGS nor or they available on microfilm at the family search libraries through the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. If the cemetery had been transcribed by the SGS it would be a simple matter of searching the burial index. Now conducting a search on the Saskatchewan Gen Web Cemetery pages, to see if any other organisation has transcribed cemeteries for either the RM of Douglas or the Richard Cemetery near Speers, by using the “find feature” on your internet browser (pressing the control key and the key “f” at the same time), then it comes up that the transcription is in fact online.

To go on to help in different scenarios. If a cemetery happened to be looked after by a spiritual organisation – look to that organisation, the church archives, or the synagogue webpages for burial registers. If the cemetery transcription still is not found, one can search each organisation’s individual listing, or use your favourite internet web search engine, ie google, bing, yahoo search, etc, to see if the cemetery, closest community or rural municipality is online. Another option available to the family historian would be to Search Saskatchewan Placenames to discover which regional provincial gen web would have resources for the area around the cemetery, in this case looking up the name “Speers”. In so doing, one finds out that “Speers, Saskatchewan” (previously named New Ottawa) is located within the Saskatoon Regional gen web. Now the resources on the regional pages are also available and access to the Saskatoon Gen Web mailing list and the Saskatoon Gen Web posting (query) board where many many folks come together who also may be able to answer your query on a local regional level. It is also interesting to note that the Saskatchewan Gen Web Cemetery pages list other resources to locate an ancestor such as the death certificate searchable index, searchable obituaries, etc.

This helps the genealogist, but we have not found the folks who maintain the cemetery to make a donation for the cemetery upkeep, to purchase a cemetery plot or arrange for a tombstone for an existing internment. The cemetery owner can be traced by contacting the rural municipality in the Saskatchewan “Municipal Directory System” , in this case searching for the RM of Douglas 436. The other way to find the folks who maintain the cemetery would be to search for the funeral home in Mysask.com Directory Search or through Canada 411. In this example searching for a funeral home near Speers, Saskatchewan. The selection of the first and closest funeral homes which come up are in the city of North Battleford, 56.47 kilometres (35.09 miles) away, which would be able to offer assistance.

As noted on wikipedia, “cemetery authorities face a number of tensions in regard to the management of cemeteries.” Owners face issues relating to cost, limited amount of land, and the perpetual maintenance of historic monuments and headstones. If contacting a rural municipality office please consider a donation to help the cemetery operators realize the full potential of the special environment of the individual burial ground, and their improvements.

“Let’s talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs;

Make dust our paper and with rainy eyes

Write sorrow on the bosom of the earth,

Let’s choose executors and talk of wills”

~ William Shakespeare, Richard II

Bibliography:

Adamson, Julia. “Cemetery Preservation: Preserving Landscapes of Memories” https://aumkleem.wordpress.com/2012/12/20/cemetery-preservation-preserving-landscapes-of-memories/ Namaste Aum Kleem. Saskatchewan Gen Web E-Magazine. 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. Saskatchewan Gen Web Saskatchewan Gen Web Project – Church / Any Spiritual Affiliation Genealogy Resources. http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cansk/Saskatchewan/church.html Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Bylaw No. 6453. “http://www.saskatoon.ca/DEPARTMENTS/City%20Clerks%20Office/Documents/bylaws/6453.pdf City of Saskatoon. 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Cemeteries Act, 1999. Ministry of Justice. Government of Saskatchewan.” http://www.justice.gov.sk.ca/Cemeteries-Act-1999 1999. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Cemeteries Act, 1999″ http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/C4-01.pdf Chapter C-4.01* of the Statutes of Saskatchewan, 1999 (effective November 1, 2001) as amended by the Statutes of Saskatchewan, 2000, c.L-5.1; 2002, c.R-8.2
; 2009, c.T-23.01 ; and 2010, c.E-9.22. Government of Saskatchewan. Documents. 1999. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Cemeteries, churchyards, and burial grounds” http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118095356/http:/www.cabe.org.uk/files/cemeteries-churchyards-and-burial-grounds.pdf National Archives. United Kingdom Government. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Cemetery Regulations, 2001″ http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Regulations/Regulations/C4-01r1.pdf Government of Saskatchewan. 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Cemeteries legal definition of Cemeteries. Cemeteries synonyms by the Free Online Law Dictionary.” http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Cemeteries. Farlex, Inc. 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“City of Yorkton. Cemetery. ” http://www.yorkton.ca/dept/leisure/cemetery.asp City of Yorkton. 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

Desmond, Paige. “Perpetual care? Cities struggle to meet public expectations on cemetery maintenance” http://www.therecord.com/news-story/4036717-perpetual-care-cities-struggle-to-meet-public-expectations-on-cemetery-maintenance/ The Record. Metroland. 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Death in the Family” http://www.plea.org/legal_resources/?a=249&searchTxt=&cat=28&pcat=4 Public Legal Education Association – Legal Resources. 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“FAQ: CanadaGenWeb’s Cemetery Project” http://cemetery.canadagenweb.org/faq.html#cem CanadaGenWeb’s Cemetery Project 2004-2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“FAQ. Western Canada Cemetery Association. “http://www.westerncemetery.com/default.aspx?page=3 Western Canada Cemetery Association. 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Funerals Entire Collection. Canadian Consumer Handbook.” http://www.consumerhandbook.ca/en/topics/products-and-services/funerals
Federal-Provincial-Territorial
Consumer Measures Committee. 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

Adamson Julia. Saskatchewan Gen Webmaster. “Landmarks and Geophysical Saskatchewan Placenames. Quiz Two.” http://aumkleem.blogspot.ca/2012/06/landmarks-and-geophysical-saskatchewan.html “Quiz Two answers. Uncovering Historical Census and Cemetery Records.” http://aumkleem.blogspot.ca/2012/06/uncovering-historical-census-and.html Namaste Aum Kleem Saskatchewan Gen Web E Magazine. 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

Morgan, Don, Q.C. Minister of Justice and Attorney General. “Saskatchewan’s Historic cemeteries.” http://www.otcommunications.com/images/issue/sept10net.pdf Network Magazine. Canadian Cemetery Management. September 2010. Volume 24 No. 10. 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Municipal Directory System” http://www.mds.gov.sk.ca/apps/Pub/MDS/welcome.aspx Government of Saskatchewan. Municipal Directory System. 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

Ontario Gen Web Project Cemetery Records. http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~canon/research-topic-cemetery.html Ontario Gen Web Project. [Though for Ontario, a report on cemetery records, access and information available] 1997-2013 Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Refer to Bylaws and Regulations. City of Regina.” http://www.regina.ca/residents/cemeteries/cemetery-regulations/ City of Regina. 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

<aref=”http://www.regina.ca/residents/cemeteries/cemetery-regulations/&#8221; Refer to Bylaw and
“SGS Cemetery Index” http://www.saskgenealogy.com/cemetery/Cemetery_Index.htm” Saskatchewan Genealogy Society. 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Saskatchewan looking to preservation of Cemeteries. Eastman’s Online Genealogy Newsletter.” 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

Saskatchewan Provincial Government Wants to Preserve Forgotten Cemeteries. http://www.genealogyblog.com/?p=7215 Genealogy Blog. Canada, Cemeteries, Saskatchewan. 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

Town of Biggar, Saskatchewan. Bylaw No. 99-613. A Bylw to Acquire, maintain, regulate and control the Biggar Cemetery. http://www.townofbiggar.com/DocumentCenter/Home/View/221 Town of Biggar. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“367/09 Cemetery Bylaw | Town of Stoughton 367/09 Cemetery Bylaw | Crossroads of Friendship” http://stoughtonsk.ca/36709-cemetery-bylaw/ Town of Stoughton. Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“Weyburn. The Opportunity City. Services. Cemeteries.” http://www.weyburn.ca/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=22 Retrieved December 11, 2013.

“The graveyard was at the top of the hill. It looked over all of the town. The town was hills – hills that issued down in trickles and then creeks and then rivers of cobblestone into the town, to flood the town with rough and beautiful stone that had been polished into smooth flatness over the centuries. It was a pointed irony that the very best view of the town could be had from the cemetery hill, where high, thick walls surrounded a collection of tombstones like wedding cakes, frosted with white angels and iced with ribbons and scrolls, one against another, toppling, shining cold. It was like a cake confectioner’s yard. Some tombs were big as beds. From here, on freezing evenings, you could look down at the candle-lit valley, hear dogs bark, sharp as tuning forks banged on a flat stone, see all the funeral processions coming up the hill in the dark, coffins balanced on shoulders.”~ Ray Bradbury

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Montgomery Place Est. in 1946 by our War Veterans

9 Oct

Montgomery Place.

Est. in 1946 by Our War Veterans.

 


General Bernard L. Montgomery watches his tanks move up. North Africa, November 1942
General Bernard L. Montgomery
Photographer: Keating G (Capt) Imperial War Museums public domain photograph E 18980.

Canadian Forces veterans built their homes in the Saskatoon neighborhood community of Montgomery Place during the years 1946-77. Montgomery Place was established with small agricultural land holdings outside the city of Saskatoon under the Federal Government’s Veteran’s Land Act (VLA) for men and women returning from World War II (1 September 1939 – 2 September 1945) and the Korean War (25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953).

According the Library and Archives Canada, the “British and French Governments encouraged former soldiers to settle in Canada.” More than 140,000 veterans applied for grants and loans under the Veteran’s Land Act 1942. The Soldier Settlement Act of 1917 “to those who framed the Veteran’s Land Act of World War II, which avoided many of the problems inherent in the 1919 legislation.”Soldier Settlement

The 1942 Veteran’s Land Act was put forward to assist thousands of returning soldiers needing accommodation following the war. Grants and loans were made available to veterans wishing to construct their own home. Initially, qualified veterans could receive a maximum of $4,800, “of which $3,600 is the maximum for land and buildings and $1,200 is the maximum for chattels. But the maximum indebtedness the veteran assumes is $2,400.” A veteran wishing to be settled on a small holding near a village, town or city, in order to secure employment, an apply for assistance to build a home on the small acreage. Veterans could apply for a loan to be put toward fencing, a well, sundry tools, small implements, household equipment. 10 per cent of the land cost is due the Directory, and 2/3 of the land and improvement cost needs to be repaid over the next 25 years at an interest rate of three and a half percent.


In life, each of us falls a serious chance, some do not realize the full significance of the moment and miss him. Others, focused and dedicated, grab the opportunity with both hands and use it to the full, and the good people always show scruples in the choice of means to achieve their goals, they do not come on the head those who stand in their way.
~Field marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery

Generally “Land Settlement” refers to settlement on the land for full-time farming operating a wheat farm, mixed farm or dairy. The Veteran’s Land Act of 1942 aimed to provide for those veterans who had no experience nor background to undertake an agricultural operation. Assistance was offered with the aim that a “small holding settlement or part-time farming coupled with industrial, commercial, or other employment from which it is expected the main income will be derived. In this way, veterans established in a small holding settlement close to employment opportunities they could follow the trade or profession of their expertise and not feel obligated to start out in a full-time agricultural operation where they have no skill or experience.

In this way veterans held enough land in a small holding to “erect a home, landscape, and work to his own advantage…the majority of small holders are carrying on year by year with a planned property improvement. Each year further use and pleasure is being derived from the opportunities afforded by these generous-sized properties. There is family enjoyment from ample play yards, game areas, and flower gardens and pleasure to be derived from planting your own trees, shrubs, and flowers. Savings can be realized from the well planned home garden, and in many cases substantial incomes are being derived from special crops such as bush fruits, and perennial vegetables. Many of the small holdings home owners realized sufficient income to meet their taxes, or other expenses through vegetable or fruit crops grown on their property.”S-P 08-25-52 I.L. Holmes, acting district superintendent for the V.L.A. in Saskatoon said, “the over-all picture would lead to a lowering of general overhead costs.”S-P 08-25-52

By October 31, 1945, over 500,000 acres had been purchased across Canada by the Veterans Land Act Administration, of which 20,424 acres were purchased as small holdings at a cost of $4,306,280, and of these 12,392 were already in use. By the end of 1945, it was expected that 80 VLA homes would be completed in Saskatchewan, of which 25 were in the Saskatoon area. The following year, 1946, six houses were to be readied for occupancy.

 


“The morale of the soldier is the greatest single factor in war.”

~Field marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery

The Veteran’s Lands Act aimed at settling the veteran’s as part-time farmers or small agricultural holders who could supplement their income with chickens, vegetable growing, fruit trees, and gardens on their half acre lots. (Property lots in the Montgomery Place neighbourhood have frontages of 30-meters (100 feet). Several lots are close to half an acre. This compares to other neighbourhoods in Saskatoon, where property lots average 7.5 meters (25 feet) frontages in inner city areas, and 15-meters (50 feet) in other areas of the city. )

In 1963, Montgomery Place was expanded, and an additional 78 small land holdings of half an acre each were added. Under the revised VLA arrangements, “if title was secured and the plan approved, a war veteran making application for assistance to establish a small holding could receive a maximum of $12,000SP 5-19-62 in the form of a loan with which to erect a home. The maximum loan amounts were increased regularly to ease financial burdens upon the veterans due to inflation. The VLA arrangement came to an end in 1971, and non-veterans have also made residence in the Montgomery Place community. Over the course of the VLA operation over 125,000 veterans settled successfully.

Discussions to amalgamate the community of Montgomery Place with the city of Saskatoon began in 1954, and the neighborhood incorporated within the city January 1, 1955. A special property tax agreement was enacted protecting the veteran residents. This tax agreement expired in 1979, and full city property taxes were assessed. However, by this year, 50 of the landowners had subdivided parcels of land into smaller lots and sold them.

The Veterans Land Act was a program offering servicemen a welcome back home and an opportunity to re-establish themselves into civilian life. The Government supported this period of adjustment and desired to “put the veteran in as good or a better position than he enjoyed if he had not enlisted.”S-P 7-17-45

Located southwest of the 11th Street and Dundonald Avenue intersection in Saskatoon, the neighborhood of Montgomery Place streets and roadways memorialize the war effort; Caen Street, Arnhem Street, Normandy Street, Ortona Street, Merritt Street, Dieppe Street, Mountbatten Street, Currie Avenue, McNaughton Avenue, Rockingham Avenue, Haida Avenue, Simonds Avenue, Cassino Avenue & Place, Crerar Drive, Crescent Boulevard, Lancaster Boulevard & Crescent, Bader Crescent.

Arnhem Street Battle of Arnhem
Bader Crescent Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader ( February 21, 1910 – September 5, 1982) Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter ace
Caen Street Battle for Caen
Cassino Avenue and Place Battle of Monte Cassino
Crerar Drive, Crescent, Boulevard General Henry Duncan Graham “Harry” Crerar (April 28, 1888 – April 1, 1965)
Currie Avenue “Major David Vivian Currie, (8 July 1912 July 8, 1912)
Sutherland, Saskatchewan – 20 June 1986)”
Dieppe Street Battle of Dieppe
Gougeon Park
Haida Avenue HMCS – HAIDA
Lancaster Boulevard and Crescent Avro Lancaster Bomber
Lt. Col. Drayton Walker Park Lt. Colonel Drayton Walker (1900-1975)
McNaughton Avenue General Andrew George Latta McNaughton,( February 25, 1887 – July 11, 1966)
Merritt Street Lt. Colonel Charles Cecil Ingersoll Merritt ( November 10, 1908 – July 12, 2000)
Montgomery Place and Montgomery Park Field Marshal B.L. Montgomery ( November 17, 1887 – March 24, 1976)
Mountbatten Street Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; ( June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979)
Normandy Street D -Day, the Normandy Invasion
Ortona Street Battle of Ortona
Rockingham Avenue Brigadier General John Meredith Rockingham ( August 24, 1911 -1988)
Simonds Avenue and Lt. Gen. G.G. Simonds Park Lieutenant-General Guy G. Simonds (April 23rd, 1903 – May 15th, 1974.)


Field Marshall B.L. Montgomery 1887-1976

Field Marshall B.L. Montgomery (1887-1976)
Photographer Julia Adamson

The neighborhood of Montgomery Place, Montgomery Park and Montgomery School all take their name from Field Marshal B.L. Montgomery (1887-1976). According to a plaque erected within the neighborhood, “Montgomery was one of the most inspirational British military leaders of the Second World War. After significant victories over German General Erwin Rommel in North Africa (1942-1944), he was promoted to Field Marshal in command of British and Canadian troops. Montgomery presided over the Battles of Arnhem and Normandy and accepted the formal surrender of the German military at Luneburg Heath on May 4, 1945. His flair for command and the absolute belief in his infallibility made him a legendary, if not always popular, leader.” The BBC reports that Winston Churchill felt that his victory at the Battle of El Alamein was the turning point in the Second World War.

 


I have always maintained that the army – not just a certain amount in one place people with such a number of tanks, guns, machine guns, etc., and that the strength of the army – not just the sum of its parts. The real strength of the army is and must be much more than this amount. Extending the power it gives morale, morale, mutual confidence in each other commanders and subordinates (in particular this applies to the high command), a sense of camaraderie, and many other subtle spiritual factors.

Raw materials, which have to deal with the general – the people. The same is true for civilian life. I think the managers of large industrial concerns are not always aware of this report, it seems that the raw materials – is iron ore, cotton and rubber – not people, and goods. In talking with them, I would not agree with this, and claimed that their main raw material – the people. Many generals also misunderstand this important moment, not aware of what is behind them, and this is one of the reasons that some of them were not successful.

In battle, the army should be as strong as steel, and make it possible, but just as she began to acquire its best quality only after a lot of preparation, and provided that its composition properly selected and processed. Unlike steel army – very delicate instrument, which is very easy to damage, its main component – the people, and to have a good command the army, you need to understand human nature. In humans lies a huge emotional energy, it breaks out, and need to use it for the intended purpose and to give out so that warms the heart and stirs the imagination. If the commander is to the human factor is cold and impersonal, it has not achieved anything. But if you manage to win the trust and loyalty of your soldiers, if they feel that you care about their interests and security, then you become the owner of priceless assets, and the greatest achievements are you on the shoulder.

The morale of the soldiers – the most important factor in the war, and victory in battle – the best way to strengthen their morale during the war. Good general who wins the battle with minimal losses, but maintaining a high morale and a great loss if the battle is won and the soldiers know that the victims brought knowingly and that took care of the wounded, and the bodies of the fallen gathered and interred with dignity.

Some people think that the morale of the English soldier is highest, if you provide it with all necessary allowances, surrounding clubs, canteens, etc. I do not agree. My personal experience is that they are all determined to win when they are asked to stay in the most severe conditions.”
~
Bernard Law Montgomery Memoirs

Lt Colonel David Vivian Currie

Lt Colonel David Vivian Currie
Library and Archives Canada MIKAN ID number 4233303 public domain image.

Lt. Colonel David Vivian Currie (1913-1986) is honoured by the naming of Currie Avenue. “Lt. Colonel David Currie is the only Saskatchewan born holder of the Victoria Cross. Born in Sutherland and raised in Moose Jaw, Currie joined the 29th Canadian Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment in 1939. An
unflappable and, apparently, unstoppable individual” Currie and his troops defended St. Lambert in the battle of Falaise Gap in August, 1944. Down to 60 men and 12 tanks, Major Currie held the town against repeated German counter-attacks for 36 hours. In 1966 he became Sergeant at Arms of the House of Commons” reports the memorial erected in his honour.

General Andrew George Latta McNaughton, February 25, 1887 –  July 11, 1966

General Andrew McNaughton

Library and Archives Canada public domain image MIKAN ID number 4232580

General Andrew McNaughton was memorialized in the title of McNaughton Avenue. “General Andrew McNaughton first attained prominence in the First World War as a Brigadier General in command of the Canadian artillery at the age of 31. By the Second World War he was head of the National Research Council, but returned to the army as commander of the First Canadian Division. He was instrumental in keeping Canadian troops together as one army, rather than distributed amongst British units. He later served as Minister of Defense and as a delegate to the United Nations.”

Lieutenant General Guy C. Simonds (1903-1974)
Lieutenant General Guy C. Simonds (1903-1974)

Library and Archives Canada public domain image MIKAN ID number 4232760

Simonds Avenue identifies the achievements of Lieutenant General Guy C. Simonds (1903-1974). “Lieutenant General Guy C. Simonds commanded the 1st Canadian Infantry Division in the Sicilian and Italian campaigns. He then led the Canadian Corps through the Normandy Invasion and the taking of the Islands in the Scheldt Estuary covering the approaches to Antwerp, Belgium. Lieutenant General Simonds subsequently became Chief of the General Staff from 1951-1955.”


Brigadier General John Meredith Rockingham 1911-1988

Brigadier General John Meredith Rockingham (1911-1988)

Julia Adamson photographer

Rockingham Avenue extols Brigadier General John Meredith Rockingham (1911-1988). Montgomery Place community residents remember Rockingham thusly; ” Brigadier General John Rockingham commanded the 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade in the campaign in northwest Europe during the last year of World War II. “Rocky”, as he was affectionately known, would be recalled to service in 1950 as the senior Canadian soldier in the Korean war. His masterful tactics, and his determination that the Canadian Army would not shirk its assigned duties, were instrumental in Canada’ contributions in Korea.”

Montgomery Place, Saskatoon Monument

Montgomery Place Monument, Saskatoon
Photographer Julia Adamson

Merritt Street remembers and pays tribute to Lt. Colonel Cecil Merritt, who is eulogized as “Lt. Colonel Cecil Merritt (1908-1991) Lt. Col. Cecil Merritt won the first Victoria Cross given to a Canadian in WWII for gallantry and inspired leadership during the disastrous raid in Dieppe. He landed with the South Saskatchewan Regiment at Pourville on August 19, 1942. To capture important high ground to the east, they had to cross the Scie by a bridge under heavy fire. Seeing the situations, Merritt walked on to the bridge, waved his helmet to encourage his men, and shouted: “Come on over, there’s nothing to worry about here.” After hours of heavy fighting, Merritt and his men were taken captive. Merritt was commended for his leadership while a prisoner.”


“Don’t listen to anyone who tells you that you can’t do this or that. That’s nonsense. Make up your mind, you’ll never use crutches or a stick, then have a go at everything. Go to school, join in all the games you can. Go anywhere you want to. But never, never let them persuade you that things are too difficult or impossible.”~Group Captain Sir Douglas Bader

Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader

Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader.

UK Royal Air Force Museum public domain image

Group Captain Sir Douglas Bader (1910-1982) was honoured similarly with a plaque which reads, “A hero of the Battle of Britain whose name came to define triumph over adversity. Bader joined the RAF at 20, and lost both legs in a crash in 1931. Discharged in 1933, he pestered the RAF until re-instated in 1935. His disability proved an advantage in dogfights, as he was immune to blackouts caused by blood rushing to a pilot’s legs during tight turns. Bader devised innovative battle formations which led to 22 kills before he was shot down. Captured in France, he would make many escape attempts, forcing the Germans to take away his artificial legs each night. Bader was knighted for his work on behalf of the disabled.”


” “Rules are for the guidance of wise men and the obedience of fools.”~Group Captain Sir Douglas Bader

First Canadian Army generals in the Netherlands, on May 20 1945. Sitting, from left to right: Stanislaw Maczek, 1st Polish Armoured Division; Guy Simonds, II Canadian Corps; H.D.G. Crerar, 1st Canadian Army; Charles Foulkes, I Canadian Corps; B.M. Hoffmeister, 5th Armoured Division. Standing, from left to right: R.H. Keefler, 3rd Infantry Division; A.B. Matthews, 2nd Infantry Division; H.W. Foster, 1st Infantry Division; R.W. Moncel, 4th Armoured Brigade; S.B. Rawlins, 49th British Division.
Seated center H.D.G. Crerar, 1st Canadian Army (First Canadian Army generals group picture)
Photographer Ken Bell Department of National Defence / National Archives of Canada, public domain image number PA-137473.

Crerar Drive, Crescent Boulevard acknowledges the impact on the war effort by Lt. General Harry D. Crerar (1888-1965). Montgomery Place residents recalls, that “as the Canadian Chief of Staff, Crerar wanted a distinctly Canadian corps, bringing together armoured and infantry divisions in a unified fighting force. In the past, Canadian regiments had been apportioned out to British armies, depending on the needs of the moment. Crerar created the First Canadian Corps. It consisted of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division, 5th Canadian Armoured Divisions, 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade and supporting units. After D-Day, Canadian troops led by Gen. Crerar distinguished themselves fighting against some of Hitler’s crack divisions.”

Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

Public domain image from the U.S. Federal Government National Park Service employee.

Mountbatten Street shows respect for “Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten (1900-1979). A British Royal, Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia, received the surrender of 680,879 officers and men of the Imperial Japanese Forces. He also supervised the ill-fated raid on Dieppe where almost 70% of the fighting force was killed, wounded or captured. With the American joining the war, he and Gen. George C. Marshall created the first integrated Allied headquarters in 1942. Lord Mountbatten was assassinated in 1979 by the provisional wing of the Irish Republican Army, who had planted a bomb on his pleasure boat.”


Montgomery Place Monument

Montgomery Place Monument

Photographer Julia Adamson

Lt. Col. Drayton Walker Park honours “Lt. Colonel Drayton E. Walker (1900-1975) born in Maple Creek, Saskatchewan, Drayton Ernest Walker achieved prominence as both a veteran and an educator. He left a teaching career to serve with the Saskatoon Light Infantry in 1939, fighting in the invasion of Sicily. He became commanding officer achieving the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Injured in 1943, he received the Distinguished Service Order. Walker returned to Saskatoon where he became Principal of Bedford Road Collegiate and later the first Principal of Mount Royal Collegiate. He retired in 1966 after a 3 year term as Principal of the Armed Services School in Marville, France.”

Dieppe
Dieppe
Public Domain Image by Elodie Marnot
Dieppe Street received its title paying homage to Dieppe, “a French resort town, Dieppe was the site of a Canadian – British amphibious raid on August 19, 1942. The plan was to destroy several German installations and leave immediately. The timing depended strictly on sunrise with troops having to retreat before the high tide. It failed. Of 5,000 Canadian troops to land 900 were killed and 1,300 were taken prisoner. Many lessons were learned from this ill-fated attack, including the importance of prior air bombings and support of assault troops with artillery fire. These valuable tactics were implemented in subsequent raids, contributing to the success at Normandy two years later.”


Sign monument Montgomery Place

Montgomery Place Monument
Julia Adamson Photographer

Arnhem Street received its appellation to give tribute to The Battle of Arnhem. “On Sept. 17, 1944 the Battle of Arnhem, in Holland, was the last and most crucial phase of Operation Market Garden. It was the biggest airborne military operation ever mounted and was designed to bring the war in Europe to a quick end. The plan was to take control of 8 bridges along the German-Dutch border. British troops were deliberately dropped 8 miles from the bridges. It was impossible for them to reach their target before the Germans knew of the attack. Nearly 6,000 from the 1st Airborne Division were captured and 1,174 killed. Almost 1,900 men escaped. The battle was immortalized in the book and movie A Bridge Too Far.”


Canadian Armour Passing Through Ortona, by Dr. Charles Fraser Comfort.

Ortona


Dr. Charles Fraser Comfort public domain image CN 12245 Canadian War Museum.

Similarly another sign honours the Battle of Ortona, the namesake for Ortona Street. “The Loyal Edmonton Regiment fought at the Battle of Ortona during World War II. Canadian troops met German troops at the Moro River just outside the Italian town of Ortona, and fought their way into town during eight bloody days in December, 1943. 1,375 Canadian troops lost their lives securing the town. The Allies also used this seaport battle as a diversion to delay and prevent Hitler from sending troops up to France or on to Rome, where the survivors of the brutal battle eventually wound up.”


Battle Of Ortona memorial

Battle of Ortona
Julia Adamson photographer


H Captain Callum Thompson, a Canadian chaplain, conducting a funeral service in the Normandy bridgehead, France, 16 July 1944.

Normandy
Library and Archives Canada public domain image reference number PA-190111 and under the MIKAN ID number 3520665

Normandy Street received its designation recalling D-Day and the Battle of Normandy. “On June 6, 1944, Allied troops stormed the beaches of Normandy in France. Canadian sea and airmen were among the first into action. Their high casualty rate reflected the specific tasks of the Canadian Army during the campaign and the fact that it continually faced the best troops the enemy had to offer. D-Day and the Battle of Normandy, which led to the end of WWII, was one of Canada’s most significant military engagements. The armies of the Nazi regime had suffered a resounding defeat. In the process, Canada’s troops had been forged into a highly effective army.”


Sign monument dedicated to Caen Street in Montgomery Place

Caen
Julia Adamson Photographer

A plaque within the community commemorates Caen Street, “Caen, a town in the Normandy region of France, was captured by Canadian and British troops following D-Day in 1944. After two days of vicious battle, during which company casualties frequently reached 25%, the Allies clawed their way in and declared Caen their own. The Germans still occupied much of the surrounding area including the airfield to the west and the high ground ridge to the south. Much Canadian blood would be shed during the following weeks in order to finally seize these key positions.”

Monte Cassino

Monte Cassino
Public Domain Images from the Army Quartermaster Museum Collection at MOUT Image Collection

The Battle of Cassino is memorialized in the naming of Cassino Avenue and Cassino Place. The plaque reads “The town of Cassino, Italy and the nearby Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino were the scene of one of WWII’s most fierce battles. Monte Cassino overlooked the road the Allies needed to travel to reach Rome. German artillery placed around the Abbey prevented any use of the road by Allied troops. Finally, after five months of repeated attempts to dislodge the Germans by ground assaults, air strikes and one of the largest artillery barrages in history, a combined force of Polish and Canadian troops succeeded in taking the Abbey. Monte Cassino Abbey was reduced to rubble, but has been largely rebuilt.”

Avro Lancaster PA474

Avro Lancaster PA474

Public domain image from the photographer Adrian Pingstone

Lancaster Boulevard & Crescent pay tribute to the Lancaster Bomber. Montgomery Place honours this plane thusly; “The Lancaster Bomber was built by the A.V.Roe Company during World War II. It was a favourite with bomber crews due to its strong reliable performance and was said to be “a delight to fly.” Along with the Halifax Bomber, it was the mainstay of the RCAF. Some 7,378 planes were manufactured, with 403 being built in Canada. During the war it flew 156,023 sorties and dropped 608,612 UK tons of bombs, more than all the rest of the British bombers combined. Its service life extended far beyond World War II, with many converted for peacetime use.”

HMCS Haida

HMCS Haida (G63)

Public domain image from the photographer (Rick Cordeiro)

The reputation of HMCS Haida is observed in the title given to Haida Avenue. “The destroyer HMCS Haida served Canada during the Second World War. Named after the native people of the Queen Charlotte Islands in BC, she escorted merchant ships to Russia on the Murmansk run and was on the scene when the Scharnhorst was sunk. In a little more than four months in the English Channel the convoy of ships she serviced in, sank or helped destroy two large torpedo boats, two destroyers, a U-boat, trawler, minesweeper, cargo ship and patrol boat. HMCS Haida is proudly displayed in Toronto.”


“Every soldier must know, before he goes into battle, how the little battle he is to fight fits into the larger picture, and how the success of his fighting will influence the battle as a whole.”
~
Bernard Law Montgomery

Article Written by Julia Adamson

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H.W. Balfour’s Truly Impressive Career. Recognized for Outstanding Civic Service and Meritorious Military Achievement.

Michelle Lang- Canadian Journalist, Jan 31, 1975-Dec 30, 2009 Afghanistan Casualty

War / Military Resources

Canada in Flanders

Bibliography

 

Veterans Who Built Homes in Montgomery Place under The Veterans Land Act 1948-1977 ALPHABETICAL LISTING BY SURNAME

 

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Although my team doctrine requires sufficiently detailed explanation, in principle they can be reduced to one word: leadership.

In his memoirs, Truman said that of course he got the following stories: “The leader – a person who has the ability to make other people do what they do not want, and still experience the pleasure.”

Leadership may be too complex a phenomenon to fit it in such a short definition. On the other hand, the word is often used somewhat loosely, not realizing its full value. I give a definition of leadership: “The capacity and the will to rally men and women to achieve a common goal, and personality, able to summon the confidence.”

This ability alone is small, the leader must have the desire and the will to use it. This means that his leadership is based on truth and the peculiarities of his personality: the leader can not lie about the purpose and needs to have a strong character.

Not everyone understands the need for truth. Leader has to speak the truth to his subordinates. If he does not, they soon find out that he lied to them, and no longer trust him. I have not always told the soldiers in the war the whole truth. This is not was necessary, moreover, it would place at risk kept secret.

I told them all they needed to know to successfully complete their task. But I always told them the truth, and they knew it. Thus was worked out and strengthened mutual trust. Good military leader subdues the tide. It should just let things be strong for him, and he immediately ceases to be a leader.
When all is said and done, the leader should actively influence the course of events, which largely depends on his personality – from the “heat” that it can emit, the flame that burns in him, magnetism that attracts the hearts of those around him . Personally, I would like to know about the leader of the following:

Where is he going?

Whether he will go to the end?

Does he have this ability and the necessary data, including the knowledge, experience, and courage?
Will he make decisions, taking full responsibility, whether ready if necessary to take the risk?

Will it be in this case, to share power and go whether to decentralize command and control, after having built the system of organization with the specific decision-making centers, providing fast and effective implementation?

Crucial role played by the problem of “solving” the plan. The current trend – to avoid making a decision, to play for time in the hope that all by itself. A military leader has no other option but to be decisive in the battle and show calm in critical situations. Well guided by these principles and political leader.

I am of the opinion that a leader must know what he wants. It must clearly define their target, and then focus on its achievement, it should bring to everyone what he wants and that is the basis of his strategy. He should provide strong leadership and give clear guidance. It is required to create what I call the “atmosphere”, and in this atmosphere will live and work his subordinate commanders.”~
Bernard Law Montgomery Memoirs

 

Naval Monument honours prairie Royal Canadian Navy seamen and ships H.M.C.S. Regina (K234) and H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173)

26 Sep

Naval Monument honours Royal Canadian Navy prairie seamen and RCN ships
H.M.C.S. Regina (K234) and H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173)

John Thompson RCNVR (V 34087), a cook aboard the HMCS Regina aged 24 son of Robert Parker Thompson and Helena Thompson, of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan was one of the naval seamen honoured on Sunday, September 22, 2013 at an unveiling ceremony held on Navy Way in Regina, Saskatchewan in front of the HMCS Queen naval reserve unit.

The Friends of the Navy have honoured Royal Canadian Navy sailors who hail from Saskatchewan, particularly those who fell in World War II. The new Saskatchewan Naval monument honours the naval ships, Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship (HMCS) Weyburn and the HMCS Regina who were both lost in World War II. The HMCS Weyburn on the 67th anniversary of its sinking was commemorated earlier during the centennial year of the Royal Canadian Navy in 2010. Royal Canadian Navy ships paid tribute to dozens Saskatchewan Communities in their naming including the HMCS Waskesiu and the HMCS Estevan.

The HMCS Weyburn (K 173), the namesake for the city of Weyburn was a flower class corvette mainly serving in the Battle of the Atlantic. This smaller ship was needed as an escort ship and equipped by minesweeping gear. However, on February 32, 1943 at 11:17 a.m., the Weyburn struck a large SSMA (Sonder Mine A) magnetic mine laid by German U-boat U-118. The mine, new technology for the time, could be laid as deep as 350 meters, and the Weyburn taken three weeks after the charge was laid was one of the first victims. Though HMS Wivern assisted Weyburn after the initial explosion, two depth charges exploded, everyone in the water, and crew members of the Wivern were killed or severely injured. Of the 83 officers and men aboard the Weyburn 12 died and there were 71 survivors.

The HMCS Regina (K 234), was another Saskatchewan namesake for the province’s capital city, Regina. HMCS Regina, was a flower-class corvette also engaged in escort duties in the Second World War. The American Liberty Ship, the Ezra Weston was a cargo ship carrying war material to the theatre of war. The Ezra Weston took a torpedo from the U-667. Her only escort was the HMCS Regina who was under the impression that the merchant ship had fallen to a mine. Therefore the Regina turned to assist the flailing ship and pick up survivors. The U-boat then also fired on the corvette. Within 30 seconds on August 8, 1944 at 9:27 p.m., one officer and 27 men fell.

Robert Watkins, a prairie sailor out of Winnipeg, sums it up this way, “during the war, the one thing he was scared of was the submarines, if the supply lines from Canada and the U.S. had dried up on account of the submarines, Britain would have gone under.”

Alongside John Thompson, Douglas Peter Robertson RCNVR (V 11460) son of Robert Angus Robertson and Elizabeth Jane Robertson, of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan aged 26 fell August 8, 1944 in his capacity as Petty Officer Stoker aboard the HMCS Regina. As well, John Charles Henry Rathbone RCNVR (V 34478), son of John and Florence Rathbone, of Regina, Saskatchewan, aged 27 who took on the duties of supply assistant did not survive his wounds incurred that fatal evening. These three Saskatchewan prairie naval reservists lost their lives along with their crew mates, British and Canadian Navy sailors.

The Fall Action Stations magazine reports that, “exactly how many Saskatchewanians served in the RCN during the war is hard to estimate as many volunteered at recruiting offices outside the province, and vice versa. And due to wartime staffing pressures, sailors from a particular city or town rarely served on the ship bearing its name.”

For instance, Joseph McGrath, V/11616, son of Margaret McGrath of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, serving with the Royal Canadian Volunteer Reserve aboard the HMCS Athabaskan was one of those honoured in the commemorative naming program of the Saskatchewan Geographic Names Board with the naming of McGrath Lake in Saskatchewan.

Natural geographic features across Saskatchewan honour armed forces personnel and merchant sailors from the Second World War and the Korean War, and also those who fell during peacekeeping or NATO missions, or while protecting the public while on active duty such as police officers, firefighters, and Emergency Response Personnel.

The Naval Memorial erected at a cost of about $30,00 honours was spear-headed by Doug Archer, Chairman of the Friends of the Navy, and Steve Smedley. There are over 6,000 war memorials in Canada remembering those who fought with courage. Saskatoon’s Next of Kin Memorial Avenue in the Woodlawn Cemetery, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan is a national historic site. Both the Regina Cemetery and the North Battleford Cemetery are homes to two of the 28 Crosses of Sacrifice. Alongside these memorials, the Royal Canadian Legion branches and towns across Saskatchewan have erected monuments and cenotaphs honouring those who fell in military service from their community.

Quoting Lieutenant James Balfour, himself a prairie seaman, serving in the naval reserve stemmed from “the belief that there are things that are more important than just you as an individual, it’s about serving your country and doing something for the good of others.”

Terrence McEachern of The Leader Post quoted Doug Archer, former mayor of Regina, “We are so truly blessed that others have gone before us to preserve our freedom and our democracy. We need to honour them and never forget the contribution they’ve made.”

~Article written by Julia Adamson

Bibliography

Adamson, Julia. Commander Harold Wilson Balfour OBE VD RCNVR Recognized for Outstanding Civic Service and Meritorious Military Achievement. H.W. Balfour’s Truly Impressive Career.

CMHC 200 National Defence. Canadian Military History Since the 17th Century Proceedings of the Canadian Military History Coinvernce Ottawa 5-9 May 2000. Edited by Yves Tremblay. National Defence 2001.

CWGC Works 2007 Commonwealth War Graves Commission (Canada) .

Crewlist from HMCS Weyburn ( 173) Canadian Corvette) Ships hit by German U-=boats Uboat.net. 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

Crewlist from HMCS Regina 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

Falloon, Dan.Veteran hoping to commemorate fellow sailors. 04 24 2013. Winnipeg Free Press.

For Posterity’s Sake Canadian Genealogy HMCS Weyburn K173 Corvette Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII uboat.net. 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

HMCS Regina (K 234) of the Royal Canadian Navy – Canadian Corvette of the Flower class – Allied warships of WWII uboat.net. 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

HMCS Regina (K 234) Canadian K 234) (Canadian Corvette) ships hit by German U boats during WWII 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

HMCS Regina (K234) Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia

HMCS Weyburn (K173) (Canadian Corvette) Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII uboat.net 1995 – 2013 Guðmundur Helgason

HMCS Weyburn (K173) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. id version =571908407.

Home/About Government/News Releases/November 2006/New Commemorative Naming Program to Recognize Saskatchewan Heroes. Government of Saskatchewan. c/o Grant Bastedo. Information Services Corporation of Saskatchewan ISC

JosephMcGrath – The Canadian Virtual War Memorial. Records and Collections. Veteran’s Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. 2013-07-29.

Liberty Ship. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. id version=572158310

Mceachern, Terrence. Monument honours Navy seamen from Sask The Leader-Post, republished The StarPhoenix. September 23, 2013. 2010 – 2013 Postmedia Network Inc.

Naval Memorial Installation. Friends of the Navy.

Naval Monument Planned for Regina. From the files of Will Chabun, Leader Post, Regina. Memorial Honours RCN War Hero. 2012 Fall Action Stations. Volume 30 Issue 5 HMCS Sackville Newsletter.

Christianson, Adriana. Navy Reservists in Regina Commemorate the Battle of the Atlantic. May 6, 2013. New Saskatchewan Naval Monument. 620 CKRM the Source. Harvard Broadcasting Radio Stations September 23, 2013.

Remembrance Day Tribute. Let us remember those who served in the wars of yesterday and today. November 12, 2010.

Travel Article: Lest We Forget: Outstanding Canadian War Memorials / 1994-2013 World Web Technologies Inc.

Volume 2 Part 1 Extant Commissioned Ships. HMCS Regina. National Defence and the Canadian Forces. DHH Home. Histories. 2006-07-07. Government of Canada.

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For More Information:

•Saskatchewan Gen Web Military Resources

•Canada In Flanders – The Official Story of the Canadian Expeditionary Force Volume I

•Saskatchewan Gen Web E-Magazine

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Related posts:

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

Michelle Lang. Canadian Journalist. Jan 31, 1975-Dec 30, 2009. Afghanistan Casualty.

Saskatchewan Virtual War Memorial Site Updated

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

Where were Saskatchewan Homesteads Located?

How do I locate my ancstor’s home town in Saskatchewan? Have you ever visited your ancestral home?

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Thank you for stopping by, your comments are much appreciated. All rights reserved. Copyright © Aum Kleem. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed throgh Getty images. Peace and love be with you. Namaste.

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Naval Monument, Royal Canadian Navy, Prairie Sailors, Tribute, Commemoration, H.M.C.S. Regina (K234), H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173) HMCS REgina, HMCS Weyburn, John Thompson, HMCS Queen, Doug Archer,Joseph McGrath, Lieutenant James Balfour, Steve Smedley, Friends of the Navy, Robert Watkins,Douglas Peter Robertson, John Charles Henry Rathbone, Naval Monument, Royal Canadian Navy, Prairie Sailors, Tribute, Commemoration, H.M.C.S. Regina (K234), H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173) HMCS REgina, HMCS Weyburn, John Thompson, HMCS Queen, Doug Archer,Joseph McGrath, Lieutenant James Balfour, Steve Smedley, Friends of the Navy, Robert Watkins,Douglas Peter Robertson, John Charles Henry Rathbone, CA, Canada, Sk, Sask, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, North Battleford, Regina, Prince Albert, Weyburn, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Naval Monument, Royal Canadian Navy, Prairie Sailors, Tribute, Commemoration, H.M.C.S. Regina (K234), H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173) HMCS REgina, HMCS Weyburn, John Thompson, HMCS Queen, Doug Archer,Joseph McGrath, Lieutenant James Balfour, Steve Smedley, Friends of the Navy, Robert Watkins,Douglas Peter Robertson, John Charles Henry Rathbone, Naval Monument, Royal Canadian Navy, Prairie Sailors, Tribute, Commemoration, H.M.C.S. Regina (K234), H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173) HMCS REgina, HMCS Weyburn, John Thompson, HMCS Queen, Doug Archer,Joseph McGrath, Lieutenant James Balfour, Steve Smedley, Friends of the Navy, Robert Watkins,Douglas Peter Robertson, John Charles Henry Rathbone, CA, Canada, Sk, Sask, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, North Battleford, Regina, Prince Albert, Weyburn, Winnipeg, Manitoba,

Moose Jaw Normal School ~ Endless Echoes

26 Jun
Strength by Gentleness by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Strength by Gentleness by Julia Adamson

Moose Jaw Normal School ~ Endless Echoes.

PC002590: The Normal School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan is licensed by University of Alberta Libraries under the Attribution - Non-Commercial - Creative Commons license. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/permissions/postcards.html.

“The Normal School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan” circa 1930 University of Alberta Libraries

As immigration came west in Canada pioneers settled on their homesteads with young families. Families, with young children in need of schools and teachers. The Council of the Northwest Territories made set out guidelines to establish school districts. Moose Jaw had the dubious distinction of pressing forward in applying for their school district, being the first in the Territories to have their petition to the Government approved. The one room schoolhouses, initally staffed by teachers recruited from Eastern Canada and overseas, or teacher appointed by the school district superintendent. The Northwest Territories Council made provision initiating Normal Training Sessions for teacher training. Permanent Normal Schools were established in Regina, Saskatoon, and Moose Jaw, with classes held in any Union School where demand warranted a special session. The Department of Education (now the Ministry of Education) continued regulating education after 1905 when Saskatchewan became a province.

The city of Moose Jaw began when two explorers, James Hamilton Ross (1856-1932), Hector Sutherland along with a couple of other homesteaders searched land suitable for settlement that would also make an excellent railway divisional point. In the summer of 1881, the forks of Moose Jaw and Thunder Creeks was chosen as this site, and by July 1882, the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) arrived connecting the settlement with Winnipeg, and Portage la Prairie. Six months later, Moose Jaw was connected with Calgary via the CPR. As settlers arrived, families realized a there was need to educate their children. In 1880, a federal government grant was available which paid half of a teacher’s salary if there were fifteen pupils in attendance at a school. A Provisional Board was appointed to establish public education in a school. This civic-minded board with John Gordon Ross (1891-1972), son of Senator James Hamilton Ross, at its helm soon had Moose Jaw incorporated as a town in January of 1884.


“As for the need of a school, let me say that education is one of the most sacred responsibility entrusted to parents. Government schools will soon lead to government control of what is taught. Education is a matter for the home, and when more formal instruction is required it should be a matter of choice. Many citizens are willing to share that responsibility with the church, but not with the government.~John Gordon Ross nomination speech for mayor of Moose Jaw February 1884.”Brown, Page 18.

The Northwest Territorial Council passed the very first school law, Ordinance No. 5 on August 18, 1884. Lieutenant-Governor E. Dewdney put this act into effect, sowing the seeds for the Department of Education. Ten Protestant schools and nine Roman Catholic schools in the territories had received payment for half teachers salaries since 1883. “School District of the Town of Moose Jaw Protestant Public School District No. 1 of the North West Territories” was the first school district organized under this ordinance. The temporary location of Moose Jaw’s first classroom is under debate, although it was used for both classes and the aforementioned political assemblies and speeches.

Brian A. Brown reports that the Moose Jaw Public School was located in the Brunswick Hotel, then the Foley Block (later the Churchill Hotel). Classes relocated to a lean to addition on the Moose Hotel (later the Bank of Commerce). Between 1886 and 1889 students were taught in Mr. W.R. Campbell’s building (later the Walter Scott building).

A permanent eight-room school house was built and opened in 1890 under principal Mr. William Rothwell, and Mr. J.N. MacDonald, teacher. The following year Mr. Calder was appointed principal of the Moose Jaw Union School District Number One, with two teachers serving in the newly constructed permanent school location.

“Kind words are short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless”~ Mother Teresa of Calcutta

J.A. Calder began teaching near Portage La Prairie, and other rural schools, landing a position as Moose Jaw High School principal in 1891, and school inspector in 1894. Calder returned to school studying law, following this he was Deputy Commissioner of Education in the North-West Territories (1901-1905) and Commissioner of Education beginning in 1905. (The position, Commissioner of Education, is currently referred to as “Minister of Education for the Ministry of Education”)

The naming of the school as a Union school was significant as it “A Union School could be protestant, public, separate or private. This was a common designation to set apart schools of a certain standard in which teachers could be trained in the absence of any other training facility, university or Normal College.”Brown P 45.


In 1888 provision was made in the Northwest Territories ordinance for the establishment of union schools. These schools combine the teaching of a high school curriculum, a teacher training curriculum, and a public school curriculum.
“The principal was required to be a graduate of some university in her Majesty’s Dominion, or in the opinion of the Board of Education equivalent thereto.

“He was required to satisfy the Board of Education of the Northwest Territories that he was qualified by knowledge and ability to conduct such a school (union) and to train teachers according to the most approved methods of teaching.”-Department of Education recordsBrown p. 46.

By 1901, the school is referred to as Victoria School, and in the spring of 1903, Dr. J.W. Sifton becomes principal of Victoria School taking over from Augustus H. Ball. To further growth and development in Moose Jaw, the Soo Line reached town in September of 1893 connecting Moose Jaw with Chicago and Minneapolis. The population grew to 1,558 residents by 1901, only Prince Albert and Regina are larger centres at the turn of the century. Moose Jaw achieved city status on November 20, 1903 and at this time Moose Jaw was the “leading industrial centre of the provinceSaskBiz. (Regina incorporated June 19, 1903; population 2,2491901 and Saskatoon on May 26, 1906, population 311 1901.) Construction began on Alexandra school in 1905 and the school opened in the spring of 1906. The primary grades remained at Victoria School, and the older students attended the new Alexandra school. Short sessions for teacher training were held at Alexandra School as well. The population continued to swell, Moose Jaw recorded 6,249 residents in 1906, the largest urban centre of the newly formed province of Saskatchewan (September 5, 1905). Regina was enumerated at 6,100, Prince Albert 3,011 and Saskatoon 3,005 in 1906.

 PC011211: Alexandra School, Moose Jaw, Canada is licensed by University of Alberta Libraries under the Attribution - Non-Commercial - Creative Commons license. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/permissions/postcards.html.

“Alexandra School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan circa 1910″ University of Alberta Libraries

In 1908,the governing body of the University was established under President Walter Murray. Moose Jaw assembled a petition of 2,217 persons with their claim to establish the provincial University in Moose Jaw. Premier Scott placed the decision with the board of governors to recommend a site upon deliberation and examination of all options and information available. In the following year a site in Saskatoon was chosen after surveying Moose Jaw, Prince Albert, Saskatoon, Battleford, Fort Qu’Appelle, Indian Head.

Moose Jaw continued to grow as the third largest city in the province, showing a population of 13,823 by 1911. Regina was the largest urban centre with 26,127 residents, Saskatoon 12,004. In 1911 Dr. Angus A. Graham, United Church minister, arrived in Moose Jaw and erected the Moose Jaw College. The Moose Jaw College was a boys Christian Residential College offering public school, and high school courses. The college also offered short commercial courses over the winter term when demand warranted. Complete commercial courses were offered, as well as high school classes up to the completion of first year University. Special courses were also arranged for student requests. Due to the depression and drought in the 1930s the Moose Jaw College closed its doors in 1931 and students transferred to the Regina College.

Planning of Ross Collegiate School began in 1913, becoming ready for classes until the spring of 1914. Moose Jaw’s growth reached 16,934 in 1916 third largest in the province; Regina came in at 26,127 and Saskatoon 21,048. During the Great War (1914 -1918) Ross School was converted to a military hospital, and resumed secondary high school and Normal School classes in the fall of 1920. Teacher training for 45 pupils was also undertaken at Alexandra school under the tutelage of principal, W.J. Hawkins, B.A. who happened to be also the Moose Jaw Rural School Inspector. N.L. Massey and S.G.M. McClelland also taught normal school classes alongside Hawkins. These student teachers earned their third-class teaching certificates, and were able to teach for three years under this designation.

A fifteen week teacher training session was made available in Moose jaw under school inspectors as teachers. 62 students applied for normal school teaching, and the call was answered by Inspectors Griffin, McClelland and Keith in the fall of 1923. Additionally, a sixteen week winter normal school sessions was proposed at Prince Albert, Moosomin, Moose Jaw, Weyburn, Swift Current and Estevan facilities if twenty-five students enrolled. A facility was looked at in Yorkton as well for the same extra Winter session. This session was out of the ordinary, as traditionally sessions began in January, however it was thought that teachers could make use of the normal school winter session while the rural schools were closed during the winter vacation period.

The Department of Education needed to meet the increasing demand for teachers, so the Moose Jaw Normal School was opened in 1927. There were now three normal schools in Saskatchewan, Moose Jaw, Regina and Saskatoon. Eastern Canada adopted the French term école Normale which gave rise to the term Normal School where teachers learned the “norms” in school education methods.

“The rewards of teaching do not at present encourage the expenditure of time and money in professional preparation. So long as a third class teacher is paid the same salary as one holding higher qualifications, there is no inducement for a young man or woman to spend an additional year at high school and an additional term at the Normal School. Salaries have not kept pace with the increased cost of living. Teaching is so poorly paid in comparison with other lines of work that it has suffered by competition. The teachers’ services are too often regarded as a commodity to be purchased at the cheapest obtainable rate in the open market. Until the public realizes that there is a close relation between the kind of education available and the price actually paid for it, we cannot look for any improvement in the quality of our teachers or any permanency in the teaching profession. …The best teachers will gradually drop out and the rising generation will be handicapped through life because inadequately qualified “permit” teachers were in charge of their early education, ” said J.F. Bryant, President of the Saskatchewan School trustees, “Another matter which demands our serious consideration is the lack of men in the teaching profession…Since 1906 the percentage of male teachers in the province has dropped from 43.4 to 16.7 per cent. The majority of the men are to be found in urban districts where they carry on as principals and high school masters.The Morning Leader. Feb 26, 1920.

The Moose Jaw Provincial Normal School opened in 1927. “In reference to the selection of Moose Jaw for the location of the third normal school, Mr. Gardiner [acting minister of education] stated that a large majority of the students who presented themselves for normal school training lived in the more settled parts of the southern part of the province.”The Morning Leader 1927. During the first term, some 300 students were in attendance at the new normal school in Moose Jaw.

“The best of a book is not the thought which it contains, but the thought which it suggests; just as the charm of music dwells not in the tones but in the echoes of our hearts.”~ John Greenleaf Whittier

Upon establishment of the Normal School at Moose Jaw, the staffing at all the normal schools were re-arranged. Dr. John Samuel Huff, (1905-1959) M.A., D. Paed., commissioner of education was appointed as president of the new Normal School in Moose Jaw by the Honourable S.J. Latta, Minister of Education. Previously principal of the Saskatoon Normal School (1924-1927) Regina Normal School (1915-1924), Doctor of paedagogy (1919)Inspector of schools (1911-1915), Principal North Battleford High School (1908-1911) he brought with him a wealth of experience following his graduation from the Regina Normal School in 1907 with a first class certificate.

Regina Normal School 1914 Postcard 12856 Lovell & Co. New Normal School Regina (cca. 1911)

Regina Normal School 1914 Postcard credit Postcard 12856 Lovell & Co. New Normal School Regina (cca. 1911) Peel

…..
Honourable James G. Gardiner, Premier and Minister of Education laid the corner stone for the Moose Jaw Provincial Normal School on Tuesday, October 2, 1928 before a crowed of about one thousand. The cost of completion came to $500,000. Richard Geoffrey Bunyard, the first practicing architect located in Moose Jaw, supervised the construction of the Normal School. The Morning Leader recollected that the Regina Provincial Normal School was established in 1912, and the one located in Saskatoon in 1921. ( Moose Jaw Normal School was located where the Moose Jaw SIAST Palliser Campus now stands. )

During the early years of operating normal schools, short-term sessions were held proffering third class teaching certificates to turn out a larger number of teachers for the burgeoning population of Saskatchewan. Even though short term sessions were used to a great extent in the early 1920s and discontinued in 1926, a four month course offering a third class certificate was revived in 1929. In 1928, a short term second class session lasting 18 weeks was held at the three normal schools, and an 18 week short first class session was offered at the Regina and Saskatoon Normal Schools. However, if demand warrants it, a short first class session was available in Moose Jaw for an enrollment level of 40 students. These classes short term classes were made available to those teachers possessing a third class certificate who wished to upgrade to an interim second class (of first class) teaching certificate by taking an additional four month training course.

E.A. Davies Building, Saskatoon Normal School, Saskatoon Teachers College, University of Saskatchewan Avenue A Campus

Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)

Robert Whiting Asseltine (1870-1953), Bachelor of Arts, teacher at both the Saskatoon Moose Jaw normal school was appointed principal of the Moose Jaw Normal School between 1929-1930. Following his tenure as principal of the Moose Jaw Normal School, Dr. Huff went on to become deputy minister of education for Saskatchewan which he held until 1934 when he retired.

“Looking forward into an empty year strikes one with a certain awe, because one finds therein no recognition. The years behind have a friendly aspect, and they are warmed by the fires we have kindled, and all their echoes are the echoes of our own voice.”
~
Alexander Smith

The brick building constructed in Moose Jaw for the Normal School classes was officially opened February 26, 1930 by the Honorable J. F. Bryant, minister of public works. An invitation was extended to the members of the Saskatchewan legislative assembly by the City of Moose Jaw to attend the grand opening on Wednesday afternoon. Premier Anderson, Sir Frederick Haultain and Dr. J.S. Huff, Principal also addressed the gathered crowd at the opening ceremonies. Premier Anderson related that the normal schools in the province were over-crowded. Between the three normal schools, 1,500 teachers are trained each year.

Alexandra school in Moose Jaw, the previous home to teacher training “short courses” opened its doors to the newly established permanent Normal School, offering practicum experiences in the field for the student teachers.

“These teachers [at Normal School], it must be explained, were not so much engaged in teaching, as in teaching how to teach. It was their task to impart to the young men and women in their care the latest and most infallible method of cramming information into the heads of children. Recognizing that few teachers have that burning enthusiasm which makes a method of instruction unnecessary, they sought to provide methods which could be depended upon when enthusiasm waned, or when they burned out, or when it had never existed. They taught how to teach; they taught when to open the windows in a classroom and when to close them; they taught how much coal and wood it takes to heat a one-room rural school where the teacher is also the fireman; they taught methods of decorating classrooms for Easter, Thanksgiving, Hallowe’en and Christmas; they taught ways of teaching children with no talent for drawing how to draw; they taught how a school choir could be formed and trained when there was no instrument but a pitch-pipe; they taught how to make a teacher’s chair out of a barrel, and they taught how to make hangings, somewhat resembling batik, by drawing in wax crayon on unbleached cotton, and pressing it with a hot iron. They attempted, in fact to equip their pupils in a year with the skills which it had taken them many years of practical teaching, and much poring over Department manuals, to acquire. And often, after their regular hours of duty, they would ask groups of students to their homes, and there, in the course of an evening’s conversation, they would drop many useful hints about how to handle rural trustees, how to deal with cranky parents, how a girl-teacher of nineteen, weighing one hundred and ten pounds might resist the amorous advances of a pupil of seventeen, weighing one hundred and sixty pounds, how to leave a rural classroom without making it completely obvious that you were going to the privy, and how to negotiate an increase in pay at the end of your first year.” Martens. (R. Davies, The Salterton Trilogy (Tempest-Tost), 79).

Upon reflection, Dr. James Balfour Kirkpatrick, Dean of the College of Education said that during the pioneering days in the province, “schools had just whoever they could get to do the teaching, and teaching wasn’t considered a very viable profession. Teaching was regarded as a stepping stone into something else like law or medicine.The Phoenix. 1984.

During the depression years, school enrollment was capped at 800 students for the three provincial normal schools, rather than train a full complement of 1,200 teachers. This decision to limit attendance was considered more advantageous in 1931 rather than closing the Moose Jaw Normal School. Statistics Canada recorded a population of 20,753 for Moose Jaw during this year, Moose Jaw’s sister cities for the other two normal schools, Regina was at 53,209 and the city of Saskatoon 43,291.

The Normal Schools published year books, the book in Saskatoon for the Normal School was termed The Light, Regina Normal School published The Aurora, and the Moose Jaw Normal School had the “Normal Echoes“.

“What is history? An echo of the past in the future; a reflex from the future on the past.”
~
Victor Hugo

In 1933 enrollment at the provincial normal schools was open to graduates aged 18 years of age or older and holding either a grade 11 or a grade 12 certificate with no difference being made for the applicants attending the normal school. Saskatchewan Normal Schools would accept graduates of Canadian or British Universities as approved by the department. By 1936, enrollment standings required a grade 12 diploma, and the normal schools would only choose applicants with a grade 11 standing to meet a minimum enrollment quota, if a shortage of grade 12 applicants presented themselves.


“When there is an original sound in the world, it makes a hundred echoes.”

~John A. Shedd

The school was organized under Principal G. Allen Brown in the late 1930s. Brown had been the “Principal of the Collegiate Institute at Prince Albert and superintendent of schools at Prince Albert. He is a graduate of the University of Toronto, holds a permanent high school certificate, has specialist training in mathematics and has been teaching in Prince Albert for over a dozen years.” before being a teacher at the Moose Jaw normal school before his posting as principal. The Morning Leader, 1927. Principals of the Normal Schools reported to the superintendent of education (this title later changed to the Deputy Minister of Education). It was during this era, that the department of education set out a higher pre-requisite for student applicants applying for entry into normal schools. Intelligence, aptitude and vocational testing were set before applicants who had attained at least a grade 12 standing along with a complete medical examination. Additionally, student teachers needed to attend specific university classes following graduation at normal school to attain a “permanent teaching certificate”. Teachers generally attended summer school at university in order to complete this additional requirement.

“In 1921, when 595 certificates were issued and 889 teachers trained, salary paid a first class male teacher was $1,452…in 1935, when 1,326 certificates were issued and 911 teachers trained, salary for the same teacher amounted to only $523.The Leader Post. 1937. ” Due to the drouth and depression of the 1930s, salary arrears for teachers in the province “were reported totalling $777,380 at Dec. 31, 1934; $964,149 at Dec. 31, 1936.The Leader Post. 1937. ” Though Saskatchewan schools experienced a shortage of teachers during the Great War, the depression years of the dirty thirties showed an oversupply of teachers. The difficulties during this era saw former teachers re-applying to the teaching profession. Desperate for a job, residents turned to normal schools and teacher training colleges. Academic and professional qualifications were raised by the normal schools in response to the high number of applications for teacher training, and enrollment levels were capped.

This situation changed following the second world war. Regina Normal School closed after World War II due to declining enrollment. In the fall term of the 1944 school year, enrollment for all three provincial normal schools came to only 321 applicants, and the previous year, 1943-1944 there were only 450 enrolled. In comparison, the 1939-1940 school term had an enrollment of 820 with 211 attending the Moose Jaw Normal School, 344 Saskatoon, and 272 attended the Regina Normal School. Between 1943 and 1948 short courses were again offered, however this brought down the number of full time students. The pre-requisite for normal school applicants was a grade 12 diploma, Saskatchewan residence, medical examination, and successful completion of normal entrance examinations through grades nine, ten and eleven. 877 students were in attendance the next year, and by the 1941-1942 school term 950 were enrolled in the normal schools across the province.

Mr. H.C. Andrews, B.S.A., B.Ed, principal of the Moose Jaw Normal School reported 146 graduates at the 1946 spring convocation. “Teachers must act as pivots, in a community around which education is interpreted to the people there, and prime essentials required are that the young teachers starting out must have faith in the future and faith in the youth, with whom they come in contact,” the Honourable Woodrow S. Lloyd, Minister of Education said, “Teachers in beginning their careers, must develop an ability to interpret that which they read and hear, must have good health, a good background of learning and especially be civic minded.The Leader-Post, 1946.

A new curriculum along with re-designed entrance requirements were both introduced for the fall of 1945. Normal school applicants required a letter from their high school teacher or principal attesting to the students aptitude for teaching. The first two weeks of Normal School consisted of medical and intelligence testing and staff interviews to procure students suited for the profession of teaching.

“Poetry is an echo, asking a shadow to dance.” ~
Carl Sandburg

The Regina Normal School had been taken over by the Royal Canadian Air Force (R.C.A.F.) during the war years (1939 to 1945), and it was unknown how long the R.C.A.F. would require the building. The Moose Jaw institution, being newer, was in better condition. The Department of Education weighing these options decided in favour of keeping the Moose Jaw normal school open.

The University of Saskatchewan accredited the Normal School teaching program as a year of University work in acquiring a Bachelor of Education degree. Normal schools were junior colleges of the university in 1946.

“Teaching is the most important business on earth, ” said Dr. S.W. Steinson of the Moose Jaw Normal School…” After determining the aims [of every lesson], you must choose the tools and techniques with which to work, and, lastly, evaluate the extent to which you have achieved your aims.Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Oct. 14, 1950.

In 1951, members of the legislative assembly (MLAs) discussed re-opening the normal school in Regina, in addition to the Moose Jaw and Saskatoon normal schools. (Moose Jaw had a population of 23,069 in 1951; Regina 60,246 and Saskatoon 46,028) It was during this debate that it was “pointed out that the northern part of the province was more heavily populated than the south…and Moose Jaw didn’t have a full complement of students” at that time. Students enrollment across the province dropped from 894 students to 745 enrolled in the fall of 1951. The Normal School at Moose Jaw saw an enrollment of 225, 49 less students than the previous year, Saskatoon Normal School was down 31 students, and the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education saw a reduction of 69 students as well.

Entrance exams in 1952 consisted of basic language, mathematics and general intelligence tests. “Even our Normal School students agree that one year training is not sufficient, and there are only hurried discussions during the semester,” explained Marion Scribner from the Moose Jaw Normal School, “with an inspired teacher, the ideal school could become a realty.”Saskatoon Star-Phoenix 1952 Though it was felt that Saskatchewan had the “most advanced system of practice teaching in North America”, a teaching certificate was offered after a one year Normal course.

“When the school existed mainly to develop skills and to impart information, the teacher, to be successful, required to be master of his subject and drill techniques, and able to keep order, either by strength of personality or muscles. Beyond this little more was essential.Today aims of a different curriculum made greater demands on the teacher, Mr. Lewis [Normal School teacher] declared.

To train pupils to think, the teacher must himself possess this somewhat rare ability. To teach pupils to enjoy beauty he must have the soul of the artist. To develop good citizens he must have at once the attitudes of a good citizen, a thorough understanding of its benefits.

To deal with many types of children and help those who are maladjusted he must have an understanding heart.

Many young men and women who obtain a high school education do not have the other qualifications necessary to make such a teacher.

They can be obtained only if young people of high ability, steeped from the earliest years in our culture, enter the teaching profession.The Leader-Post, 1948.

The Moose Jaw Normal School was renamed the Saskatchewan Teachers College as of 1953 and opened with an enrollment of 229 student teachers that fall. Andrews, principal of the Moose Jaw Teachers College reported 215 graduates in the spring of 1954, speaking at the convocation; “The sound thinker will examine all ideas carefully and methodically and will discard those that are not well founded.The Leader Post, 1954

During the 50th provincial anniversary celebrations, Robert Kohaly, MLA said that “teaching has possibly become the most important of all professions…members of the teaching profession have the responsibility of seeing that 50 years from now, the residents of Saskatchewan will be as proud of the present generation as we are of the pioneer residents whose memories are being commemorated this year.The Leader-Post 1955.

A three year study to clarify the quality of teacher education and define who was responsible for teacher education curriculum. The study began in 1955 according to Balfour examining whether

  • a) teachers colleges should be kept, but the courses expanded into a two year session;
  • b) teachers colleges become federated colleges;
  • c) or all colleges come under the University.

Though the government’s Department of Education made plans to withdraw from teacher education in 1958, the decision to place teacher education under the jurisdiction of the University of Saskatchewan came about in 1964. “there was a realization that if you expected a teacher to know the subject, the pupils, the technique and all that a teacher needs to know to do a job well, then one year wasn’t nearly enough time,” explained Balfour.” The complete move to the contemporary four year degree program achieving a bachelor’s degree in education did not become fully established until the 1970s.

A ten per cent salary increase was offered to those teachers with teacher’s college training in 1957. The “minimum salary for teachers with teacher’s college training is $2,400, reaching a maximum of $4,00 in nine years.The Leader-Post 1957.” Gib Eamer, Executive secretary of the Saskatchewan Teachers Federation spoke to the success of the salary increase in retaining teachers in the province.

The Moose Jaw Normal School closed its doors in 1959. Moose Jaw normal school student year books were published under the title; “Normal Echoes.”

“The sound of a kiss is not so loud as that of a cannon, but its echo lasts a great deal longer.”
~
Oliver Wendell Holmes

Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) Palliser Campus made its home in the Moose Jaw Normal School building. Operations of the Moose Jaw Normal School resumed at the Saskatchewan Teachers College, Regina. Provincially teacher education was provided by the Saskatoon and Regina Teacher Colleges. in the early 1960s, all the education of teachers in the province was under the jurisdiction of the “University of Saskatchewan” – Regina Campus” and “Avenue A Campus” until buildings could be built for the College of Education in both cities.

The Honourable Woodrow S. Lloyd, Minister of Education, announced that the Provincial Technical Institute will open in the Moose Jaw Teachers College building. The province, in 1958 had only two Teachers Colleges, one located in Saskatoon, the other in Moose Jaw. With the opening of the Provincial Technical Institute in Moose Jaw, the Teachers College will re-locate from Moose Jaw to Regina. The former Regina Normal School building (after renovations amounting to about $400,000) was used again to provide classrooms for teacher training for the Regina Teachers College. In the fall of 1959, the Regina Teachers College opened to an enrollment of about 400 student teachers. Principal H.C. Andrews speaking to the new students said that they faced a “great responsibility and you must be ready to accept it. Never let it be said that you came to the stairs of learning and refused to ascend.The Leader-post Sept. 8,1959.” At the time of the transfer, the Moose Jaw teachers college was under the head of H.C. Andrews, principal along with 15 staff.

“Before a teacher can obtain a permanent certificate in Saskatchewan, two years of study after Grade XII are necessary. The first of these is usually taken at a Teachers College; the second must be at the University. If a two year course is to be a minimum requirement, or even if it is to be provide for effective coordination between the University and department, the problem of proximity of institutions is important….Teacher training will then be carried on, still at two centres in the province, but at those centres in which the University also operates, said Wilson.Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, 1958.

Moose Jaw not only said farewell to its Teachers’ College, but also the Soo Line, when ran its last passenger train in the spring of 1961. The CPR Moose Jaw – Macklin 480 kilometer branch line also ceased services. A once busy divisional point, with trains arriving continuously all day, Moose Jaw rail traffic was reduced to two cross country trains daily.

“Ennui is the echo in us of time tearing itself apart.

~
Emile M. Cioran

The last year the Teachers College, Moose Jaw opened, the 1958-1959 session, enrollment increased to 350 students, over 237 from the year before. The new Technical Institute will move into the college building, after being used for teacher training for 30 years, it will continue its service in education. Following its first year, the Saskatchewan Technical Institute, received an enrollment of 1,500 students. Construction of a new building pegged at $2,2500,000 on the Teacher’s College site, began in 1958, with the official opening on January 11, 1961. The construction added a new gymnasium-auditorium, two storey classroom wing, kitchen, and dining room wing. The Teachers College building remained at the heart of the new institute, housing administration offices.

Moose Jaw’s population on the 2011 census was 33,274; Saskatoon 222,189, and Regina 193,100. Once the province’s largest industrial city, Moose Jaw rings out her proud heritage. Reaching through time, reclaiming hundreds of unique memories, they truly live up to their new slogan, “Moose Jaw: Surprisingly Unexpected.” (Placing a spotlight on their old slogan, “the Band Capital of North America” a story in itself.)

“Most of your reactions are echoes from the past.

You do not really live in the present.”
~
Gaelic Proverb

The Regina Normal School was established first in 1893, followed by the Normal School in Saskatoon in 1912, and then demand warranted as well, the Normal School in Moose Jaw by 1927. The Regina Normal School building was used for teacher training opening in 1914, closing between 1944-1960, when it reopened to serve until 1969, with a total teacher training facility era of 76 years. The Saskatoon Normal School building opened in 1923, and was used until 1970, its era serving teacher education covering a total of 50 years. The Moose Jaw Normal School building, opened in 1930, and closed in 1959 when classes continued at the Regina location. The Moose Jaw Normal School building had a lifespan of 30 years as a teacher training facility before being used by Saskatchewan Technical Institute.

From humble beginnings, the echoes from the Moose Jaw Normal School ring out. Friendly fires are re-kindled, looking at the reflections of history. Through time, hundreds of student teachers passed through Normal Sessions carrying with them lasting memories.

Article written by Julia Adamson

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Additional Reading:

  • Regina Normal School~ a History ~ From potential to realty
      • North-West Territories Normal School 1893-1905
      • Regina Provincial Normal School 1905-1927
      • Regina Normal School 1927-1953
    • Regina Teacher’s College 1953-1961
    • University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus 1961-1969
    • Faculty of Education USRC 1969-1974
    • University of Regina 1974-

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The Moose Jaw Standard

The Moose Jaw Standard (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan Location

Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan Location (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: A small grain elevator on a farm near...

English: A small grain elevator on a farm near Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Mac the Moose stands on the edge of Moose Jaw.

Mac the Moose stands on the edge of Moose Jaw. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Welcome to Moose Jaw

Welcome to Moose Jaw (Photo credit: jimmywayne)




Moose Jaw Normal School ~ Endless Echoes ~ BIBLIOGRAPHY

26 Jun
Strength by Gentleness by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Strength by Gentleness by Julia Adamson


Moose Jaw Normal School ~ Endless Echoes ~ BIBLIOGRAPHY.



PC002590: The Normal School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan is licensed by University of Alberta Libraries under the Attribution - Non-Commercial - Creative Commons license. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/permissions/postcards.html.



“The Normal School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan” circa 1930 University of Alberta Libraries



Moose Jaw Normal School ~ Endless Echoes ~ LINK TO MAIN ARTICLE
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Adamson, Julia. From potential to realty ~ The Regina Normal School. With additional notes regarding the Regina College. University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina campus. University of Regina. May 9, 2013. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. The Drastic Shortage of Teachers in Saskatchewan’s History. A small sampling of Teacher wanted ads. Saskatchewan One Room School Project. Saskatchewan Gen Web. September 28, 2012. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

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Central, Tech split hoop wins. The Leader-Post. November 24, 1954. Page 23. [Basketball.] Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Classrooms in Lakeview School Made Ready for Normal School. The Leader-Post August 5, 1940. Google News Archives. Page 2. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Classroom practice in country. The Leader-Post. October 19, 1962. Page 14 Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Close victory to Tech Team. The Leader-Post. February 15, 1956. Page 30. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

College exercises planned Thursday. The Leader-Post. June 17, 1953. Page 12. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

College opening. The Leader-Post. September 14, 1954. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

College Removal Rumors Discussed. The Leader-Post. November 26, 1957. Page 16. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

College to use Normal School? The Leader-Post. October 25, 1944. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Comets click over Cougars. The Leader-Post. February 11, 1956. Page 27. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Dr. Mort To Address Teachers Convention. The Leader-Post. September 21, 1940. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

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Editor Klaus Martens. Over Canadian Trails: F. P. Grove in New Letters and Documents.
Königshausen & Neumann, 2007.
ISBN 3826035968, 9783826035968. Quote Saskatchewan Normal School (Teachers College) taken about 1954 before it became part of the Provincial Technical School Unquote Digitised online by Google Books. Page 126-127. Date accessed June 1, 2013.

Education Figure Dies. The Windsor Daily Star. January 12, 1959. Google News Archive. Page 7. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Educational costs demand higher grant. The Leader-Post. September 9, 1948. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Education Week Programs. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 16, 195. Page 22. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Ex-Saskatchewan Educator Dies. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Fall Sessions Normal School are Announced. Courses open in September for Training First, Second Class Teachers. April 22, 1933. The Leader-Post. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Forest Glen School has Sweet Choristers and wins the Silver Shield. Large attendance at public school trustees’ convention which gathers at Moose Jaw. The Morning Leader. February 26, 1920. Page 5. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Former Deputy Minister. The Leader-Post. January 12, 1959. Page 3. [Dr. John Samuel Huff.] Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

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Moose Jaw taps large and rich farm country. Located on Main railway lines in strategic position. Is Livestock centre. Is found on Agriculture, Milling and Dairying – One Mill has Large Flour Capacity. The Financial Post. December 26, 1929. Google News Archive. Page 3. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

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Edition illustrated.
McGill-Queen’s Press – MQUP, 2012.
ISBN 0773539530, 9780773539532. Partially digitised by google books. Quote “In 1930, for example, at the Regina and Saskatoon normal schools, 30% of the students were of non-British origin, and at Moose Jaw Normal School in 1929, the figure was 39%. By 1937 the principal of the Saskatoon normal school was reporting that 45% of the students were of non-English origin.” Unquote Date accessed June 1, 2013.

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Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “Rudimentary teacher training was first conducted in union schools and gradually became formalized in normal schools in Saskatoon, Regina, and Moose Jaw… An increasing demand for secondary school education facilitated the eventual establishment of the College of Education at the provincial university in 1928. The mandate of the college was to prepare its students for teaching in the high schools and collegiates, and to conduct research in education. The program of the college was open only to students who had undergraduate degrees. In 1946-47, the College of Education developed a four-year undergraduate program. However…the government insisted that intending elementary teachers take their first year of training at a normal school. …The names of the two remaining normal schools were changed in 1953 to teacher’s colleges, and “teacher training” became “teacher education.” Eleven years later both teacher’s colleges closed, and all teacher education moved to the University of Saskatchewan….Ina Jones Jorstad remembered her preparation at the normal school in Moose Jaw in 1930, as consisting of classes in “reading writing, literature, math, geography, health, home economics, physical education, psychology, drama the arts and…The Regina Normal School closed after World War II. It re-opened as Regina Teacher’s College in 1957, the same year the Moose Jaw Teacher’s College closed (from Campbell, Reflections of Light, 107-109; 151-2.”unquote Page 150, 156 and 160. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Hallman, D. Chapter 10. Telling Tales in and out of School: Twentieth-Century Women Teachers in Saskatchewan. Overview of Teacher Education. Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “Rudimentary teacher training was first conducted in union schools and gradually became formalized in normal schools in Saskatoon, Regina, and Moose Jaw. These schools were under the jurisdiction of the state Department of Education. As well, until 1926, in an attempt to fill the pressing need for teachers during Saskatchewan’s major population boom, short-term sessions providing third class certificates were held in the larger communities or towns….”unquote Page 150. Date accessed June 1, 2013.

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Honors Divided in Normal Debate. Science Better Aid to Education Than Literature, Debaters Decide. The Morning Leader. March 31, 1928. Page 9. Google News archives. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

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Ideal School Achieved by Inspired Teachers. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 19, 1952. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Ingles, Ernest Boyce. Bibliography of the Canadian Prairies to 1953.
G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series.
Editors Ernest Boyce Ingles, Bruce Peel, Norman Merrill Distad.
Contributors Ernest Boyce Ingles, Bruce Peel, Norman Merrill Distad.
Edition 3, illustrated, revised.
Publisher University of Toronto Press, 2003.
ISBN 0802048250, 9780802048257. Quote“Biography of Bruce Peel. Peel spent a year in 1936-1937 earning a teacher’s credential at the Normal School in Moose Jaw. This was a reliable choice to guarantee a career, or at least a job to fall back on in those hard times….Author index Asseltine, Robert Whiting 1870-1953 Teacher in Ontario; to Saskatchewan, 1911; inspector of schools at Rosetown; on staff of Saskatoon Normal School, 1918-1927; principal of Moose Jaw Normal School 1929-1930; principal of Saskatoon Normal School, 1930-1934. Saskatoon Star Phoenix March 24, 1953. The Story of Lodge Progress No. 92 5663. ” unquote page xxv. Digitized online by Google Books 2012. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Larsen, John; Libby and Maurice Richard. Moose Jaw : People, Places, History.
Edition illustrated.
Coteau Books, 2001.
ISBN 1550501631, 9781550501636. Digitised online by Google Books. Page 62. Date accessed June 1, 2013.


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Legislators to Attend Normal School Opening. The Morning Leader. February 19, 1930. Page 7. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Lloyd speaks to teachers. The Leader-Post. June 20, 1946. Google News Archives. Page 2. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Lyons, J. Chapter 4. The Saskatchewan Way: Henry Janzen and Curriculum Reform in Saskatchewan. Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “Although the province’s Normal Schools in Regina, Saskatoon and Moose Jaw had been renamed Teachers’ Colleges, they had remained under the Department of Education jurisdiction. In 1964, all teacher education was consolidated at the University of Saskatchewan campuses in Regina and Saskatoon….”unquote Page 60. Date accessed June 1, 2013.

Manzer, Ronald A. Educational regimes and Anglo-American democracy.
Volume 18 of G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series.
Volume 18 of Studies in comparative political economy and public policy, ISSN 1714-9339.
Edition 2, illustrated.
Publisher University of Toronto Press, 2003.
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McCarthy alarmed over teacher shortage. Regina School should be used. The Leader Post. February 14, 1951. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

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Members Gather at School Opening. Minister of Public Works Officiates at Ceremony in Moose Jaw. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 27, 1930. Page 7. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

M.L.A.’s discuss teacher problem. Normal School Discussed Again. The Leader-Post February 22, 1951. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Moose Jaw Basketball. The Leader-Post. April 11, 1956. Page 28. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.


Moose Jaw cagers win. The Leader-post. February 6,1958. Page 15. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 6, 2013.

Moose Jaw Central Collegiate 100th Anniversary. Quote Saskatchewan Normal School (Teachers College) taken about 1954 before it became part of the Provincial Technical School Unquote Date accessed June 1, 2013.

Moose Jaw Celebrates Victory Loan Day on Sunday. The Leader-Post. June 7, 1941. Google News Archives. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Moose Jaw Chosen. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 14, 195. Page 18. Google News Archives. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

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Moose Jaw Function. The Leader-Post. February 8, 1937. Quote “First social function of the new year of the Moose Jaw Normal School was a dance held Friday night in the school auditorium.Unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed June 1, 2013.

Moose Jaw Gets Provincial Tech, Lloyd Announces. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 12, 1958. Google News Archive. Date Accessed June 2, 2013.

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Moose Jaw Institute to Enroll 1, 500. Saskatoon Star.-Phoenix. December 19, 1960. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date Accessed June 4, 2013.

Moose Jaw is Ready to Welcome King and Queen. All arrangements for accommodation of visitors made – details announced at meeting of committee Friday evening. The Leader-Post. May 20, 1939. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 3, 2013.


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1927-1959. …In 1953, the Moose Jaw school was renamed the Saskatchewan Teachers College, Moose Jaw… From 1930 to 1959 the Moose Jaw Normal School was located in what is now the SIAST Palliser Campus in Moose Jaw.” unquote

Saskatchewan Archival Information Network.


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Moose Jaw School Pupils Pay Tribute to Lord Tweedsmuir. The Leader-Post. February 15, 1940. Google News Archives. Date accessed June 6, 2013.

Moose Jaw Social The Leader-Post. February 25,1938. Page 4. Google News Archives. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

More Careful Selection of Students to Mark Normal School Year. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 29, 1945. Google News Archives. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Normalites are Strong. Will Meet D.B.C.’s in Cup Final in Moose Jaw; Have Good Team. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 19, 1930. Page 11. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

The New Normal School at Moose Jaw. The Morning Leader. October 4, 1928. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.


New Normal School Staffs Are Announced. Many Changes in Personnel Necessitated by Establishment of School at Moose Jaw. The Morning Leader September 24, 1927. Page 17. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

New Teachers Prepare for Graduation. Moose Jaw produces 136 Teachers despite Hard Times. The Leader-Post. May 12, 1938. Page 6. Google News Archive. Quote “Teachers at present employed may threaten strikes, may point to the thousands of dollars back salary owing rural teachers and the all time low level of remuneration in the profession, but something remains attractive about being a teacher.”unquote Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Normal Schools add New Courses. The Leader-Post. August 30, 1945. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.


Normal School Appointments are Announced. Principal at Saskatoon Will Be Replaced by Public Schools Superintendent. The Morning Leader. September 12, 1927. Page 10. Google News Archive Search. Quote Dr. J.S. Huff, principal of Saskatoon Normal School, has been appointed principal of the new Normal School at Moose Jaw….Dr. J.A. Snell, superintendent of public schools at Saskatoon, has been appointed to succeed Dr. Huff as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School…Dr. J. S. Huff, Saskatoon, who has been appointed principal of the new Normal School which is to be opened in Moose Jaw, September 28.”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Date Extended. Premier Announces Applications Will Be Received Up to September 1. The Leader-Post. August 18, 1933. Page 3. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Normal School Dates for Next Term Are Set. The Leader-Post. March 3, 1931. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Normal School Holiday Term At Moose Jaw The Leader-Post. June 28, 1933. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Normal School Planning Another Short Session. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 18, 1929. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Normal School Sessions Open on September 3. The Leader-Post. May 20, 1935. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Normal School Short Sessions for Teachers. Terms will be held at Regina, Saskatoon, and Moose Jaw, Department Announces. The Morning Leader. October 29, 1928. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Students Complete Physical Exams. Many Candidates at Yorkton, Moose Jaw and Swift Current on the list of successful ones. The Saskatoon Phoenix. March 30, 1914. Page 3. Google News Archive. Quote “Certificates have been issued to the following persons who have completed the course in physical training in connection with the third class session of the Normal school held during the months of January and February…(28 teachers listed for Moose Jaw.)..”unQuote Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Normal Schools Will Stay Open. Report That Moose Jaw Institution to be Closed Denied by Premier. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 20, 1931. Page 3. Google News Archives. Date Accessed June 3, 2013.

Opening of Normal School Suggested. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 24, 1951. Page 7. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Painting Purchased. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 12, 1953. Page 4. Google News archive. Quote“The outgoing students of the Saskatchewan Teachers’ College at Moose Jaw have purchased a Saskatchewan work of art…the 1952-53 class has made this purchase as a memorial gift to the college…”unquote Date accessed June 4, 2013.


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Premier Backs Normal School for Moose Jaw. Gardiner States Government will ask Estimate for Third Such Institution. The Morning Leader. August 19, 1927. Google News Archive. QuoteIn reference to the selection of Moose Jaw for the location of the third normal school, Mr. Gardiner stated that a large majority of the students who presented themselves for normal school training lived in the more settled parts of the southern part of the province… Third Class sessions held at six local centres which took care of a large number of students… have been abandoned and the normal term extended to one year…”unQuote Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Provincial Normal School Examination Results Announced. Regina, Saskatoon and Moose Jaw Students to Get Interim Certificates. The Leader-Post. July 13, 1934. Page 7. Google News Archive. Date Accessed June 2, 2013.

Regina Normal School Will Be Closed Soon. September 1, 1944. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Retired Teacher Dies at Coast. [Dr. Steinn W. Steinson] The Leader-Post. September 26, 197. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Room E Wins Music Award, The Leader-Post Moose Jaw Bureau. May 25, 1937. Page 6. Google News Archive. Date Accessed June 2, 2013.


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Rusnell, Chuck. Balfour retirement proves misleading at best. The Phoenix. September 22, 1984. Page 104. Google News Archive. Date Accessed June 4, 2013.

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Saskatchewan Entries Win Easily in Sheep, Lamb Exhibits at Show. In classes mentioned exhibitors at feeder show from this province win ten prizes – success marks opening day. The Morning Leader. October 13, 1927. Page 18. Google News Archive. Quote “Some 300 students of the Moose Jaw Normal School will witness a demonstration of cattle in the sale ring at the feeder show tomorrow. They are to be taken to the stockyards in automobiles supplied by the Moose Jaw Board of Trade. George Murray, professor of agriculture at the Normal School, will be in charge of the group…..”unquote Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Saskatchewan Farmers may drift into Peasant Class States Speaker. Mrs. Ethel B. Summers addresses twelfth annual convention of provincial council of women at Moose Jaw Normal School. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 2, 1930. Page 7. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Saskatchewan Settlement Experience. Saskatchewan Archives Board 2005. Quote “The Yorkton and Regina Normal Schools were the precursors to the Colleges of Education that were eventually established at the Universities. With such a high demand for teachers, the Normal Schools were used to give a basic amount of training in the shortest time possible before the teachers were dispersed to the many rural areas of the province…..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Saskatoon dominates. The Leader-Post. February 25, 1957. Page 17. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.


Saskatoon man named to head association. The Leader-Post. December 13, 1948. Google News Archive. QuoteDr. F. Mahood also of Moose Jaw normal school stated “the teacher can do something worth while only when she has caught up the spirit running through the curriculum, and clearly understands what thee course is attempting to accomplish….Teacher’s institutes he termed “one of the most valuable ideas that has ever been brought forward in the history of education in Saskatchewan. It is a means of bringing about unprecedented growth and development of teachers in service.”…”unquote Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Savage Frederick Quote“He attended the Moose Jaw Normal School, where, according to Principal G.A. Brown, he was one of the school’s “outstanding students…”unQuote Date accessed June 1. 2013.

School is in for 400 prospective teachers. The Leader-Post. September 8, 1959. Page 3. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

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So they say. Editorial Page. The Leader-Post. April 13, 1935. Page 14. Google News Archive. Quote “The Glee club of the Moose Jaw Normal School presented an operetta recently” Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Standards Higher. The Leader Post. December 10, 1948. Page 6. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

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Student Assembly Elects Officers. The Leader-Post. February 6, 1959. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Summer Students Sponsor Reunion. [Partial listing of 1939-1940 Moose Jaw Normal School Class.] Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. July 22, 1942. Page 8. Google News Archives. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Teacher Quality, Quantity Said Great Problem for Sask. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. April 9, 198. Page 12. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

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Teachers’ college awards. The Leader-Post. June 12, 1959. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.


Teachers college ceremony Monday. The Leader-Post. January 27, 1960. Page 12. Google News Archives. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Teachers college starts – with 450 students. The Leader-Post. September 12, 1960. Page 3. Google News Archives. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Teachers set normal-time Salary Rate. Only hope seen in guarantee by provincial govt. The Leader-Post, Moose Jaw Bureau. December 30, 1937. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Thirteen entries in cage tourney. First-round games today. The Leader-Post. February 27, 1959. Google News Archive. Page 34. Quote “Moose Jaw Teachers College Comettes [Basketball Team]” Unquote Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Three-Year Teachers College Course Recommended Here. May Soon Have Two-Year Teacher Training in Sask. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. April 1, 1959. Page 19. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

To Moose Jaw. J.H. Baker. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 30, 1956. Page 34. Google News Archives. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Toilers Nip Celtics 38-30. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. January 24, 1957. Page 15. [Basketball.] Google News Archives. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Too much “talk” too little “do” in democracy, speaker claims. The Leader-Post. June 5, 1950. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed June 3, 2013.

Two Saskatoon Normal School Teachers are Transferred to South. Dr. J.W. Hedley and R.W. Asselstine going to Regina and Moose Jaw Respectively; Lewis is Appointed here. The Saskatoon Phoenix. September 24, 1927. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.


Two wins to Luther. The Leader-Post. March 3, 1965. Page 22. [basketball] Google News Archive. Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Walter Murray: The Lengthened Shadow. General Correspondence – Asselstine, R.W. 1-31 February 1930. Letters from R.W. Asselstine, Principal, Normal School, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, extending an invitation to Dr. Murray to speak at the formal opening of the Normal School. George Ling, Dean, Faculty of Arts and Science, attended the opening. University of Saskatchewan. 2011. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Will ask for normal school at Moose Jaw. Trades and Labor Council Will Bring Matter to Attention of Government. The Morning Leader. August 7, 1924. Page 3. Quote “Provision of a second-class Normal School for Moose Jaw to give boys and girls of the city and district economical training, will be the subject of representations by the Trades and Labor Council to the provincial department of education.” Unquote Google News Archives. Date accessed June 2, 2013.

Whopping hoops tally The Leader-Post. December 10, 1955. page 21. Google News Archive. Quote “Teachers College Comets [Teachers College cricket team]” Unquote Date accessed June 4, 2013.

Winter Course to Supplement Normal School. Training Facilities for Third Class Teachers at Local Centers Proposed. The Morning Leader. August 20, 1923. Page 7. Google News Archives. June 3, 2013.

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Saskatoon Normal School ~ Education is the movement from darkness to light.

30 May

Naturally Fresh ~ Spring LIlac by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Naturally Fresh ~ Spring Lilac by Julia Adamson

Education is the movement from darkness to light.

The Saskatoon Normal School (1912-1953)

The Saskatoon Teachers’ College (1953-1964)

University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus (1964-1970)

University of Saskatchewan College of Education (1927-present)




E.A. Davies Building, Saskatoon Normal School, Saskatoon Teachers College, University of Saskatchewan Avenue A Campus



Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)


“Undoubtedly there should be a very close relation between the kind of training pursued in a Normal School and the philosophy of education upon which the institution is based. Bismarck is reported to have said, “What you would have appear in the life of the nation, you must first put in your schools.” Might I add that what you would have appear in the life of your pupils, you must first put into your teachers.” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, Saskatoon
The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

The historical account of certifying teachers in Saskatoon has grown and developed over the course of the last century. Teacher training began where classrooms and instructors were available, and the first permanent building for teacher training, the Saskatoon Normal School, was opened in 1923. Saskatchewan saw rapid growth and expansion in the early 1900s. Pioneering homestead families with young children created a dire demand for teachers in communities.

Saskatchewan’s pioneer slogan, “A new school every day for twenty years,” is paralleled by the need to staff these new schools. To keep these schools open, the Department of Education desperately required teachers.

From these humble beginnings teacher training programs were developed and refined. The one room school house gave way to the consolidated school. Classrooms and educational trends diversified to meet the changes in society through the twentieth century and into the twenty first. From the early beginnings when the Normal Schools provided teacher training, now the College of Education maintains a professional academic curricula on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon.

During these early years of settlement in the Northwest Territories trained teachers were recruited from overseas, and eastern Canada normal schools. When there was no teacher available, local pioneer residents with education were requested to provide education services in public school classes.

Fledgling school districts relied upon their school inspectors to aid them in procuring a teacher. Additionally, in the late 1800s and early 1900s the community could place a request for a teacher who could provide instruction in a foreign language.

Union schools provided early teacher education classes. “The first such classes were offered as “The Science of Teaching” and “School Law”” Horseman Under the 1888 Ordinance of the Northwest Territories, classes were provided wherever there was a two room union school and ten or more pupils desiring teacher training relates Ken Horseman in his article written for the Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Teaching inspectors were called upon to provide teacher training, and early union schools in Estevan, Moose Jaw, Moosomin, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon, Yorkton, and Weyburn offered classes to obtain a third class teaching certificate.


“A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.” said G.R. Anderson, Principal of the Normal School, quoting Henry Brooks Adams. “

Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 20, 1946.

The early history of the city of Saskatoon began when the scouts for the Temperance Colony Settlement arrived on the shores of the South Saskatchewan River in 1881. Colonists from eastern Canada began settling in 1883. The first permanent school was ready by 1887, and was known as the “Little Stone School”, though classes had begun in temporary locations as early as 1884. This was the beginnings of the village of Saskatoon.

In 1891, the Qu’Appelle, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railway Company bridge and railway station on the west side of the river saw the start of a settlement across the river from the original Temperance Colony Settlement. In 1901, this growing community was large enough to incorporate as a village, and took the name Saskatoon. The pioneers on the east side changed the name of their settlement to Nutana.

Another group of pioneers settled down also on the west side of the South Saskatchewan River, but across the tracks from the village of Saskatoon. This new community incorporated as Riversdale.

By 1896, 258 students were taking Normal School classes in the Northwest Territories, and the first official Normal School was established at Alexandra School on Hamilton Street (the Red School) in Regina, provisional district of Assiniboia, Northwest Territories. Teaching classes moved out of the Regina Union School on Hamilton Street and 11th Avenue (the White School) at this time.

“The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges” ~New York’s Teachers College, 1888, later the Columbia University, 1893

The number of public schools established by the turn of the century was 574 which were served by 592 teachers. According to Statistics Canada, the population of The Territories was booming, growing from 56,446 persons in 1881 to 66,799 in 1891, and more than doubling to 158,940 by 1901.

In 1905, there were 869 school districts in operation according to Ronald A. Manzer. It was in this self same year, on September 1, that Saskatchewan became a province. Until this date, Saskatoon lay within the provisional district of Saskatchewan, in the Northwest Territories.

The growing communities of Saskatoon, Riversdale and Nutana merged together as the city of Saskatoon in 1906. It was during this year, that the number of schools in the province nearly doubled since 1900 coming to a total of 942 schools in existence, with 1,193 teachers serving these schools.

Saskatoon was chosen as the site for the University of Saskatchewan in 1909. The initial buildings were contracted out in 1910, the College Building, Saskatchewan Hall student’s residence, Agricultural Engineering, Stock Pavilion, barn and Poultry Science building.

In 1909, Deputy Minister of Education, W.P. Bate published an article in The Daily Phoenix (Saskatoon’s Newspaper) urging students to send in their applications if they desire training at a Normal School in Saskatoon. Applications were received, however the number was below the needed ten applications to warrant local sessions.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Saskatchewan would boast that new schools were forming at the rate of one for every day of the year ( not including Sundays and holidays ). 1909 figures showed 1,958 public school districts serving the province, with an additional 31 Roman Catholic Public school districts, twelve Roman Catholic Separate School districts, and two Protestant Separate schools. These numbers rose in the 1910 school year, in 1911, there were 2,251 school districts in the province of Saskatchewan served by a corresponding increase in teachers who now number 2,973.

There was a tendency of the one room school house to expand. Communities rebuilt older schools or moved in additions forming two room union schools or three room consolidated schools. The number of schools in the province climbed to 2,468 school districts by June of that same year. The growth and prosperity of the province showed the rise in population which was seconded by the increase in school districts needed by the burgeoning population. Such an increase in population and the education of its children demanded, as well, an increase in the numbers of teachers available.

The population of Saskatchewan was mainly of a rural nature, Statistics Canada recording 73,739 persons residing rurally in 1901, and 361,067 by 1911 increasing 390%. The urban population increased from 17,550 persons to 131,365 an increase of 649 per cent. The population of Saskatchewan had an increase in population of 401,153 or 439 percent jumping from about 91,279 in 1901 to 492,232 by 1911. (Saskatchewan populations were estimated for 1901 when it was part of the Northwest Territories.)

Nutana Collegiate Institute.  In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes Nutana Collegiate Institute.  In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes

Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate)

In the years 1912-1913, the Normal School rented rooms from the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute (later known as the Nutana Collegiate) for classes, this was a temporary location. On August 20, 1912, the Saskatoon Normal School began, with twelve second class student teachers and fifty third class students. In 1912, the University of Saskatchewan also rented rooms from on the third flow of the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute.

In 1913, Dr. J.A. Sneel presided as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School.On Campus News  A.J. Mather was principal of the Saskatoon Collegiate Institute between 1908-1915, followed by A.J. Pyke. The Saskatoon Collegiate was erected in 1910, and gave up the name Saskatoon Collegiate when Bedford Road Collegiate was constructed in 1923 on the “Saskatoon side” or west side of the South Saskatchewan River according to Eric O. Burt. 55 students from were enrolled for the first session held between August to October, 1912. During this time, President Murray of the University of Saskatchewan provided lectures on the philosophy of education, and Normal School students attended lectures offered to the agricultural students at the U of S as well.


“There is one thing lacking in this country … I would like to see some way to make the teaching profession a real profession – a profession that a man or a woman can spend his or her life at – giving sufficient returns for the labor and brains demanded, and the time and money spent in preparation for it – carrying with it the honor that attaches to other professions, not the mere unwritten honour of work well done, but something tangible and recognized.

” ~ Chief Justice Haultain May 31, 1913. Bocking. 1979.

Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914 Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914

Buena Vista School

When Buena Vista School opened 1913-1914, the Normal School rented four rooms and relocated to this location in 1914 for two years. The Saskatoon Normal School began as did the Regina Normal School utitlizing temporary locations until a permanent building could be built. It was May 30, 1913 when the cornerstone was laid by Haultain for the permanent location of the Regina Normal School on College Avenue and Broad Street, Regina. It would be another ten years before the Saskatoon Normal School held classes in the Saskatoon Normal School building.

Construction began in 1914 on Student’s Residence No. 2 in the University Campus. When the building was completed by 1916, it received the name “Qu’Appelle Hall.” The University of Saskatchewan converted dormitory rooms on the first floor to house the Saskatoon Normal School. Classes commenced in the new location in 1916.

By 1916, the minimum number of persons applying for normal class rose from ten students to 25 persons who indicated a desire to attend third class school sessions. Only fifty students were to be accepted for third class classes in Regina and Saskatoon, however first and second class sessions were also offered in both Provincial Normal Schools in Regina and Saskatoon.

St. Thomas Presbyterian Church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms. St. Thomas Presbyterian Church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.    Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.

St. Thomas Presbyterian church now St. Thomas Wesley United Church.

Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School moved again in 1919, St. Mary’s separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church provided space for classrooms. St. Thomas Presbyterian church was constructed at the intersection of Avenue H and 20th Street in 1908, and expanded in the fall of 1911. In 1934, the Riverside Methodist Church on Avenue G and 19th Street (later named Wesley Methodist Church) and the St. Thomas Presbyterian Church both united and became known as St. Thomas Wesley United Church. St. Mary’s Community School, now demolished, was designed by David Webster in a Collegiate style in 1913.

St. Mary's School built 1913. now demolished.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.
St. Mary's School built 1913. now demolished.  Classes for the Saskatoon Normal School relocated in 1919, to both St. Mary's separate school, and St. Thomas Presbyterian Church which provided space for classrooms.

St. Mary’s Separate School

If 25 students submitted applications for Third Class sessions, then centers at Regina, Saskatoon, Yorkton, Estevan, Prince Albert, Moosomin, Weyburn, Swift Current, North Battleford and Moose Jaw would establish classes for teacher training in addition to classes held at the Saskatoon and Regina Normal Schools. This was a change from the earlier minimum of ten students required to mandate a class at a Union or Normal school.

In 1919 discussions arose to the permanent location of the Normal School site, whether the teacher training school should be located on the University of Saskatchewan campus grounds or elsewhere. Discussions ensued between Walter C. Murray (President of the University of Saskatchewan 1908-1937), the Government of Saskatchewan Department of Education, University of Saskatchewan architect David Brown, Saskatoon Normal School board trustees especially Dr. J.L. Hogg, and Dr. George M. Weir Principal of the (Saskatoon Normal School 1918-1924).

The first option offered on the University campus consisted of four acres, however, ten acres were requested by the Saskatoon Normal School. At this same time, the University of Saskatchewan was considering requests by the government for a tuberculosis sanatorium and a School for the Deaf.

By the spring of the following year, 1920, the decision was made after consideration of several sites, to construct the Saskatoon Normal School of brick and Bedford stone in the gothic architectural stylings overlooking the west side of Saskatoon atop the hill on Avenue A North.

While the Saskatoon Normal School building was under construction, the teacher training sessions were held at St. Paul’s school on 22nd Street. St. Paul’s School had constructed a temporary building on the corner of 22nd street and 4th avenue in 1913 which was replaced by a permanent building in 1926. Prior to this, St. Paul’s school held classes in St. Paul’s church basement which had served since 1911.



E.A. Davies Building, Saskatoon Normal School, Saskatoon Teachers College, University of Saskatchewan Avenue A Campus



Saskatoon Normal School Building (now E.A. Davies Building)


The Saskatchewan provincial population continued to swell, reaching 757,510 by the time of the 1921 census count showing an increase of 265,078 persons since 1911, or 54 per cent growth. At this time, there were 538,552 persons residing rurally in Saskatchewan compared to 218,958 in urban centres. This represented an increase of 49 per cent in the rural population since 1911 and showed 66 per cent in urban growth.

It was February 12, 1923 when the Provincial Normal School was officially opened in Saskatoon. The cornerstone was laid on May 24, 1921 by Lieutenant Governor, The Honorable H. Newland following architectural plans drawn up by the provincial architect, Maurice W. Sharon. The Saskatoon Normal School was one of the projects undertaken by Saskatoon architect David Webster under the supervision of Sharon. The building opened March 1922 at 1030 Avenue A North (now known as Idylwyld Drive North).

Dr. George M. Weir, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School between 1918 and 1924, went on to become the “first professor of education at the University of British Columbia, first director of the UBC Department (later School) of Education, and co-author of Survey of the School System.”Lord p. 8

The provincial normal schools sought to increase the understanding the realities of rural life and teaching in a rural setting. To this end, Normal School students were offered opportunities to practice teaching under the watchful eye of their fellow normal school classmates and instructors. Weir was followed by Dr. J.S. Huff as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, for a time period between about 1924-1927 which was actually Dr. Huff’s second term as Normal School principal.

Table Showing Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools 1904-1920 in Saskatchewan, Canada
Table Showing Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools 1904-1920 in Saskatchewan, Canada

Student enrollment during the 1923 school term showed 404 student teachers at Regina Normal School and 335 enrolled in the Saskatoon Normal School. This trend of a higher student teacher population in the southern portion of the province continued in 1924 with 466 student teachers enrolled in the Regina Normal School, with 381 in Saskatoon. The Saskatchewan Correspondence School arose in 1925 to offer classes for secondary schooling supplementing the province’s seven initial collegiate institutes.


“The purpose of education is to fit the soul of the child. No system of education can give an education to a child. He must get it for himself. All we can do is to provide the facilities for so doing and we never must lose sight of this fact; that the purpose of education is not to make people farmers or mechanics, not to keep them in any particular walk of life. The objective is to see the boy and girl gets the facilities for the development of his moral nature, intelligence and physical nature. Let him develop his intelligence so he may know; give him the moral training so that he can do properly; house that spirit in a body that is clean and sound. This is just as good for the non-English speaking people as it is for the English speaking people.” ~ Honourable S. J. Latta Minister of Education
The Morning Leader. Jan. 15, 1926.

The large number of students applying to the Normal School for admission resulted in additional criteria for acceptance and a higher competitive admission standard. To be accepted in 1926, students applying for classes must submit diplomas and certificates from Saskatchewan institutions attesting to their standing. The Moose Jaw, Weyburn, Estevan, Moosomin, Yorkton, and Prince Albert centers were to provide special sessions for third class teacher training if there are a minimum 25 students registering at each local rural center. In 1927, the Moose Jaw Normal School opened for teacher training sessions.

The staffing at the normal school consisted of permanent teachers along with school inspectors during the winter months. The school inspectors brought practical lessons and how to overcome problems faced directly in the country school. Serving at the Normal school, the inspectors kept in touch with the latest advances in education which they shared on their visits to the one room school districts. Following Dr. Huff, Principal Joseph A. Snell, M.A. LL.D. was appointed the principal of the Saskatoon Normal School serving the years around 1927 and 1929.


“I am not properly qualified to advise farmers as to the education of their sons, but being country born and bred I sometimes date to think what I should like my school education in the country to be if I had the privilege of living my life over again….I should like that there should come to me a leader or teacher – call him or her what you will – who could lift me out of my littleness, my narrowness of vision, my wrong conceptions, my crudeness in thought and manner, and make me able to appreciate the true, the beautiful and the good, make me able to understand the beauty and opportunity in my own environment and, above all, anxious to live and serve with the great and good of all time as my models and inspiration. I should not care to hear about crops and stock and poultry all day long. Virtue is more to be desired that prize stock and a happy home than a good bank balance. ” ~ A farmer’s letter quoted by the Honourable S. J. Latta Minister of Education
The Morning Leader. Jan. 15, 1926.

According to Karen Briere, “the College of Education with practice schools became a realty in 1927 when a School of Education was established under the College of Arts and Sciences.” In 1928, the University of Saskatchewan established the College of Education. The Saskatoon Normal School remained under the jurisdiction of the provincial Department of Education.

Mr. R. W. Asseltine as the Principal of the Saskatoon Normal School was quoted for his memorable speeches during his tenure 1930-1934. Saskatchewan recorded a growth in population in the decade 1921-1931 of 24.33 per cent reaching a population count of 921,785. The rural population was enumerated at 630,880 persons, with the urban centres at 290,905, over this decade, the rural areas showed a growth of 17% and the urban centres of 33%. Over the year of 1928, there were 4,489 more students enrolled in primary and secondary schools over 1927. Elementary schools grew from 211,599 pupils to 215,968, an increase of 4,369, high schools increased by 120 pupils. 51 new school districts formed over the 1927-1928 school year bringing the total to 4,826 in the province, (this number includes the eight Protestant and 24 Roman Catholic separate schools).

In response to this growth, 1,866 teachers received licenses in 1928 for Normal School Training. In the field there were 8,397 teachers and of these 7,192 were trained with higher than a third class certificate, or 86% of the teachers in the 4,826 school districts. The Department of Education’s Report dated December 31, 1928 urged increased Normal School accommodation, with the possibility of opening a fourth Normal School. “At the present time our Normal Schools at Regina, Saskatoon and Moose Jaw are overcrowded and yet we are scarcely training a sufficient number of teachers to supply the demand.”The Morning Leader. Feb. 17, 1930


“Twenty years is a long time in the life of an individual; it is infinitesimal in the life of an institution. The life of either, however is important not so much on account of the number of years each has lived as it is for what each stands.” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, Saskatoon
The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

Estimate of Population of Saskatchewan 1931-1950 Chart
Estimate of Population of Saskatchewan 1931-1950 Chart

As the new year began in 1931, 7,619 pupils were recorded increasing by 140 students over the previous year. The enrollment broke records held for student population in Saskatchewan.
Principal C.P. Seeley served around the years 1935, 1937 and 1938.


The development of character is the supreme task and privilege of the training school of today. The future of civilization will depend upon human beings who know social righteousness as well as scientific truth. Enlightenment without ethics is a social menace and an educational fraud.” Dr. G.M. Anderson, Principal Saskatoon Normal School.
Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 22, 1951.

The number of school districts increased rapidly across the province with the influx of settlement. By 1937 Manzer reports 5,146 school districts, an exponential increase of 590%.

Examination results following the Normal School sessions were published in the local newspaper announcing the names of those students who successfully earned their interim first class teaching certificate, second class certificate or Third Class Licenses.


“The ideal of the Normal School…was to give the students some idea or ideal of the teaching profession and to help them build up the correct professional attitude.”
Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 15, 1933.

Seeley spoke to the advantages of converting rural one room school houses into larger school units enumerating several benefits; among them, the “ability to adjust teachers more wholesomely to the life of the community; elimination of the “army of amateurs” who experimented on the lives of children and provision for the possibility of better supervision.”Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 4, 1938.

The school term over the years 1939-1940 included 344 student teachers enrolled for teaching sessions at Saskatoon, 272 at Regina and 211 at Moose Jaw. In the summer of 1940, classes were relocated to Lakeview School in Regina, as the Regina Normal School was taken over for military purposes. However, classes proceeded as usual at Saskatoon and Moose Jaw Normal Schools.

Over the school term 1940-1941 there were 877 student teachers enrolled for teacher training classes. The decade of 1931-1941 showed the first signs of a dramatic population shift from rural areas to urban centres. Rurally, 600,846 were enumerated, compared to 995,146 representing a negative trend of 5 per cent rurally since 1931, and a huge 242 per cent growth to the urban centres over the decade. To compare the rural and urban populations since the beginning of the century, rurally Saskatchewan expanded from about 74,000 persons in 1901 to about 601,000 in 1941 a growth of 715 per cent, whereas, the urban centres swelled from 17,550 to 995,146 showing an increase of 5,570 per cent over this same 40 year time period.


Teachers according to Salary Received in Saskatchewan 1969
Teachers according to Salary Received in Saskatchewan 1939

“We can’t afford to neglect our children, …They are our greatest natural resource and we neglect them at our own peril and the peril of the future.” ~ Professor Carlyle King. Saskatoon Star Phoenix Dec. 2, 1942.

According to Professor King, there were five problems in the educational system, “the inability of many school districts to finance rural schools on a decent educational standard, inadequate facilities and rapid deterioration of rural schools, inadequate teachers’ salaries and scandalous arrears of those salaries which were forcing teachers to other fields, inequality of educational opportunity and the hopeless inadequacy of the present course of studies, particularly in high schools, to fit the student for modern living.” Saskatoon Star Phoenix Dec. 2, 1942.

In the summer of 1941 the Saskatoon Normal School officials surveyed vacant public school space for the continued operation of the teacher training classes in the event that the Normal School building is given to the Defence Department.

The Normal School gave up its building on Avenue A North (Idylwyld Drive North) to the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, and the first class of the Initial Training School (ITS)#7 were held December 8, 1941 in Bedford Road Collegiate. The Normal School location was chosen as the site of the ITS administration office and Royal Canadian Air Force R.C.A.F. recruit dormitories. The Normal School and Bedford Road Collegiate were supplemented by new buildings beside the Normal School for additional training purposes.

Enlistment in the war effort drained the provincial educational staff of personnel. Summer teacher training classes were offered to address the teacher shortage. A huge enrollment of 800 students registered for one of these sessions.

During this time, Lorraine Blashill, relates that the School Board made accommodations at Wilson School for the Normal School sessions offered by the Department of Education. To further accommodate the war effort, students from Wilson School were then themselves relocated to North Park or King Edward Schools. Wilson school, in a new 8 room building, had opened for classes in the fall of 1928 had served the City Park area. Erected on Duke Street and located between Seventh and Eighth Avenue Wilson replaced wood frame school houses. North Park school was located on the corner of Balmoral Street and 9th Avenue. King Edward school built in 1904 by R.W. Caswell was located in Saskatoon’s down town (on 25th Street at the corner of 6th Avenue) six blocks from Wilson School. Used for public school classes, King Edward School was sold in 1911 and served as Saskatoon’s city hall, and the second Kind Edward built.

Even in these new temporary accommodations, the school year of 1941-1942 showed an enrollment of 950 students taking normal school sessions in the province of Saskatchewan, and 486 the following year, 1942-1943. The next school term showed a drop in student teachers electing to take teacher training with only 450 student teachers attending classes.

Education Minister Woodrow Lloyd announced that the Regina Normal School was to close in the fall of 1944 due to declining student enrollment. The Saskatoon and Moose Jaw normal schools remained open to continue teacher training services. In the 1945-1946 school term, the Saskatoon Normal School had an enrollment of 617 student teachers, 76% were women. During this time period, it was estimated that there were in excess of 2,500 teaches with temporary certificates teaching in the province of Saskatchewan.

During the second world war, a four-year undergraduate program was designed by the College of Education. Although teacher-training was conferred to universities across Canada, the declaration of war in 1939, put many educational policies and procedures of advanced education in the background. Military training, scientific developments and research into social problems were brought to the forefront for post-school education.


“Education….is not for ourselves. It is for the training of human personality to serve the community….You will by your example, create the moral force of human character, the basis of society.” Reverend A.B.B. Moore Principal-elect of St. Andrew’s College at the 1946 Saskatoon Normal School graduation.
Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 20, 1946.

Teacher training standards were raised to a two year minimum to receive certification, the classes could be taken at either of the Normal Schools or the University of Saskatchewan, College of Education. Classes could be shared between the two institutions, with a year taken at the Normal School, followed by a year at the University.

In the fall of 1948, the Moose Jaw normal school had 220 enrolled, and the Saskatoon normal school 280. Students were trained for the 38 week course rather than the six week short course, as there were already study supervisors in the school districts filling in for the teacher shortage. Students graduating from the 38 week course earned interim first-class certificates. In comparison, the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education showed an enrollment of 400 students, 20 per cent less than the previous year.


“The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires. ~William Arthur Ward.
Edudemic 2012.

Dr. G.R. Anderson served as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School until June 1954. Dr. Anderson noted that between the two provincial normal schools and the University education department 750 students would graduate in 1951. However, an estimated 2,000 places were expected to be vacated by beginning of the fall school term. The teacher’s shortage arose from matrimony, economic and social conditions. At this time, “500 rural schools in Saskatchewan were staffed by student supervisors, with limited academic and no professional training. Still another 400 to 500 classrooms were staffed by teachers holding temporary and conditional certificates. Worst of all, 1,000 of the 7,2000 teachers now teaching in Saskatchewan Schools [1951] did not intend to continue in the profession next fall.” Saskatoon Star Phoenix June 22, 1951

At the Saskatoon Normal School convocation in 1951, 75 percent of the graduates were women of the 348 receiving graduation certificates. Concern was raised over the number of teachers available in the teaching profession, if the shortage was due to matrimony along with social and economic conditions.


“You need never apologize for being a teacher. You have set your feet on the path chosen by many of the world’s truly great men. … The teacher takes the living mind and moulds it.” ~ Lorne F. Titus Chief superintendent of Saskatchewan schools.

“Teacher’s College” was the new name given to the provincial normal schools in 1953. Students received teaching education rather than teacher training. There was much call to re-open the Regina Normal School to assist the Moose Jaw and Saskatoon Teacher’s Colleges with teacher education classes. The Regina Normal School building on College Avenue and Broad Street re-opened its doors in 1957 under the new name, the Regina Teacher’s College, however this same year, the Moose Jaw Teacher’s College closed its doors.


“You are handling the most precious commodity in the universe, human personality.” ~ Premier T.C. Douglas.

By 1960, the Saskatoon Teacher’s College recorded an enrollment of 523 student teachers. Even though there were more stringent enrollment requirements for students registering due to the high numbers of students submitting applications, 584 students attended the Saskatoon Teacher’s College during the 1961-1962 school year. Across the province, the larger consolidated schools with many classrooms had replaced the rural one room schools serving districts approximately an area four miles square.


It is essential for the children to get better education, and we adults must practice what we preach, otherwise, no change will take place in our society.” ~ Dr. W. Steinson, principal of the Saskatoon Teacher’s College.

In 1964 both the Saskatoon and the Regina teacher’s colleges closed, and all teacher education came under the jurisdiction of the University of Saskatchewan. The architectural design for the original Normal School building accommodated 360 students. And although the Saskatoon Teacher’s College now came under the University of Saskatchewan’s College of Education, classes continued in the building at 1030 Avenue A North. The new name of the Saskatoon Teacher’s College became University of Saskatchewan Avenue A campus and the Regina Teacher’s College became University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus. The building on Avenue A in Saskatoon remained in use until the University of Saskatchewan constructed an education building on campus.

The 1964-1965 school term received 8,070 registrations at for classes at the University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus compared to 1,840 students expected at the University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina Campus. A quota was set at accepting a maximum of 450 students because of space available at the Avenue A Campus. “In 1964 the program of the normal schools was accredited by the University of Saskatchewan as a year of work toward the bachelor of education degree, and the institution became recognized as a junior college of the university.”

University of Saskatchewan College of Education
University of Saskatchewan  College of Education University of Saskatchewan  College of Education
College of Education University of Saskatchewan

The August 22, 1964 Saskatoon Star Phoenix reported that student teachers wishing to teach grades one through nine could achieve their Interim Standard “A” certificate after one year of education at either of the two campuses which were now amalgamated under the University of Saskatchewan. Certification of teachers remained with the Department of Education, and teacher education was placed in the domain of the University of Saskatchewan.

During the 1964 school year, 396 students received classes from the Avenue A Campus, and 6,927 applicants applied for classes in the 1963-1964 school term. During this same year, 1,003 students were expected.

Between 1967-1970, the Education Building was constructed on the University of Saskatchewan campus, with the first classes held in the spring of 1970. This new building was constructed to serve “2,500 university students, 200 graduate students, and 120 faculty members.”The Phoenix Sept 22, 1984 Teaching requires a post-secondary Bachelor’s Degree, such as a Bachelor of Education to be qualified as a teacher.

It was in 1986, that the building used by the Saskatoon Teachers College was re-named E.A. Davies building to honour Fred Davies, principal of the Canadian Vocational Training School, the precursor training institute of Kelsey Institute of Arts and Sciences (Now Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology SIAST.)


“This building was named the E. A. (Fred) Davies Building on February 10, 1986 by the Honorable George McLeod, Minister of Advanced Education and Manpower.
This building is dedicated to the honour of E.A. (Fred) Davies, pioneer of technical education in Saskatchewan since 1941. In 1947, he became the principal of the Canadian Vocational Training School, an early vocational centre located on the present campus of Kelsey Institute. In 1963, Mr. Davies accepted the position of Consultant to the Principal of the newly opened institute. After his retirement from post-secondary education at the age of 71, Mr. Davies was ordained as a deacon and served for another twelve years as the priest of St. Luke’s Church in Saskatoon.

In 1975, Fred Davies was honoured as Saskatoon’s “Citizen of the Year” in recognition of his outstanding contributions to education, community organization and church activities. This building, appropriately renamed in his honour, has served Saskatchewan residents since 1923, first as the Normal School and later as the Teacher’s College.

Government of Saskatchewan

Premier Grant Devine.”
~Plaque installed within the E.A. Davies Building along with the portrait of E.A. (Fred) Davies.

A reflection on the progress of teacher training and teacher education in Saskatoon, honours the era of the Saskatoon Normal School, and embraces the remarkable journey to the College of Education at the University of Saskatchewan. As Dr. Fast, Director of Education says, the schools of today are building on the tradition of excellence begun by those of yesterday, preparing new generations for the challenging and changing world they will soon enter.”Blashill p. 155 Every generation, since time immemorial, has passed on its knowledge, traditions, values, skills and beliefs its stock of values, traditions, methods and skills to the next generation. The role, curriculum, and course of study for the teacher varies, however the main thrust; to facilitate student learning by a method of instruction remains the same. The normal schools provided the pioneering rituals, traditions and standards, nay the “norms” for teaching behaviours, specialized education, values, and code of ethics to maintain the teacher in good professional standing. Teachers colleges provided teachers with the ability to successfully meet or exceed the public expectations to educate the nation’s children. “The College of Education is the second largest college at the University of Saskatchewan and has graduated over 30,000 students in its 80-year history. To become an educator through the U of S College of Education is to join a tradition of excellence in teaching and learning.”~College of Education 1994-2009.


“In the long story of the struggle of mankind to fit its youth better for the activities of life, there has been a great variety of aims, and that the most common characteristic in all these was the tendency to throw the whole emphasis on some one factor. At oem time it was the acquisition of knowledge and information; at another the supreme importance lay in the development of the individual, then the welfare of society and the production of workmen skilled in some particular vocation by means of some specific study.
 

Probably a more fitting comparison could not be found than in the fable of “The Six Blind Men from Hindustan.” Like the elephant in this fable, education has many parts, many factors, none of which we can afford to neglect; and like the elephant, too, doubtless there are some of them of greater importance than others. The tail, the trunk, the leg do not constitute the elephant; it is something vastly more important than one of these or all of them put together. How much truer is this of the individual whom we wish to educate, and of the idea which we call education.

” ~ Mr. R. W. Asselstine, Principal of the Normal School, SaskatoonThe Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light. 1931-1932

Article written by Julia Adamson

Note the majority of sources gave the name Asseltine in this spelling, though it was given as Asselstine as well.
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Bibliography

Mirror Webpage on Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project


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Education is the movement from darkness to light. quotation Allan Bloom

Saskatoon Normal School ~ Bibliography

30 May

Naturally Fresh ~ Spring LIlac by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Naturally Fresh ~ Spring LIlac by Julia Adamson

The Saskatoon Normal school (1912-1953)

The Saskatoon Teachers’ College (1953-1964)
University of Saskatchewan ~ Avenue A Campus (1964-1970)
University of Saskatchewan ~ College of Education (1927-present)
“Education is the movement from darkness to light.”
~Allan Bloom

Bibliography: Saskatoon Normal School History

11 x 17 Heritage Sites City of Saskatoon. Community Services. Planning Department. Documents. Mapping. Quote“City of Saskatoon heritage Properties: …Holding Bylaw Properties. The Normal School. 1030 Idyylwyld Drive North.” unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

1910 started boom years. Page 6 and 17. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013

200 New Schools in last 129 Days. Saskatchewan Now Boasts of 2,468 School Districts – 1300 Since 1906. Page 4. The Morning Leader. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013

Adamson, Julia. From potential to realty ~ The Regina Normal School. With additional notes regarding the Regina College. University of Saskatchewan ~ Regina campus. University of Regina. May 9, 2013. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. The Drastic Shortage of Teachers in Saskatchewan’s History. A small sampling of Teacher wanted ads. Saskatchewan One Room School Project. Saskatchewan Gen Web. September 28, 2012. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. Schools Close. Lack of Teachers in Saskatchewan’s History. September 29, 2012. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Adamson, Julia. Saskatchewan School Inspection of the One Room Schoolhouse. September 2012. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

American describes Teaching Conditions in State of Kansas. Less Training needed, hence wages are relatively low in rural districts, visitor in Saskatoon declares. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 29, 1939. Page 9. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Appointed. Charles W. Downer. (Saskatoon Normal School Librarian) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. July 4, 1931. Google News Archive. Page 7. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Asks More Stress on Culture Values. Seeley Suggests Way in Which Youth Can Get Increased Joy From Life. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 29, 1937. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Author Bio. Asseltine, Robert Whiting. 5663: story of Lodge Progress, no. 92, G.R.S., A.F. and A.M., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, April 15th, 1912, April 15, 1933 The . [1933]. Quote“Asseltine, Robert Whiting (1870-1953). Teacher in Ontario; to Saskatchewan, 1911; inspector of schools at Rosetown; on staff of Saskatoon Normal School, 1918-1927; principal of Moose Jaw Normal School, 1929-1930; principal of Saskatoon Normal School, 1930-1934 (Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, March 24, 1953).” unquote 2003-2009. University of Alberta. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Attendance is up at Normal School. Accommodation taxed to limit as 325 begin training for teachers. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. September 4, 1934. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Applicants to Normal School Turned Away. Students refused for first time in history – record number in history. The Morning Leader. September 24, 1924. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16,2013

Blashill, Lorraine (1982). In Lorraine Blashill. From a little stone school… A story of Saskatoon Public Schools. Modern Press Ltd. p. 40, 68, 99986-87.

Bocking, D.H. for the Saskatchewan Archives Board. Saskatchewan A Pictorial History. Western Producer Prairie Books. Saskatoon, SK. ISBN 0-88833-017-0 BD ISBN 0-88833-042-1 pa. page 83. r
Books and Authors. More Success come to Frances Shelley Wees, To Whom Saskatoon is “Home-Town.” Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. January 30, 1954. Quote“She came back to Saskatoon for a year at the Normal School which was held for the first few months in St. Paul’s School until the new building was ready…” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Building Progress in School District. The Saskatoon Phoenix. June 30, 1927. Page 82. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Charyk, John C. The Little White Schoolhouse. Volume 1. Western Producer Prairie Books. Saskatoon. ISBN 0-919306-08-X. Pages 100, 170, 193, 228-229 237. 1977.

Briere, Karen. College of Education established in 1927. The Phoenix. September 22, 1984. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Burt, Eric O. Saskatoon Schools: What’s in a Name? Schools Recognize Civic Personalities. Teacher arrived with harvest. Public school draws name from war hero. Vanier School departure from Tradition. The Phoenix. September 8, 1984. Page 63. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Certificates Given 365 New Teachers. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 13, 1958. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

City of Saskatoon Municipal Elections, 1959. [school addresses] Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 29, 1959. Page 31. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

The City of Saskatoon – Municipal Manual 2011 Compiled by the Office of the City Clerk. 2011. Quote“1910 Nutana Collegiate was erected…1921 May 24 Cornerstone Provincial Normal School was laid by the Lieutenant Governor, The Honorable H. Newland…1923 February 12 Provincial Normal School was formally opened…1931 Technical School was completed… 2004 June 15 Demolition work began on the Gathercole Building (originally Saskatoon Technical Collegiate) as part of the new South Downtown riverfront development…” unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

City school names represent policies. The Phoenix. October 20, 1979. Page 83. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013

Clark, Greg. Jean Stangoe on Saskatoon Normal School Team (second from rt seated) 1928-29, Stangoe family photos. Flickr photo sharing. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Classrooms in Lakeview School Made Ready for Normal School. The Leader-Post August 5, 1940. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

College of Education ~ University of Saskatchewan. Prospective Undergraduate Students. 1994-2008. Date accessed May 26, 2013.

College Principal Guest Speaker. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 15, 1961. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Colleges turning away applicants. The Leader-Post. September 9, 1961. Page 32. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Delainey, William P., JOhn D. Duerkop, and William A.S. Sarjeant. Saskatoon, A Century in Progress. Western Producer Prairie Books. Saskatoon. ISBN 0-88833-090-1 bound, ISBN 0-88833-089-8 (pbk.) Pages 69, 72, 107. 1982.

Dr. Huff Heads Normal School in Saskatoon. Appointed in Succession to Dr. George M. Weir, who has gone to British Columbia. The Morning Leader. December 13, 1923. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Dunn, Jeff. Brief History of Teacher Education. Edudemic. November 16, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2013.

École St. Paul School: History/L’histoire Archives Greater Saskatoon Catholic Schools SCS. Quote“The original St. Paul’s School was opened in the basement of St. Paul’s Church in September 1911. By 1913, enrolment had reached 240 students and classroom space was a problem. A temporary building was erected near 22nd Street and 4th Avenue and finally in 1926, St. Paul’s School was built on the 22nd Street site. This school continued to grow and it eventually became a collegiate for Catholic boys. In 1954 with enrolment growing, St. Paul’s North was built on our present site, 1527 Alexandra Avenue….” unquote Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Education absorbs 66 per cent of taxation dollars. Saskatoon’s original school now permanently located on university campus (image.) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 37. May 19, 1966. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Educationists Present Views to Commission. Thomson, Seeley and Quance all in favor of Large Units of School Administration. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 4, 1938. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Education thought everybody’s business. Saskatoon Educational Centre of Province: University City’s Biggest Industry: School Construction Persists. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 4, 1960. Page 70. Quote“No wonder education is big business in Saskatoon and the favorite slogan of a well-known educator, Dr. S.R. Layock, former dean of the College of Education, “Education is Everybody’s Business” is as timely today as it was years ago. unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Educationalist got start here. Saskatchewan Men among winners and losers at coast. Provincial Treasurer Beaten, Once of Wolseley, Pooley of Grenfell. The Leader Post. November 3, 1933. Page 2. Google News ARchives. Date Accessed May 20, 2013.

Emphasizes Great Task. Teachers will determine future of society, says Lazerte. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 8, 1938. Google News Archive. Quote“The teacher must be afforded security of tenure together with a salary commensurate with the task….Teachers…were the people who could be trusted to form educational policy and to carry that policy to a successful conclusion. In Alberta, … minimum salary for teachers had been arrived at and compulsory membership in a strong organization provided.” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Enrollment in Schools Falling Off. October Sees 368 Fewer Pupils than Same Month in 1941. Oulton Reports. Figure, However Shows Increase over Sept.; One Truant Case. Carlyle King Finds Five Faults in School System. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 2, 1942. Page 3. Google News Archive. May 20, 2013.

Enrolment up for January. Superintendent’s Report Shows New Record Created for Attendance. The Leader-Post. February 11, 1931. Page 6. Date accessed May 24, 2013.

Examination Results of Normal School. The Morning Leader. July 19, 1921. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Expect 450 to Enrol in 1st Year Education. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 2. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Final Function at Normal School Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 4, 1935. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Foght, Harold W. A Survey of Education, 1918. The Province of Saskatchewan Canada. A Report. Government of the Province of Saskatchewan. Regina. J.W. Reid King’s Printer. 2005. Transcribed online by J.D. King 2008. Quote “The normal school is housed temporarily in one of the residences on the grounds of the University of Saskatchewan, at Saskatoon. Several converted dormitory rooms. In Saskatchewan, … the normal school term ranges from 10 weeks for Third Class teachers to 16 weeks for Second and First Class teachers…The number of classroom periods per week for each instructor average 19.9 at Regina but only 13.8 at Saskatoon. This is because all “first class” and “second class’ students recite in their original groups. There may be thus 9 or 10 in the “first class” and 50 or more in the “second class.” The average number of students per class in the two schools is 50 and 42 respectively.”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Gallen, V. The Development of the Teaching Profession in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “The establishment of a four-year Bachelor of Education program at the University of Saskatchewan in 1946 was recognized as the STFs [Saskatchewan Teacher Federation] “baby”….However, …even then it was possible for individuals to enter teaching through a six-week “short normal course” offered by the department of education….The dozens of normal schools that operated around the province in the first half of the twentieth century were slowly consolidated into larger institutions that produced teachers on a provincial rather than a regional basis. In 1959 a major step towards consistency was taken when entrance requirements were standardized for the province’s normal schools and colleges of education…”unquote Page 150. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

The Glenbow Museum > Archives Photographs Search Results. Quote “Normal School students teacher’s residence, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Date: [ca. 1930]…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Education Building Campus Buildings University of Saskatchewan. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Education of Teachers. Edmonton Journal. July 19, 1961. Page 4. Quote  “Politicians who imagine they are meeting their responsibilities by filling classrooms with short-course trainees form one obstacle. Officials of departments of education, who follow the instructions of such political superiors without protest, form another. ” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Fall Normal Term opens on Sept. 3. Sessons will be held at three centres until June 5, 1931. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 7, 1930. Page 7. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Gidney, R.D. and W.P.J. Millar. How Schools Worked: Public Education in English Canada, 1900-1940
Volume 224 of Carleton Library Series.
Authors R.D. Gidney, W.P.J. Millar.
Publisher McGill-Queen’s Press – MQUP, 2012.
ISBN 0773587306, 9780773587304. Quote“In 1930, for example, at the Regina and Saskatoon normal schools, 30% of the students were of non-British origin, and at Moose Jaw normal school in 1929, the figure was 39%. By 1937 the principal of the Saskatoon normal School was reporting that 45% of the students were of non-English origin….Some returns from the Saskatoon normal schools during the interwar years, which reveal that a majority or near-majority came from farm families and many of the rest from small shopkeepers, skilled artisans’, and even labourers’ families. Take for example, the Saskatoon normal school in 193:0: 49% of its 383 students’ fathers were listed as farmers, 11% as “skilled mechanic”, 10% as “storekeepers”, 9.4% as “executive,” 6.5% as “unskilled labourer,” 5% as “professional,” and 6% as “deceased.”…Fifteen years later[1929] the principal of the Saskatoon normal school estimated that “over 40% of the teacher’s – in – training had no experience of rural schools.” He went on to point out, moreover, that of those who had attended rural schools, larger numbers had received only a part of their schooling in ungraded classrooms and at ages where the experience would leave few impressions. ” unquote Page 140, 141 Digitized online by Google Books 2012. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Graduation Staged At Normal School. Seeley Sees Indication of Sound Foundations of British Empire. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 3, 1939. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Hallman, D. Telling Tales in and out of school: Twentieth-century Women Teachers in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books.Quote “Rudimentary teacher training was first conducted in union schools and gradually became formalized in normal schools in Saskatoon, Regina, and Moose Jaw… An increasing demand for secondary school education facilitated the eventual establishment of the College of Education at the provincial university in 1928. The mandate of the college was to prepare its students for teaching in the high schools and collegiates, and to conduct research in education. The program of the college was open only to students who had undergraduate degrees. In 1946-47, the College of Education developed a four-year undergraduate program. However…the government insisted that intending elementary teachers take their first year of training at a normal school. …The names of the two remaining normal schools were changed in 1953 to teacher’s colleges, and “teacher training” became “teacher education.” Eleven years later both teacher’s colleges closed, and all teacher education moved to the University of Saskatchewan….Ina Jones Jorstad remembered her preparation at the normal school in Moose Jaw in 1930, as consisting of classes in “reading writing, literature, math, geography, health, home economics, physical education, psychology, drama the arts and…The Regina Normal School closed after World War II. It re-opened as Regina Teacher’s College in 1957, the same year the Moose Jaw Teacher’s College closed (from Campbell, Reflections of Light, 107-109; 151-2.”unquote Page 150. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Heide, Rachel Lea and Ross Herrington. British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. Quote No. 7 ITS [ Initial Training School had its living quarters and classrooms in the Saskatoon Normal School and Bedford Road Collegiate. "unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

History of Education, of Teacher Training and Teaching.
Educational History of Teacher Education and Training of Professional Teachers. Mirrored October 2009. Oocities. Date accessed May 26, 2013.

A concise Western history of education, educational reforms and training of qualified school teachers Philosophies, theories, systems-methods of teaching professional educators -social status of a teacher
History of Nutana Nutana Collegiate. Saskatoon Public School Division. Quote "In 1912, The Public School Board rented two basement rooms and the Normal School also rented a room, to be used for teacher training. In January 1913, Principal Mather wrote to the Collegiate Board that the entire school was needed for collegiate students. He reported that he had to convert the Reading Room into a classroom and one of the cloakrooms into a typing room. The four classrooms being used by the Normal School would be needed by September to accommodate an anticipated enrolment of 400 students. The Normal School was asked to vacate, but remained for another year because of difficulties in finding an alternate location."unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Homeroom Timeline 1920s Edited by Patrick A. Dunae. Vancouver Island University VIU history department. April 3, 2011. Quote "The University of British Columbia establishes a Teachers; Training Course "for the purposes of giving professional training for students intending to become [secondary] school teachers.” Dr. George M. Weir, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, is appointed professor of education and director of the new pogramme.”unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Honeywood Heritage Nursery. Dr. A.J. (Bert) Porter. Quote “They homesteaded south and west of Parkside in the Honeywood school district. Bert, as he was known, attended public school in the Honeywood rural school house, high school in Moose Jaw and took a 6 week course in the first class of the new Saskatoon Normal School in 1919. He went back 3 years later for a 6 month course and graduated from Normal School in 1922″ unquote Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Horsman, Ken. Education The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. Quote The 1888 Ordinance that provided grants for Union high schools also permitted Union Schools to set up Normal departments for the training of teachers. The Moose Jaw Normal School opened in 1927.”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Howe, Constance Nina and Laurence Wayne Prochner editors. Early Childhood Care and Education in Canada. Edition illustrated.
Publisher UBC Press, 2000. ISBN 077484129X, 9780774841290. Quote “Saskatoon Normal School Founding Date 1912. In 1952, while the province still retained its normal schools, a four-year undergraduate program for elementary and secondary teachers was opened at the University of Saskatchewan. …Initially, normal school admission standards included a minimum age requirement (sometimes as young as fourteen, but generally sixteen years) and the successful passing of an entrance examination, rather than the completion of a particular level of prior schooling. A large proportion of the normal school curriculum was devoted to upgrading student knowledge in the subjects that they would be expected to teach, such as grammar, mathematics, geography and science.”unquote Page 69. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Education in Moral Values Stressed to Normal Students. School Board Adopts Policy on Classroom Collections. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 22, 1951. Page 3 and 6. Google News Archive. Principal G.R. Anderson. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Fall Sessions Normal School Are Announced. Courses Open in September for Training First, Second Class Teachers. The Leader-Post. April 22, 1933. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Ingles, Ernest Boyce. Bibliography of the Canadian Prairies to 1953.
G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series.
Editors Ernest Boyce Ingles, Bruce Peel, Norman Merrill Distad.
Contributors Ernest Boyce Ingles, Bruce Peel, Norman Merrill Distad.
Edition 3, illustrated, revised.
Publisher University of Toronto Press, 2003.
ISBN 0802048250, 9780802048257. Quote“Biography of Bruce Peel. Peel spent a year in 1936-1937 earning a teacher’s credential at the Normal School in Moose Jaw. This was a reliable choice to guarantee a career, or at least a job to fall back on in those hard times….Author index Asseltine, Robert Whiting 1870-1953 Teacher in Ontario; to Saskatchewan, 1911; inspector of schools at Rosetown; on staff of Saskatoon Normal School, 1918-1927; principal of Moose Jaw Normal School 1929-1930; principal of Saskatoon Normal School, 1930-1934. Saskatoon Star Phoenix March 24, 1953. The Story of Lodge Progress No. 92 5663. ” unquote page xxv. Digitized online by Google Books 2012. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Initial Training School is Opened Officially Today. First Student Group Marches from Quarters in Normal School to Classes at Bedford Road Collegiate. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 8, 1941. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 4 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… The Normal School on Avenue A (now known as Idylwyld Drive) in Saskatoon opened in 1912 and a third opened in Moose Jaw in 1929. By 19646, student teachers were learning their profession at university.) ” unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 61 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… Exterior Rear Saskatoon Normal School; Temporary Certificate; ” unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 18 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… Junior Literary Executive Saskatoon Normal School; Second Class students and staff, Saskatoon Normal School; Graduating Class, Saskatoon Normal School ” unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher. 48 Records. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote“… Copy of blueprint showing front elevation of Saskatoon Normal School at 1030 Idylwyld Drive North. Designed by provincial architect Maurice W. Sharon, building was officially opened in March 1922. Blueprint circa 1920. ” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Inmagic DB/Text WebPublisher:73 records Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Quote” Normal School location of Initial Training School No. 7. …British Commonwealth Air Training Plan operated two schools in Saskatoon during World War II. #7 was housed in the Normal School on Avenue A…#7 I.T.S. operated from December 30, 1941 to June 30, 1944… ” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Interesting Exhibits of Work Displayed by Normal School Pupils. Teachers of West Saskatoon Inspectorate in Convention; Many constructive addresses by members of staff. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 15, 1933. Google News Archive. May 15, 1933. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Interim Report of the Superannuation Committee, Normal School, Saskatoon, April 4 1919, (microform) Normal School (Saskatoon, Sask) Superannuation Committee: Free Download and Streaming: Internet Archive Date accessed May 15, 2013.

JMU – What’s a Normal School? Quote ” …What’s a Normal School?
…it means normal in the sense of setting an excellent model – or “norm” – for other schools. ‘Normal Schools derive their name from the French phrase ecole normale. These teacher-training institutions, the first of which was established in France by the Brothers of the Christian Schools in 1685, were intended to set a pattern, establish a “norm” after which all other schools would be modeled.’ …”unquote
James Madison University. May 24, 2011. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Kelly, Brendan. A City Reborn: Patriotism in Saskatoon During the Second World War. University of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon. April 2008. Quote ” …W C. P. Seeley,
the principal of the Normal School in Saskatoon, … Speaking to a large crowd at the Vimy Memorial in Kiwanis Park in May 1941…”unquote
Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Kerr, Don. University of Saskatchewan Archives. Building the University of Saskatchewan. The Beginnings. 1998. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Kerr, Don and Stan Hanson. Saskatoon: The First Half-Century. NeWest Publishers Ltd. Edmonton, Alberta. ISBN 0-920316-35-2 (bound), ISBN 0-920316-37-9 (pbk.) Pages 231, 241-2, 244, 246. 1982.

King Edward School closure to be studied further. The Phoenix. March 14, 1979. Page 5. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Last course for teachers. Normal School in Regina to close. The Leader-Post. September 1, 1944. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Latta Replies to Critics on Schools Policy. And Dr. C.E. Tran, Progressive Leader, Admits He Can’t Find Fault with Curricula. The Morning Leader. January 15, 1926. Page 33. Second Section. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Life Member 2013.
Lucienne Déschaine. Quote ” …She went to Normal School in Saskatoon in 1943. Classes began in early July. School board trustees began recruiting prospective teachers by the end of July and throughout August….The Saskatoon East Unit was looking for teachers to supervise Normal School students. She applied and was assigned to Blackstrap School, a rural school in Dundurn. The job was quite demanding. Three groups of two student teachers arrived in the fall and again in the spring. The students were expected to observe in the fall and to do some planning as well as teaching in the spring. “unquote James Madison University. May 24, 2011. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Permanently Settled in Saskatoon. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 9, 1959. Page 12. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

The light Saskatoon Normal School, The light (Peel 10193 Provincial Normal School (Saskatoon, Sask.). Provincial Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask.: 1931-1932. [Saskatoon: Provincial Normal School, 1932]. Complete yearbook online. Physical description: 24 p. : ill., ports. ; 27 cm. Language: English On cover: “Souvenir.” Content is similar to a conventional yearbook, but seems likely to have been issued as a separate commemorative item. The Normal School’s standard yearbook – The light, [Saskatoon]: [Saskatoon Normal School], [19--?]- – is described separately in the bibliography. 2003-2009 | University of Alberta. Date e 15, 2013.

Local Normal School. Several Desire It – Other Applications Should be Sent in Now. The Daily Phoenix. August 20, 1909. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Look Over Public School Property. Education Heads Here in Regard to Proposed Transfer of Normal School. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 23, 1941. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Lord, Alexander Russell. Alex Lord’s British Columbia: Recollections of a Rural School Inspector, 1915-1936.
Pacific Maritime Studies Series / University of British Columbia.
Recollections of the pioneers of British Columbia.
Volume 9 of The Pioneers of British Columbia, ISSN 0847-0537.
Editor Calam, John.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher UBC Press, 1991.
ISBN 0774803851, 9780774803854. Page 8. Digitized online by Google Books. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Lyons, J. The Saskatchewan Way: Henry James and Curriculum Reform in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “The province [was kept] in a state of teacher shortage until the mid-1970s. Because the government continued to issue temporary certificates to applicants who had completed one year of normal school, many high school graduates saw the profession as a convenient short term job prior to marriage or another career. In 1947, for example, 1,264 students were enrolled in normal school, but there were only 5,869 students in grade twelve…Although the provinces’ Normal Schools in Regina, Saskatchewan and Moose Jaw had been renamed Teachers’ Colleges, they had remained under Department of Education jurisdiction. In 1964 all teacher education was consolidated at the University of Saskatchewan campuses in Regina and Saskatoon…”unquote Page 56 and 60. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Manzer, Ronald A. Educational regimes and Anglo-American democracy.
Volume 18 of G – Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series.
Volume 18 of Studies in comparative political economy and public policy, ISSN 1714-9339.
Edition 2, illustrated.
Publisher University of Toronto Press, 2003.
ISBN 0802087809, 9780802087805. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “George Weir, minister of education in British Columbia from 1933 to 1941 and again from 1945 to 1947, had been principal of Saskatoon Normal School, director of teacher training at University of British Columbia, and joint director of teacher training at University of British Columbia, and joint author with J.H. Putman of the seminal survey of British Columbia education in 1925.”Unquote Page 97, 221, 426 Date accessed May 15, 2013.

March, Ann. Webster, David (1885–1952). The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. QuoteBorn in 1885, David Webster was one of Saskatoon’s first architects… Post-war projects included the …. Saskatchewan Normal School, “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal Schools – ca. 1900-1947 – Saskatoon Normal School Photograph SAIN Photographs. Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Date  May 15, 2013.

Maurice W. Sharon Family, 1875- SAIN Collections. Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Quote Sharon remained in private practice until 1916, when he was appointed Provincial Architect with the Department of Public Works. Sharon prepared plans and specifications and supervised the construction of many of Saskatchewan’s public buildings, including the Provincial Normal School in Saskatoon. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

McCarthy alarmed over teacher shortage. Regina School should be used. The Leader Post. February 14, 1951. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Miss Wynona Mulcaster Appointed Art Teacher at Normal School here. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. April 7, 1945. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

M.L.A.’s discuss teacher problem. Normal School Discussed Again. The Leader-Post February 22, 1951. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

More than One New District per day formed. Thirty Two school Districts were Erected in Saskatchewan During March. The Morning Leader. April 7, 1914. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Must Raise Standards of Service. Seeley Gives Address on Citizenship to United Club Group. Over 400 present. Essential Canada Control Problems of Economics, Creed and Race. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 2, 1937. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Next Normal School to be in Saskatoon. Premier Scott States this as his personal opinion. The Saskatoon Phoenix. May 3, 1913. Google News Archives Search. Quote” “At Regina, where a normal school has been conducted for ages, there is no building yet; but one is now being erected. …My impression is that the next normal school will be in Saskatoon. That is a certainty,” said Hon. Walter Scott, premier of Saskatchewan. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

New Normal School Staffs Are Announced. Many Changes in Personnel Necessitated by Establishment of School at Moose Jaw. The Morning Leader September 24, 1927. Page 17. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Accommodation. The Morning Leader. September 12, 1927. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Normal Students Hold Interesting Debate on Friday. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 7, 1931. Page 8. Google News Archive. Names of debating club are recorded. Date access May 20, 2013.

Normal Schools – ca. 1900-1947 – Saskatoon Normal School Photograph SAIN Photographs. Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal School Results. The Morning Leader. July 5, 1920. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Site The Saskatoon Phoenix. April 5, 1919. Google News Archive. Page 6. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask. 5 December 1950 postcard photograph circa194os- Wish You Were Here Saskatchewan Postcard Collections University of Saskatchewan Archives. 2010. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal School Appointments are Announced. Principal at Saskatoon Will Be Replaced by Public Schools superintendent. The Morning Leader. September 12, 1927. Page 10. Google News Archive Search. Quote Dr. J.S. Huff, principal of Saskatoon Normal School, has been appointed principal of the new Normal School at Moose Jaw….Dr. J.A. Snell, superintendent of public schools at Saskatoon, has been appointed to succeed Dr. Huff as principal of the Saskatoon Normal School…In 1915 he became principal of the Regina Normal School…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Enrolment 500. The Leader Post. October 19, 1948. Google News Archive. Page 2. Date accessed May 24, 2013.

Normal School Here Jan. 5 to be Largely Attended. Sessions Open to Teachers who have completed Third Year Course in Normal. The Morning Leader. December 26, 1919. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Planning Another Short Session. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. December 18, 1929. Page 3. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Results. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. July 19, 1932. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Session Begins January 3rd. The Saskatoon Star-PHoenix. November 30, 1916. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Session Dates Are Announced. The Second Normal School Sessions for First, Second, and Third Class will commence Jan. 6 The Saskatoon Phoenix. October 25, 1919. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Sessions Open September First. Bona Fide Saskatchewan Residents and University Graduates Only Accepted. Training will be Given in Saskatoon, Regina. The Morning Leader. June 19, 1926. Page 17. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Staff and Students Hold Memorial Service for the King. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. January 21, 1936. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School Staff to Hold Meetings. Schedule Drawn up Starting May 15 at Rosetown for Teachers in Rural Districts. The Saskatoon Phoenix. May 2, 1913. Google News Archives Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Normal School, Saskatoon Sask. circa 1922-1932 Postcard. – Wish You Were Here Saskatchewan Postcard Collections University of Saskatchewan Archives. 2010. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal School Work Extending. Training for First Class Certificates to be Given – Advantage of Having University Here. The Saskatoon Phoenix. December 18, 1912. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Normal Students Choose Officers. Seventeen Nominated Friday for Four Vacancies on Assembly Executive. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. January 12, 1935. Page 4. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Normal Students Plan Activities. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 6. September 12, 1939. Quote “The 355 young men and women registered at the Saskatoon Normal School heard the constitution read and the nature of activities outlined at the first meeting of the Students Assembly Friday after noon in the auditorium…”unquote Google News Archives.

O’Brien, Jeff; Ruth W. Millar and William P. Delaney. Saskatoon: A History of Photographs
Edition illustrated.
Publisher Coteau Books, 2007.
ISBN 1550503669, 9781550503661. Page 72. Digitized online by Google Books 2012. Quote “A second BCATP (British Commonwealth Air Training Plan facility ` the NO. 7 Initial Training School – opened in 1941 next to the Normal School on Avenue A on the site of the present Kelsey Campus of SIAST. …New hangars and barracks were built at the airport and next to the Normal School to accommodate the BCATP trainees. …With university residences overflowing, the barracks of the former BCATP schools at the airport and by the Normal School on AVenue A accommodated the expanded student population….the Normal School (now the A.E. Davies Centre) on Avenue A…”unquote Pages 50, 72, 74 Date accessed May 15, 2013.

One New School District a Day. That was Record  That was Record of education Department For September”. The Morning Leader. October 2, 1913. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Only Yesterday. Thirty Years Ago (1935) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 15. Google News Archive.
Quote “C.P. Seeley, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, said probably 25 percent of those students wishing to enter the teaching profession were not fitted to the job and would be well advised to seek some other line of work….”unquote
Date accessed May 20, 2013.

In Ontario…Friends of Dr. G.R. Anderson and Mrs. Anderson will be interested to know that they have taken up residence in Madoc, Ontario. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. October 14, 1954. Page 8. Google News Archive. Quote “ADr. Anderson was principal of Saskatoon Teacher’s College until his retirement in June, and Mrs. Anderson was active in women’s organizations..”unquote Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Opening of Normal School Suggested. February 24, 1951. Page 7. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Outstanding educational facilities abound in Saskatoon. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 43. May 19, 1966. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Phillips, John M> Saskatoon Hub City of the West. First Edition. Windsor Publications (Canada) Ltd. Canada. Page 37, 47, 66. 1983.

Postcard 2891: Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd, Souvenir Saskatoon, Sask., Canada (c1939) Specifically: PC002891.6. Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd (Publisher) . Normal School, Saskatoon, Sask.. Montreal: Novelty Mfg. & Art Co., Ltd. Montreal, c1939. PC002891: “Souvenir Saskatoon, Sask., Canada” is licensed by University of Alberta Libraries under the Attribution – Non-Commercial – Creative Commons license. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/permissions/postcards.html. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Provincial Normal School, Saskatoon Staff, and exterior views of the Saskatoon Normal School 1030 Avenue A North (now Idylwyld Drive) constructed between 1920-1922 by A.W. Cassidy, contractor. Normal School used to train military personnel, cadets and officers in flight courses for the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II, during this time Governor- general Viscount Alexander of Tunis and his wife, Lady Margaret Alexander visited the Normal School at the time when Mayor Angus Macpherson was installed for the city of Saskatoon. Popular Searches of the Local History Room Collections Database. Saskatoon Library. Date accessed May 15, 2013.

Provincial Normal School Examination Results Announced. Regina, Saskatoon, and Moose Jaw Students to Get Interim Certificates. The Leader-Post. July 13, 1934. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

R.R.
Knight Gives Advice to Normal School students.
Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Page 5. November 22, 1947. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Regina Normal School Will Be Closed Soon. September 1, 1944. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Russell, E.T. Pete. The history of North Park : circuses, railways and the vanishing prairie. Saskatoon : Modern Press, [c1975].

Saskatchewan Settlement Experience. Saskatchewan Archives Board 2005. Quote “The Yorkton and Regina Normal Schools were the precursors to the Colleges of Education that were eventually established at the Universities. With such a high demand for teachers, the Normal Schools were used to give a basic amount of training in the shortest time possible before the teachers were dispersed to the many rural areas of the province…..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

St. Mary’s Community School | The Heritage Canada Foundation. 2012. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

St. Thomas Wesley United Church – Our History 2010. St. Thomas Wesley United Church. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatchewan Teachers’ College Gave Last of 20,588 Certificates. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 20, 1964. Page 13. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatoon Briefs. The Leader-Post. September 21, 1932. Page 6. Quote“Students of Saskatoon Normal School to the number of 285 Monday studied agriculture at the University of Saskatchewan…” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Saskatoon has builded wisely. Metroplis of Central Saskatchewan Contains Modern Structures of Every Type- In Architectural design and Finish they will compare very favorably with the older cities in Canada – is a city of homes. The Saskatoon Phoenix. December 4, 1913. Page 18. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatoon Panel “Takes a Look at our High Schools.” Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 24, 1955. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Saskatoon school to use TV aid to teacher training. The Financial Post. April 11, 1964. Page 53. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Sass, Sean editor. Community. Buena Vista School History. Quote“The School is Opened: 1913 – 1914. The cornerstone was laid by school board secretary W.P. Bate on June 9, 1913. The cornerstone contains copies of the two daily newspapers of the time, the Daily Star and the Phoenix, as well as photographs of the city. Six rooms opened in the school on April 1, 1914 and six more rooms opened in September of that year. Four of the rooms were rented to the Normal School, the teacher’s college….” unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Scharf, M.P. An Historical Overview of the Organization of Education in Saskatchewan.  Noonan, Brian W.; Dianne M. Hallman, and Murray Scharf; editors. The History of Education in Saskatchewan: Selected Readings
Volume 47 of Canadian plains studies.

Contributors Brian W. Noonan, University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center.
Edition illustrated.
Publisher University of Regina Press, 2006.
ISBN 0889771901, 9780889771901. Digitized online by Google Books. Quote “The selection of textbooks, enforcement of regulations, school attendance, teacher certification, normal schools, teacher institutes, examinations, inspection of schools, and curriculum, however were matters left under the authority of the Council of Public Instruction. In 1901 the Council of Public Instruction was abolished and the Department of Education was established with responsibility with the control and management of all kindergarten schools, public and separate schools, normal schools, teachers’ institutes, and the educations of the deaf and blind persons….”unquote Page 5. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

School Enrolment For January Biggest Yet in History of Regina. During Past Month 6,616 Pupils were enrolled, an increase over January 1927, of 323 students. The Morning Leader. February 14, 1928. Page 24. Date accessed May 24, 2013.

School Enrolment for Saskatchewan Increases Rapidly. Elementary Schools Show Greatest Growth, Education Report Shows. The Morning Leader. February 17, 1930. Page 3. Google News Archive.

School Inspectors Holding Convention Saskatoon, Easter. The Leader. February 18, 1918. Page 8. Google News Archive. Quote “The following topics will be discussed at the convention:
Languages in the Public School, Inspector Anderson;

Placing all Schools Under the Regulations of the Educational Department as to the Course of Study, Teachers and Inspection, Inspector Cram;

Public School Course of Study, Inspector Marshall;

Importance of Games on the Playground, round table discussion;

Water Supply for School, Inspector J.G. McKechnie;

Schools Plans, inspector Asselstine;

Regulations Governing Noon Hour and Noon Lunch in Schools, inspector Hawkins;

Placing Teachers on a Civil Service Basis, Inspector Hjalmarson;

The Training, Crediting and Certification of Teachers, Inspector J. Arch, McLeod, Dr. J.A. Snell.
…”unquote Page 5. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Scholarship Winners at Teachers College. (image) Saskatoon Star Phoenix. June 12, 1958. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Student Teachers Get Scholarships. (image) Teachers Meeting Here on June 25. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 14, 1956. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

School Inspectors Holding Convention Saskatoon, Easter. The Leader. The Morning Leader. February 18, 1918. Page 8. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Secondary Sources about U of S History:: University of Saskatchewan Archives. Selected Bibliography. Affiliated Institutions. QuoteCampbell, Eleanor. Reflections of Light: A History of The Saskatoon Normal School (1912-1953) and The Saskatoon Teachers’ College (1953-1964). Saskatoon: College of Education, University of Saskatchewan, 1996.”unquote University of Saskatchewan Archives. 07-Apr-2013 Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Social and Personal. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 7, 1946. Page 8. Google News Archives. Quote“Ferns and flowers decorated the Saskatoon Normal School auditorium Friday evening when students gathered for their second large social of the year.”unquote Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1905. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 11. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1912. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 19. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1916-1917. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 74. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1919. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 128. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. QuoteIn general there are two fundamental systems of education throughout Canada, one that of the Protestant communities, free from the control of religious bodies, and the other that of the Roman Catholic French and Irish communities in which education is united with the religious teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.”unquote Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1931. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 124. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1941. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 48, 879 Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1951. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 112, 121, and 122. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Statistics Canada: Canada’s National Statistical Agency. Canada Year Book 1961. pdf file. Canada Year Book CYB Historical Collection. Page 340. Archived content online 2009-06-09. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Steffenhagen, Janet. Enrolment, tax benefits seen if King Edward School closes. The Phoenix. March 18, 1978. Page 61. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Student Teacher Executive (image) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 21, 1964. Page 22. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

STF Day – Saskatoon Teachers’ College 1962-63 – Audience – SAIN Saskatchewan Archival Information Network. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Study Curriculum At Sessions Here. School Superintendents and Normal School TEachers Attend Conference. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 27, 1941. Google News Archive. Page 3. Date Accessed May 20, 2013.

Success after much opposition. The Saskatoon Star Phoenix. April 12, 1928. Page 11. Google News Archives. Page 11. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Successful Students in Normal School “Exams” for Third Class Licenses. The Morning Leader. February 11, 1926. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Tenders Being Called for New Normal School. Cost of the Building Estimated at about $500,000 – A Magnificent Site. Will Overlook Saskatoon City from West Side at Top of Avenue A. The Morning Leader. June 7, 1920. Page 17. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Teachers Affect Eternity Anderson Tells Graduates. Not Merely Livelihoods. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 20, 1946. Page 3 and 5. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 23, 2013.

Teachers college ceremony Monday. The Leader-Post. January 27, 1960. Page 12. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Teacher’s College Graduates. “You are handling Most Precious Commodity” Douglas tells Teachers College Graduates. Saskatoon Star Phoenix. June 12, 1959. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Teachers college renamed. The Phoenix. February 11, 1986. Page 34. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Teachers Graduate Next Week. Largest Class Ever. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 3, 1960. Page 19. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 17, 2013.

Tests to Weed Out Teachers. Twenty Five Percent Starting Normal Courses Unfitted, Says Principal. The Leader-Post. August 7, 1935. Google News Archives. Date Accessed May 16, 2013.

Third Avenue United Church
History of Third Avenue United Church. Dec 16, 2012. Quote “Over the years many graduates of the University of Saskatchewan, the Normal School, and City Hospital nurses’ training program convocated here.”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

To Change School Boundaries [reference North Park and Wilson Schools] Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 25, 1954. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Third Class Normal School Session Opens Jan. 3 The Saskatoon Phoenix. November 20, 1916. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

University of Saskatchewan Archives – Building the University of Saskatchewan.  Campus Buildings. Qu’Appelle Hall. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Vintage Saskatoon Quote Cone Patricia. “We called it “the Teacher’s College”. It became officially “The Avenue A Campus of the U. of S.” sometime before the Education Building was built and opened. “unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

University Registrations Rush Expected on Monday. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. September 12, 1964. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Varsity View History – Varisty View Yesterday and Today draft City of Saskatoon, Community Services, Planning Department, Neighborhood Planning, Varsity View. September 30, 2011. Quote Cone Patricia. ” 1110 Elliot Street: Teacher’s Hostel. The teacher’s hostel located at 1110 Elliot Street was built prior to 1913 by Thomas E. Farley and designed by Thomson and Crockart. The structure was built near the university to house young female teachers who were from out of town and were attending Normal School. When the Normal School opened a
new building on Avenue A (now Idylwyld Drive), the residents of the hostel were relocated to be closer to the school. From 1925 to the mid 1970’s, 1110 Elliot Street
served as a lodge for the staff of Emmanuel College and the hostel was renamed the Emmanuel Annex. Today, the house is a private residential dwelling and an integral part of Saskatoon’s history” unquote
Date accessed May 16, 2013.

WDM Prairie Gamble – Family History Album – WHEATON family. 2001-2013 Western Development Museum. Quote “The Wheaton Electric did the electrical work ni many buildings including the Saskatoon Normal School 1924…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

WDM Prairie Gamble – Family History Album – MARTIN, John Russell and Janet Mabel (Wilson). 2001-2013 Western Development Museum. Quote “During the Second World War many teachers had enlisted for active war duty, which resulted in an acute shortage of qualified teachers. To alleviate this shortage, short courses at the provincial normal schools were organized, sometimes just six weeks in length. For some “study supervisors”, as the graduates were called, this became their only training…”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

WDM Prairie Gamble – Family History Album – PODILUK, Walter, Family. 2001-2013 Western Development Museum. Quote “In September 1945, I enrolled in the Saskatoon Normal School to commence my training to become a teacher. The Normal School academic year extended from September to June inclusive, which resulted in one gaining an Interim Standard Teaching Certificate. However, partly due to the drainage of young people into the armed forces there was a pronounced shortage of teachers in rural schools. As a result some students were selected to go teaching in January 1946 to fill vacancies, which existed in rural schools. Those that left in January could come back in July and August and complete their program for their Interim Certificate. ..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

When Saskatoon Was Younger. From the Files of the Phoenix and the Star. Twenty Years Ago. February 24, 1919. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. February 24, 1939. Google News Archive. Quote “G.M. Weir, Principal of the Saskatoon Normal School, said the location of the new normal school would be decided in a few days.~ ..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

When Saskatoon Was Younger. From the Files of the Phoenix and the Star. Twenty Years Ago. August 16, 1924. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 16, 1944 Google News Archive. Quote “August 15, 1925 Work was progressing on the new Teacher’s hostel on Avenue A. near the Saskatoon Normal School.~ ..”unquote Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Work on Display at Normal School. Extension Service in Evidence; Teachers Addressed by Dr. Anderson. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. May 12, 1933. Google News Archive Search. Date accessed May 16, 2013.

Walter Murray; The Lengthened Shadow. Applications and Appointments – J.A. Snell Correspondence relating to Joseph A. Snell of Macdonald College, Quebec, seeking employment at the University. In 1914 Snell was appointed Lecturer on Education. University of Saskatchewan. 2011. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Weir Leaves Trustee Body. Former Saskatonian Directs Rehabilitation Group of Federal Department. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. June 3, 1942. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 20, 2013.

What Makes Saskatoon Grow? Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. September 28, 1946. Page 13. Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Wilson School Grounds Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. August 29, 1931. Page 3. Google News Archive. Date Accessed May 20 2013.

Women’s Page. Some Progress in Education.  Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. March 28, 1949.  Page 9. Quote“Dr. G.R. Anderson, principal of the Saskatoon Normal School gave a most interesting address…under the title, “What Progress Education in Our Society?” He traced briefly how great incidents and great thinkers had gradually moulded a line of thought in education….” unquote Google News Archive. Date accessed May 20, 2013.

Worden, Dan. An Apple for the Teacher (William Holliston) Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. April 8, 1950. Page 17. Google News Archives. Date accessed May 17, 2013.

Article ~ History of the Saskatoon Normal School. written by Julia Adamson

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