Saskatchewan’s Health Care Evolution Towards Medicare – Part 1

6 Aug

 

Saskatchewan’s Health Care Evolution Towards Medicare

Part I

Medical Logo with Hands

Medical Logo with hands

 

Much has been written about Medicare, its birth in Saskatchewan, and the key players involved in its evolution. The following is a brief backgrounder, a reference to identify the evolution of health care in Saskatchewan. By examining the origins of medicare, and the actions of some of the more prominent people involved it is hoped that readers will remember the growth and evolution of medicare and what forces came into play during the history of health care. We invite readers to Phone or email Marilyn Decker , – – granddaughter of Matthew (Matthias) Anderson if you have observations, comments or suggestions you could share. It would be much appreicated if you could fill out a short Survey answering questions like: What are your memories of the doctor’s strike in 1962? Were you working in the medical field at the time? What are your memories of life before medicare?

Pioneer Saddle Bag Doctor


” Medical care was practically non-existant in the very early times. Doctors and medicines were scarce and there weren’t any hospitals. Home remedies were used and although perhaps good to a certain extent, there were many untimely deaths, especially from communicable diseases such as diptheria, small pox, typhoid and scarlet fever and consumption (T.B.)”Grummett p 17 “Resourcefulness in cases of emergency was fostered in the home of the pioneer on the western plains and home remedies had to be relied upon. Some of the favoured remedies were said to be, by those who spoke from experience, none too pleasant to the palate, but they had great healing power.”Storer p. 104

“Doctor’s those days had to be entirely dedicated to survive – that is, on the prairies. Often saw him in the dead of winter, in his voluminous coon coat, bundled into his cutter, out to serve humanity in the bleak outlands; rain, shine or blizzard.” Greenblat p.19The prairie weather set obstacles for both rural resident and pioneering prairie doctors. “The roads were few and poorly maintained. When it rained, the mud was deep and sticky, often clogging the wheels of the buggy…The winter was the most trying time, especially when blizzards would blow up and continue for a day or two or more. The road would blow over with snow and only here and there could one see the track that had been made. When telephones came in, one would try to see from one pole to the other. If snow got deep on the road, it would be difficult to pass a cutter or sleigh coming from the opposite direction lest you slid off the road and find it very hard to get it back on. During those early days and for many years later, outbreaks of typhoid were very common. …It was hard to get about in the winter and as telephonic communication was bad or nil, when one got a call to see a serious case, it would be arranged when the next visit was to be made.”MacLean p.63

Much is said about the pioneer doctor travels: “Her practice required frequent traveling. For difficult trails or a distance that meant camping and the tending of horses, she always had a driver. On the Reserve, or to settler’ homes within a range of ten to twelve miles, she drove Malin; and the doctor and her beautiful pacing mare became known through the country.”Buck p. xvi

The British North America Act of 1867, Sec. 92 set out that the local public health activities should be established and maintained by institutions set up by Provincial Governments. Provisions were set out for medical inspection of school children by medical health officers or public health nurses.StatsCan 1939 p. 1027

Typhus fever, diptheria, typhoid, scarlet fever, the Spanish Flue influenza epidemic of 1916, venereal disease (vd), tuberculosis -(consumption)-, polio, accompanied the accidents, gangrene, blizzards, frostbite, broken bones, infections, food poisoning trials and tribulations of the early settlers. To quell the outbreak of contagious disease, Maurice MacDonald Seymour implemented a highly publicized public health campaign, “The Seymour Plan” encouraging cleanliness, and sanitation. Seymour organized the Saskatchewan Medical Association (SMA) in 1905. Between 1885 and 1905, he served with the North-West Territories Medical Council, as either both president and vice-president.

According to Dr. Hugh McLean who practised medicine 1906-1912 a doctor could expect one dollars for an office call, two dollars for a house visit, and fifteen dollars for a confinement case. Additionally a dollar a mile may be added to the bill. In another report, before Medicare, “doctors make house calls and charge $4 to $7 for one. An office visit costs $5 or less. An appendectomy is $125. Removal of a tumour by a neurosurgeon is $350. Complete obstetric service- pre-natal, delivery and post-natal care – $80 for a general practitioner, $100 for a specialist.”Cannel July 14, 1962

“In 1909, The Public Health Act created a Bureau of Public Health responsible to the Minister of Municipal Affairs. The Bureau played a largely supervisory role and was replaced by a more powerful Department of Public Health in 1923.”Mombourquette. P. 101

 

Hospitals

A typhoid epidemic struck Medicine Hat in 1888. The Canadian Pacific Railway rallied around its divisional point. A Territorial bill was passed, and fund raising began for a hospital to support the town, the railway workers away from home. By 1890 a facility was raised. By 1910, the voluntary general hospital development days were over, municipalities worked in concert with the provincial government to establish hospitals.Feather

“When the province joined confederation in 1905, there were already voluntary organisations playing a service delivery function. For example, the Victorian Order of Nurses was providing homecare and running hospitals, the Salvation Army was aiding immigrants to settle in the prairies, and find jobs, the Canadian Red Cross was running hospitals, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union was providing services to needy people, Yorkton Queen Victoria Hospital was providing inpatient services and the Regina Council of Women was instrumental in establishing other voluntary organizations to provide human services (e.g. Regina Children’s Aid Society, Regina YWCA).”DeSantis p. 11 Dr. M. Seymour, as Commissioner of Public Health, he is appointed the first Medical Health Officer (MHO) for Saskatchewan.

Hospitals began in homes, with local nurses or doctors presiding over health care for early communities. On the arrival of the North West Mounted Police, sick bays and police surgeons began to be established at their posts. Alongside early fur trading posts and NWMP posts came missions run by protestant missionaries, Sisters of Charity (Grey Nuns), and Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate in Canada. Missionaries would set about establishing schools, dispensaries and hospitals. The Red Cross and Victoria Order of Nurses (VON) were involved with establishing the first hospitals. The 1885 North West Rebellion set up temporary military hospitals at local hospitals or town homes. The Union Hospital Organization was set into place facilitating the construction, and maintenance of hospitals by two or more municipalities. Further, these municipalities which formed the hospital district could enter into an agreement to provide free hospital treatment for certain classes of patients at the cost of the RM.sup>StasCan 1939 p. 1034

From the late 1800s to about 1950, women in labour could turn to a midwife, a maternity home matron or a doctor for help in delivering a new arrival. Due to vast distances and poor roads and transport by horse and cart or ox and buggy, there was a strong demand for mid wives. Births may be attended to in the home, at a maternity home in the nearby town or village or in a hospital if a city was close by. The fees for the rural doctors (if one was available) were high. Maternity homes sprang up around the province, increasing in number until 1944. “The Mutual Medical and Hospital Benefit Act of 1944 precipitated a hospital building spree.”Fung p. 63

 

Municipal Doctor System

 

“It was in 1914 that the residents of the village of Holdfast and the surrounding Rural Municipality of Sarnia No. 221 learned that their doctor intended to seek a more financially rewarding locality in which to practice. The news caused such widespread dismay that the municipal council took prompt and drastic but effective steps. A sum of $1500 from property tax revenue was offered as a retainer and Dr. H. J. Schmitt was persuaded to remain in Holdfast.”Reid p.7

Manitoba spearheaded the program of “Mother’s Allowances” in 1916 to provide assistance to mothers widowed or without any other means of support.CYB 1931 p. 1018 This program spread to other provinces.

The Rural Municipality Act of 1916 was amended to allow municipal doctor arrangements. The Health Services Board was established in the province to oversee these fee for service contracts. Gordon S. Lawson writes of the municipal doctor system which saw the introduction of Medical Services Incorporated MSI schemes in 1955. MSI allowed the patient to choose physicians anywhere in the province, and with better highway and vehicular transportation, rural residents wished access to specialist services available in the urban cities and towns which was not provided for under the municipal doctor plans.

 

Health Insurance Districts

in 1902, Anderson arrived and set up homesteading near Bulyea. In 1919, he returned to Norway, and “had the opportunity to gather information in regard to social services, particularly health services. I began to wonder why we couldn’t adopt a similar plan in Canada with adjustments suitable to our conditions.”Anderson p. 43

The Public Health Act was amended in March 1923 wherein the Bureau of Public Health was made a Department of Public Health under a Minister and Deputy Minister appointed by the government. This Department administered the Public Health Act, Vital Statistics Act, Union Hospital Act, an Act to Regulate Public Aid to Hospitals, Venereal Disease Act and the Tuberculosis Sanatoria and Hospitals Act.StatsCan 1927-1928 p. 963-964

As of 1926, Statistics Canada reported that there were 58 general, maternity, and isolation hospitals in the province, two sanitoria for consumptives, 2 hospitals for the insane and 1 home for orphan and refuges. The total number of patients treated at the 58 hospitals were 42,614, staffed by 883 doctors and 254,090 nurses and support staff.StatsCan 1927-28 p. 963-964

In 1927, Matthew S Anderson, Councillor of the Rural Municipality (RM) of McKillop 220 attended the Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipality (SARM) Convention and proposed a health insurance plan based on the model from his home country – Norway. However SARM delegates could not see the feasibility of the proposal with the taxation scheme afforded to the RMs of that era. These localities were served by thirteen doctors; Holdfast (Rural Municipality of Sarnia No 221), Craik (RM of Craik No. 222 ), Beechy (RM of Victory No 226 ), Bethune (RM of DufferinNo No 190), Birsay (RM Of Coteau No 255), Brock (RM of Kindersley No 290 ), Chamberlain (RM of Sarnia No. 221), Freemont (RM of Hillsdale No. 440), Leroy (RM Of LeRoy No 339), Lintlaw (RM of Hazel Dell No. 335), Rush Lake (RM Of Excelsior No 16), and Senlac (RM of Senlac No. 411.).Houston and Massie. P. 28

 

Dirty Thirties

Drought and the economic depression years hit the prairies hard in the 1930s. It was a difficult time, medical institutions and health care practitioners were facing hard times, salaries could not be met, and renovations and improvements were forsaken. Settlers did not have money, crops failed, grasshoppers took whatever crop survived the heat and the early frost took the rest. The tremendous heat wave took an unprecedented number of lives. The huge dust storms caused dust Pneumonia, a respiratory disease affecting everyone across the plains. Russian thistle, (tumbleweed) was pretty much the only plant which grew during this decade. Not only people were short of food, but livestock were starving. The local doctor was lucky to earn $27 a month.

Beginning in 1931, special grants were provided by the provincial Relief Medical Services Branch to physicians and hospitals to allow them to proffer services to residents unable to pay for health care. The Bureau of Labour, and Public Welfare and Northern Settlers Branch of the Department of Municipal Affairs receive medical advice from the Relief Medical Services Branch.CYB 1939 p. 1035 ‘Northern Settlers’ were those single transients and transient families who transferred to the northern area of the province seeking better conditions away from the drought area in the southern section of the province.CYB 1941 p. 908In 1931, C. Rufus Rorem reported thirty two municipalities with doctors working under the municipal doctor plan.”Twenty had twenty-one full time doctors; twelve other municipalities had part-time agreements with sixteen physicians”

In 1938, the provincial government under Premier William John Patterson, proposed that Anderson set out the health service insurance plan for his RM. Anderson had been reeve since 1930 and a councillor since 1922 and worked towards his goal of Providing a cooperative health system – during the dirty thirties, the finances of the community was desperate, and few to none could afford any health care at all. “The initial tax was $5 per person up to a maximum of $50 per family. The population covered was 2,350.”Anderson p. 64 The RM of McKillop, town of Strasbourg, and the two villages of Bulyea and Silton were covered becoming “Health District No. 1

 

Municipal and Medical Hospital Services Act

or the “Matt Anderson Act

Matt Anderson in the Rural Municipality of McKillop No 220 instigated the passing of the Municipal and Medical Hospital Services Act (the “Matt Anderson Act“) in November 1938 which allowed any group larger than ten persons to incorporate a health insurance plan. From this statute, RMs could supply hospital and medical services to the rural community by levying either a land tax or a personal tax. After this act was passed The RM of Strasbourg and Silton (RM Pittville No, 169) also followed the RM of McKillop No. 220 passing a similar bylaw to take advantage of the new legislation that same year. Anderson travelled to other regions introducing the concept. RM of Caledonia No 99, RM Of Chester No 125, RM of Lajord No 128, RM of Lumsden No 189, RM of Longlaketon No 219 established municipal medical plans by 1941. The RM of Webb No 138 followed by 1943.

The new health care plan met with favourable press, and incited keen interest across the province. The main alteration in health care was that doctors submitted their bills to the municipality rather than to each individual patient. In this way physicians were paid monthly. In 1938, Dr. R. G. Ferguson tallied 546 provincial doctors, of which 121 were under some sort of municipal contract.Houston and Massie p. 33

Commercial insurance companies sprang up providing support for the residents of Saskatchewan in the face of unpredictable medical and hospital care.Taylor p3-4 Doctor sponsored schemes such as Medical Services Incorporated, Saskatoon Medical and Hospital Benefit Association, Regina Mutual Medical Benefit Association, Group Medical Services, were some of the agencies which arose to meet the health care needs in urban and rural areas. These proved invaluable to the residents of Saskatchewan following World War II when the province began restructuring after the war effort and veterans returned home.

In 1941, the Dr. John J. Collins questionnaire received this reply from one of the rural doctors; “Any system is to be preferred to the present. Collections appear hopeless. I do not know how medical men can hope to carry on out here [all year] under present and future conditions.”Houston and Massie p. 33

 

Health Services Board Inquiries

Over 1939 and 1940 Statistics Canada reported that the “Health Services Board…is inquiring into the extent and administration of the various health services existing in the province, collecting and studying data on the general situation regarding incidence of illness from all causes, considering methods for an equitable distribution of the costs of illness, studying the needs of the people with respect to general health services, and the necessity of co-ordination of those now existing.”CYB 1939 p. 1035

The Saskatchewan Health Services Planning Commission was implemented In 1946, with Dr. Cecil G. Sheps as Acting Chairman, and Dr. Mindel G. Sheps, leader of the commission. Dr. Fred Mott was the chair for the Commission, and he also headed up the “Saskatchewan Health Survey Report” began in 1947 and completed in 1951. Dr. Len Rosenfeld served as Mott’s deputy. The Hospital Insurance Act -Saskatchewan Hospital Services Plan (SHSP)- came into effect on January 1, of 1947 which provided Saskatchewan residents with free hospital care in the province. It wouldn’t be until November 17, 1961 when the Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Act was passed, and the dream of Medicare in the province.

 

Swift Current Health Region No. 1 – pilot project.

The Secretary treasurer, W.J. Burak, in the RM of Pittville travelled to Bulyea to meet with the secretary to gather information to take back to Swift Current. “What many new comers may not know is that Swift Current and the region surrounding had the pilot plan for the whole scheme, inaugurated in 1946; thus pioneered the whole business. We had a plebiscite and it carried. Plebiscites in other regions of Saskatchewan lost.”Greenblat 30

Just as Anderson had done in the area of Bulyea, so too did Burak in the Swift Current Health Region also reach out to settlers in the south western area of the province with success. It was thus that Swift Current Health Region No. 1 was born.

Swift Current Health Region No. 1 and Weyburn Health Region No. 3 offered a complete medical care plan including diagnostic, out patient services, general practitioner and specialist services in addition to the Hospital Services Plan. Swift Current Health Region was chosen as a pilot project due to the financial straits of the settlers, and the fact that there was a distinct lack of doctors practising in the area. The land in this corner of the province had started out in the late 1800s and early 1900s as ranch land -pastures and ranges- in the south western portion of the province, and was converting to agricultural mixed farming with a corresponding rise in the population.

[The Swift Current Plan before Medicare] -For a maximum of $96 per year, paid out of personal and land taxes, even the largest Swift Current region family is totally covered for every medical necessity, from sore throat to hospital stay. There is also a small “utilization fee” to discourage needless medical visits – $1 for office calls, $2 for house calls, $3 for medical service late at night or on Sundays.”Cannel Aug 2, 1962.

For 14 years. Swift Current and area residents enjoyed the successful pilot program, physicians “submits his bill for services rendered to the health office in Swift Current which pays him 80 per cent of the fee. …He makes out better by settling for 80 per cent and frequently comes out with a yearly income of #25,000. ‘That is some $7,000 more than the average Saskatchewan doctor elsewhere earns.’ “Cannel July 14, 1962.

Bibliography

Julia Adamson: Author and Webmaster Sask Gen Web E Magazine

Turn to Part 2

Questions:

It is quite natural that Canadians used to medicare are bringing up the controversy regarding the United States Obamacare program in their conversations.
This is an interesting time, observing the reactions, positive or negative that Americans are having with these new insurance policies. We, as Canadians may indeed be wondering how anyone could be against it.




However, in Canada when medicare was introduced, there was in fact, a 23 day strike against Canadian medicare that made international headlines. In contemporary times, few remember the inauguration of medicare, and the strike in health care service that lasted three weeks, a time during the summer of 1962 not to be critically ill.



This experiences are a reminder of the need to preserve personal memories of these events, especially as those who can remember through these times are now are at least in their sixties.


Please take the time to fill out our online survey; https://eSurv.org?u=Medicare Saskatchewan MediCare & Doctor’s Strike – 1962 Survey asking these questions:

What are your memories of the doctor’s strike in 1962? Were you working in the medical field at the time?

What are your memories of life before medicare?

Where did you live?

How old were you (teens, twenties, etc.)?

How did you get information (newspapers, radio, TV)?

Was medicare or the strike a topic of conversation at home or work?

Were you or family members concerned about your health during the strike?

Were you covered by a municipal plan, MSI or other insurance?

If you worked in the medical field, what was the attitude of co-workers?

Email Marilyn Decker, – – granddaughter of Matthew (Matthias) Anderson if you have observations, comments or suggestions you could share.

https://eSurv.org?u=Medicare Saskatchewan MediCare & Doctor’s Strike – 1962 Survey

Saskatchewan’s Health Care Evolution Towards Medicare – Part 2

6 Aug

Saskatchewan’s Health Care Evolution Towards Medicare

Part II

Medical Logo with Hands

Medical Logo with hands

Go to Part I

Tommy Douglas and the CCF

“Tommy Douglas’s Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) government was elected to power on July 10, 1944 with this promise:’ To set up a complete system of socialized health services with special emphasis on preventive medicine, so that everybody will receive adequate medical surgical, dental, nursing and hospital care without charge.'”Greenblat 30 The depression years followed by World War II had placed a strain on the province’s population. The citizen’s were ready for a improvements in the rural health care services, and access to medical care for the general public. The best that Premier William Patterson, Saskatchewan Liberal Party, could do would be to pass The Saskatchewan Health Insurance Act to take advantage of any new federal legislation which may profer funding for health care.

1944, there were now 101 municipal doctors in the province.Houston and Massie p. 34

Dr. Henry E. Sigerist, a professor of Medical History, was appointed as the head of a Health Services Survey Commission (HSSC) on June 15, 1944, and the report was finished October 4 that same year. Dr. Mindel Sheps, (CCF), was appointed secretary of the Sigerist Commission C. Stuart Houston sums up the salient points of the Sigerist Report; “He [Sigerist] recommended establishment of district health regions for preventive medicine, each centred on a district hospital equipped with an x-ray machine, a medical laboratory, and an ambulance. He advocated rural health centres of eight to ten maternity beds, staffed by a registered nurse and one or more municipal doctors. He proposed that the municipal doctor plans should be maintained and developed. He noted that the public must be educated to seek medical advice at the centre, so that doctors would no longer spend a large part of their time driving around the country.”Houston: Sigerist Commission By 1950, the province saw 173 municipal doctors practising in the province.Houston and Massie p. 34

The HSPC continued on with C.C. Gibson, Superintendent of the Regina General Hospital; T.H. McLeod government’s economic advisor; and Dr. M.C. Sheps. As a result, health regions were created. “The Regional Health Services Branch is responsible for the organization and administration of health regions: six of fourteen potential regions are in operation. Regional Health Boards assisted by advisory committees administer general public health services. Health Districts within the Region are represented on a District Health Council. … In many districts within the other Regions, a municipal doctor system is in operation. Medical services are provided under a contract between the municipal authority and medical practitioner. …Hospital care is available to all residents under a compulsory hospital plan, which is financed by an annual tax of $10 for adults and $5 for children, with a $30 family maximum; any further funds needed are provided by the Provincial Treasury.”CYB 1951. p. 212 The Saskatchewan Hospitalization Act was passed in legislature on April 4, 1956.

Dr. Noel Doig relates that when he set up a practice in Hawarden, 1957, “the basic payment from the surrounding township of Rosedale for holding office hours in Hawarden would be $100 per month, and the payment from the township of Loreburn for holding two weekly sessions in a satellite office in the village of that name would be $100 per quarter. …Fees for medical care would be over and above the stipulated contract payments….I’d [Doig] also been able to secure my appointment to the staff of Outlook Hospital, 26 miles away along two gravel high3ways (No. 19 to its junction with No. 15…)”Doig p. 5-6

“The federal government passed the Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act in 1957, which offered to reimburse, or cost share, one-half of provincial and territorial costs for specified hospital and diagnostic services. This Act provided for publicly administered universal coverage for a specific set of services under uniform terms and conditions.”Health Canada

In December of 1959, – the year that the “incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis rose in all provinces to tis highest level since vaccination began” – Premier Tommy Douglas “announced that an advisory planning committee representing the government, the university, the medical profession and the general public would be set up to make representations to the government of medical care.” Archer p. 303. J. Walter Erb, health minister announced the names of the Thompson’s planning committee in the spring of 1960.

This committee after visiting numerous countries, -Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Holland- and examining the structure of doctor sponsored plans submitted their interim report September 25, 1961. November 7, 1961, Tommy Douglas, elected as the leader of the newly formed New Democrat party, stepped down as premier. Woodrow Stanley Lloyd of the CCF party, succeeded Douglas as the premier of Saskatchewan. On November 17, 1961, the CCF party passed the Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Act. On November 21, 1961, this same government appointed William Gwynne Davies {an initiator of the Saskatchewan Federation of Labour (SFL)} as Minister of Public Health.

In 1961, Statistics Canada reported that public medical care programs are existant for three provinces. Saskatchewan locally operated municipal-doctor programs cover about 158,000 persons, and Manitoba covers about 28,000. “The Swift Current Health Region operates a comprehensive prepaid medical-dental and out-patient hospital care scheme for about 53,000 persons. These latter programs are subsidized to some extent by provincial health departments.”SYB 1961 p. 236

Provincial Medical Care and Doctor’s Strike

On July 1, 1962, Saskatchewan began operating a provincial medical care insurance program. Following his tenure on Thompson’s Planning Committee, Barootes, as president of the Saskatchewan Medical Association (SMA) presided over the Doctor’s Strike, July 1, 1962 which lasted 23 days. Lord Stephen Taylor from the British House of Lords arrived to Canada at the request of Premier Lloyd, and negotiated an end to the strike between the medical profession represented by the SMA and the cabinet supporting the Medical Care Insurance Commission.

Before Medical Care locally operated municipal doctor programs in receipt of provincial grants served the population. “Since July 1962, every person who has resided in the Province of Saskatchewan for three months…and has paid…and premium he is required to pay under the Saskatchewan Medical Care Act, is entitled to have payment made on his behalf from the Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Fund, for medical, surgical and obstetrical care, without limit, in the office, home or hospital, from his physician of choice…Physicians providing insured medical services may elect to receive payment in a number of ways:

  • they may contract for a salary…
  • they may choose to receive direct payment from the administering public agency, the Medical Insurance Commission…
  • they may bill their patients directly, the patient in turn being paid by the Commission, on presentation of an itemized account (bill) or receipt…
  • the physician my practice for private fees, whereby the patient assumes all responsibility for payment of the doctor’s fee….”CYB 1963-1964 p. 273

“Municipal doctor plans formerly operating in Saskatchewan were discontinued with the introduction of the province-wide medical insurance program, but arrangements were being completed in the spring of 1963 to continue, under local auspices, insured medical services for some 57,000 residents of the Swift Current Health Region which as operated a prepaid medical-dental program for nearly 17 years.” CYB 1963-1964 p. 275

“The Saskatchewan medical care insurance program is financed from personal premiums plus general revenue contributions. No premiums were levied in respect of 1962, but an annual premium of $12 per adult or a maximum annual premium of $24 per family has been levied for 1963 for medical care coverage. Special corporation and personal income taxes have been introduced…along with the use of a portion of revenues from a 5-p.c. retail sales tax.”CYB 1963-1964 p. 275

In Conclusion

The federal government stepped in with funding in 1968 to support medical insurance. Leonard Shifrin noted that 8 provinces of Canada modeled health care upon Saskatchewan’s medicare plan by 1979 and the CBC states the entire nation was covered by a medicare plan within ten years of the Saskatchewan Doctor’s strike. Saskatchewan’s motto; “Multis E Gentibus Vires”, Latin for “In Many People’s Strength” represents the great cooperative community spirit, which when combined with “the right person in the right place at the right time” paved the way for Saskatchewan to become a leader in medicare.Houston and Massie p. 143

>
In closing, this brief encapsulation offers an overview of the evolution of health care in Saskatchewan. It is hoped that it may inspire you to reflect on the politics, the health care services, and the effect the various health care systems had on the communities. Please be inspired to comment, compare or contrast how health care impacted their own life experiences. Though this review does not include medical breakthroughs, or technological inventions, nor does it contain the emotions – the hopes and fears – however it does review the history of key events, and some of the key people behind formal legislation paving the way towards medicare. As we are collecting information, comments, feedback, and any reminiscences you may have are greatly appreciated.

Questions:

It is quite natural that Canadians used to medicare are bringing up the controversy regarding the United States Obamacare program in their conversations.
This is an interesting time, observing the reactions, positive or negative that Americans are having with these new insurance policies. We, as Canadians may indeed be wondering how anyone could be against it.




However, in Canada when medicare was introduced, there was in fact, a 23 day strike against Canadian medicare that made international headlines. In contemporary times, few remember the inauguration of medicare, and the strike in health care service that lasted three weeks, a time during the summer of 1962 not to be critically ill.



This experiences are a reminder of the need to preserve personal memories of these events, especially as those who can remember through these times are now are at least in their sixties.


Please take the time to fill out our online survey; https://eSurv.org?u=Medicare Saskatchewan MediCare & Doctor’s Strike – 1962 Survey asking these questions:


What are your memories of the doctor’s strike in 1962? Were you working in the medical field at the time?

What are your memories of life before medicare?

What are your memories of life before medicare?

Where did you live?

How old were you (teens, twenties, etc.)?

How did you get information (newspapers, radio, TV)?

Was medicare or the strike a topic of conversation at home or work?

Were you or family members concerned about your health during the strike?

Were you covered by a municipal plan, MSI or other insurance?

If you worked in the medical field, what was the attitude of co-workers?

Please contact Marilyn Decker, – – granddaughter of Matthew (Matthias) Anderson if you have any memories or reminiscences you could share. 


https://eSurv.org?u=Medicare Saskatchewan MediCare & Doctor’s Strike – 1962 Survey

Will These World War I War Medals Make Their Way Home?

14 Jul

 

Will These World War I War Medals Make Their Way Home?

Can you help?

The British War Medal World War I.

The British War Medal World War I.


…..Peter Willcock began a search to locate the descendants of a World War I veteran in the hopes to restore the war medals to the John Bryson’s family ancestors. Beginning in Ontario, this mystery unravels with ancestral clues found overseas in Scotland, and continues with a search for descendants in Western Canada – Saskatchewan and Manitoba. It is hoped that the family of John Bryson can be located.

…..Willcock is helping a friend to track down the family. “When my friend was a boy, his family moved into a a rental house in what today is the Toronto area. That’s probably about 50 years ago now. There was a pile of junk in the basement which his mother asked him to clean out. In the process he found this WW1 medal, and he kept it all these years until maybe 5-6 years ago when he tried to start looking for some family member or descendant who might like to have the medal.”

…..Willcock came to his friend’s assistance as he had a computer whereas, his friend was not online. In the course of their online research they have delved into quite a lot of information. They feel that they may have possibly identified grand nieces or nephews in Scotland.

John Bryson

…..The veteran’s name is John Bryson; Regimental Number 105984; who resided on a farm in Indian Head, Saskatchewan in the year 1921. He was single, and aged 38. He was born Eaglesham, Renfrewshire, Scotland in October 31, 1883. He reported an address of Palmer House, Regina, Saskatchewan when he enlisted April 4, 1916. James Bryson, of Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, Scotland was given as his next of kin – his father. John’s employment was recorded as teamster.
…..In the book, Indian Head : history of Indian Head and district on page 165, the local history book committee state that James Bryson was wounded in World War I, and no other “Bryson” are listed in the World War I honour roll. There is another Bryson mentioned in the book, however, that of Jean Bryson who married James Harvey Francis (1859 Pakenham, Ontario-), namesake of the town of Francis. Miss Jean Craig Bryson (Mrs. Jean Francis) was the daughter of the Honourable Senator George Bryson of Fort Coulonge, Quebec, and together they had a son, Jonathon Francis. George Bryson, Sr. was the son of James Bryson and Jane Cochrane and arrived in 1814 to Ramsay, Lanark, Ontario. George married Robina Cobb in 1845, and had seven children – two of whom were George Bryson Junior, and Thomas Bryson. However, this book makes no mention of John Bryson at all, unless he went by a nick name of James Bryson. Nor is there any evidence that John Bryson was related to the aforementioned Jean Bryson and the notable Bryson figures from Quebec.

…..

Alexander Sr. Bryson (Sandy)

…..It is believed that Alexander Sr. Bryson (Sandy) was John’s uncle, and that Alexander lived in Sintaluta, Saskatchewan. Alexander (1869-Sept 21, 1958) was born 1869 in Eaglesham, Scotland, and had five children after he married Jeanie Moffat (1867-1920). Sandy arrived in 1911, and his family followed in 1912. He lived on township 17 range 11 west of the second meridian. His children were (William) James (1893 – 1933), Alex Jr. (1895-1916 threshing accident), John (Jack) (1897- ), Tom (1900- ), and a daughter Jeanie aged 12 on the 1916 census. Jean went on to marry Mr. Boyd and reside in Vantage, Saskatchewan. Jack and Thomas themselves, relocated to Winnipeg, Manitoba according to page 338 of the book, Sintaluta 1880-1984 / Tales of the Red Fox: Assiniboine Reserve, Town of Sintaluta, Districts of Allindale, Durham, Blackwood, Red Fox, and Spring Coulee.

…..The eldest of the family, listed as William in the local history book, and as James on the Canadian Census, enlisted July 28, 1915, recorded his occupation as a farmer at Sintaluta, and married. James Bryson 115055, lists Cambuslang, Scotland, as his place of birth on his enlistment record and went overseas with the 10th Canadian Mounted Rifles.

….Another brother, Corporal John Bryson 115056, born December 10, 1897, enlisted December 19, 1914, at Shorncliff and states that he is, at the time, an unmarried farmer. His next of kin listed was Alexander Bryson, of Sintaluta, Saskatchewan. He also was born in Cambuslang, Scotland. John was placed with the 10th Canadian Mounted Rifles.

….The youngest brother, SPR Thomas Bryson 2504238, enlisted with a birth date of June 9, 1899, and gave his mother, Jeanie Bryron, of Sintaluta, Saskatchewan as his next of kin. It was a practice for younger men to alter their birth dates in order to enlist and serve their country. Sapper (abbreviated Spr) is the Royal Engineers’ equivalent of Private He listed that he was a labourer when he signed up in Winnipeg, Manitoba on June 1, 1918. Tom recorded Glasgow, Scotland as his location of birth. He initially served with Regina Recruits Engineers.

Location

…..According to Map quest Indian Head and Sintaluta are 18 kilometers (11 miles) apart, and both are currently located on the Trans – Canada 1 highway. In the era of horse and buggy or ox and cart this would enable relatives to help one another out during times of harvest. On average, a horse walks at approximately 4 miles per hour (6.5 km/hour) which would make it a three hour journey between Indian Head and Sintaluta. It was common that relatives would homestead and farm near one another to assist with homestead duties and harvest.

…..On an historical railway map of 1925, it can be see that Indian Head and Sintaluta were both on the Canadian Pacific Transcontinental Railway (West). Indian Head, the closer of the two locations to the provincial capital of Regina is 70 kilomters (44 miles) from that city. Indian Head locates at the legal land location of section 24- township 18- range 13-West of the second meridian at Latitude – Longitude (DMS) 50° 32′ 1″ N, 103° 40′ 3″ W, and Sintaluta at section 33- township 17 – range 11-West of the 2nd meridian or Latitude – Longitude (DMS) 50° 28′ 37″ N, 103° 26′ 59″ W.

…..It is interesting to note that the “The Bryson Maur School Dist No 3312 historical one room school house was located on the SE quarter of section 29 township 24 range 19 W2″. Bill Barry gives the spelling of this same school house as Bryn Mawr school 33312 at the same location; SE 29 24 19 W2. Barry attributes the name to a settler from Wales who named it after Brynmawr in Wales, so it is not likely that the first name Bryson Maur had any roots in this Bryson family.

Can you help?

…..It is with heartfelt wishes that some kind reader recognizes the family, and can come forward as an ancestor of John Bryson, the holder of these World War One Medals. Perhaps the The Royal Canadian Legion may be able to help out. They even have a Sintaluta branch, and an Indian Head branch and so they may even know this John Bryson. “Legion members care deeply about supporting the men and women who serve this country and want to make a difference in the lives of Veterans, contribute to our communities, and Remember those who made the ultimate sacrifice for our Country…The Royal Canadian Legion [members] …. make a difference in the lives of Veterans and their families, provide essential services within our communities, and Remember the men and women who made the ultimate sacrifice for our Country.”

…..Perhaps the Indian Head townspeople can know of the family and can pinpoint the relations of John Bryson, or similarly, Sintaluta historians may remember the family of Alexander Bryson. In this way, the relatives can contact Willcock. The Winnipeg library or archives may have information about John (Jack) Bryson or Tom Bryson in an Henderson’s Directory. The hamlet of or “designated place” of Vantage is considered a ghost town. It may be that the Rural Municipality No. 103 – SUTTON would have information about the residents, and Mrs. Jeanie (nee Bryson) Boyd who took residence there.

….. Trying to identify the family of John Bryson presents a mystery, indeed, to Willcock, and his friend. With a few key details, they are trying to locate the rightful owner of the military medals. By furthering their enquiry online and receiving tips, Willcock searched outside of the province of Ontario. to seek out the rightful owner.

…..In Australia and New Zealand, the Purple Hearts Reunited are groups of researchers have come together to return lost medals to veterans or to their families. With success stories such as lost war medals returned after facebook post, it is hoped, that these war medals, too, may make their way back to John Bryson’s ancestors.

…..These precious mementos bestowed upon a Canadian military veteran, would come home at last if they could be restored. Medals “connect recipients to a time in their lives when serving our nation took precedence over all else. ” As the centenary of the First World War (1914-1918) is being commemorated and remembered, what fitting tribute, that to find the home of a distinctive, original, valuable, irreplaceable medal. This would provide the family with an ancestral connection to their family member who served, and who fought for our country. The medals themselves, honour the man, John Bryson, and the sacrifices he made for this country of Canada.

Bibliography:

Geographic Names of Saskatchewan
Barry, Bill. Centax Books, A Division of PrintWest Communications Ltd. 2005. ISBN 1-897020-19-2

Indian Head: History of Indian Head and District.

The History Book Committee
Indian Head, Saskatchewan The History Book Committee 1984

ISBN Number 0919781268 / 9780919781269

Sintaluta 1880-1984 / Tales of the Red Fox
Assiniboine Reserve, Town of Sintaluta, Districts of Allindale, Durham, Blackwood, Red Fox, and Spring Coulee

Chabun, Will. Mini-mystery surrounds Sask. Veteran’s medal. Regina Leader Post. July 28, 2015. Article also appears: Star Phoenix Facebook Star Phoenix

Published 1985 by Sintaluta & District History Book Committee .
ISBN 10 0889254982

All online sources are embedded in the text of the story as hyper links.

To contribute or add further information, please e-mail

The above web page was created and placed online by
author Julia Adamson ,
and researcher
Peter Willcock

Prairie History Blog Review

25 May

Regina Public Library Prairie History Blog Review

In this day of age with genealogical sites coming online, it is hard to determine which way to turn amidst the plethora of sites appearing from a search engine investigation.

The Regina Public Library has come up with a wonderful solution with their Prairie History Blog The blog originated with the purpose of informing their visitors about the new items added to their collection; recommending some of the best online genealogy resources; and notifications of any upcoming genealogy and heritage-related workshops and events in the Regina community or around province.

RPL, Regina Public Library, Card Catalog, Library Card Catalog

Regina Public Library Prairie History Blog Card Catalogue

Not only does the Prairie History Blog provide updates about new magazines, and books available in the Prairie History Room, Regina Public Library, but they also have information about recommended websites, their updates and new features. Website with early postcards of Prairie towns is one of these articles.

Enhancing the value of the New Magazines now available, the blog is replete with the article titles in each issue, in a milieu of magazines be it Folklore by the Saskatchewan History and Folklore Society, National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Alberta History, Families, Your Genealogy Today, Manitoba History, Internet Genealogy, Relatively Speaking, Revue Historique, or the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Bulletin.

Books

New books available for research

An informative category is New Saskatchewan Records added to FamilySearch. The digitisation process of the Regina Public Library has made them keenly aware of their own growth and expansion and in this realization they have also been able to keep abreast of exciting new digital additions appearing on the internet.

As the Regina Public Library system has subscribed to Ancestry Library Edition (ALE) and access is provided in each of their nine branches. The Prairie History Blog provides updates at regular intervals to newly digitised projects which have become available on ALE.

Genealogy presentations are provided in house at the Regina Public Library, but for distance learning or in case you missed it, the many and varied slide shows and transcripts of their presentations are preserved online. A few of these presentations are entitled Revised and Updated Version of Best Genealogy Websites and Tools of 2014 , Tracing your Canadian World War I Ancestors, Best Genealogy Websites 2012 part 2, Researching Military Records. and Chinese footprints across Canada 2014 version.

The Regina Public Library has made their blog a pleasure to use highlighting articles with images, and an easily accessible style providing excellent categories to find similar articles for further research and information. In their passion to provide digital information, they have started the Prairie History Room’s New Virtual Scrapbook on the Regina Public Library Flickr page which was launched with over 200 historical photographs. St. Andrew’s Thistle Football Club is represented with 22 photos, 18 images provide the scene of the historic Regina Tornado and the Nurses’ Training at Regina General Hospital feature amongst historical images of Regina,  Regina library events and branches.

The Regina Public History Blog is a wonderful Genealogy and Heritage Newsletter. If you cannot make it into the Regina Public Library in person, please do take time to peruse their virtual presence, where you can be introduced to the Prairie History Collection, find useful information in their Research Guides, view their photo albums, and indulge in the current blog articles and archives

The Regina Public Library blog and Flickr page are also supported by the facebook page and Web Site.

Online Family History Tree Research

Online Family History Tree Research
enhanced by the Regina Prairie History Blog

Embracing the new millennium, the Regina Public Library has established an informative and insightful virtual presence. Experience their social networking sites and venues the Regina Public Library offers a fantastic online presence.  They  provide information about new additions to the Prairie History Room Collection, allow genealogists to become aware of the better online genealogy resources available, and on top of this they provide genealogy workshops, and notifications of upcoming genealogical related events in Saskatchewan.

It is not often that one finds a blog as useful and as informative as the Regina Public Library’s Prairie History Blog. The Blog shows us just how rich and vibrant the history of Saskatchewan is, and how much the pioneers of this prairie province are treasured in our genealogical research.

 

 

 

 

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University of Saskatchewan Remembers World War I

9 Aug

World War One Remembered at the University of Saskatchewan

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration CommitteeHonourRollAddendum-Professor Dean McNeil trumpet solo-2
Honour Roll Addendum
Professor Dean McNeil Trumpet Solos The Last Post and Reveille

On Thursday August 7, 2014 the “Honouring our heroes” program commemorated those students, faculty and staff who fought in the First World War (1914-1918) in Convocation Hall, Peter MacKinnon Building on the University of Saskatchewan Campus. According to the University of Saskatchewan media advisory, Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer, Interim President and Vice-Chancellor Gordon Barnhart, and history student Eric Story related that this is the first of many commemorative events planned in honour of the centennial year. World War I commenced August 4, 1914.

Pezer recounted that while World War I “produced unprecedented slaughter” of those “sent forth to the Great War”, the effects of the war had a “profound effect upon the province” as well as established a “growing sense of national pride.” “Beyond fighting there were many ways that the University” contributed to the war effort, such as chaplin Edmund Oliver who joined the Western Universities Battalion with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). Edmund helped to establish the University of Vimy Ridge and worked on the battle fields in France serving the sick, the wounded soldiers, and advising families when enlisted personnel gave the supreme sacrifice.

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee veiled plaques honouring our heroes
Veiled Plaques Honouring our heroes
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee r, Interim President and Vice-Chancellor Gordon Barnhart - history student Eric Story-Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer
Interim President and Vice-Chancellor Gordon Barnhart, history student Eric Story, Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer.
Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee veiled plaques honouring our heroes Interim President and Vice-Chancellor Gordon Barnhart - history student Eric Story-Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer
Interim President and Vice-Chancellor Gordon Barnhart, history student Eric Story, Chancellor Emerita Vera Pezer

Research conducted by Professor Emeritus of History, Michael Hayden, found those names missing during the original commemoration services held by the University of Saskatchewan. 349 men and one woman are named on the walls of the Peter McKinnon Building National Historic Site of Canada (the former College Building ). Memorial ribbons are inscribed with the names of 298 military personnel, noting additionally those who were wounded wounded, or killed in action. Accompanying the ribbons are 34 names mostly of the Royal Air Force. Another 23 names commemorate the volunteer nurses of the Emmanuel College Hospital who served during the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. The names of 18 service personnel were dedicated at this ceremony on a plaque unveiled August 7, 2014. This plaque will be mounted outside of Convocation Hall and in this way these eighteen heroes of World War I will be honoured prominently in the first building erected on the University of Saskatchewan grounds.

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee slide show
Slide Show
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Eric Story History Student
Eric Story History Student University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Interview of MichaelHayden at Honouring our Heroes
Interview of MichaelHayden at Honouring our Heroes
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee JGDiefenbakerMemorialRibbon
J.G. Diefenbaker Memorial Ribbon

Following speeches given by Pezer, Barnhart and Story, the names of those commemorated on the plaque were read out. The “Last Post” trumpet solo rang out by Professor Dean McNeil. A moment of silence followed and then the “Reveille” trumpet solo rung out paying especial tribute to those students, faculty and staff named upon the plaque.

O Valiant Hearts.

World War I hymn

O valiant hearts who to your glory came

Through dust of conflict and through battle flame;

Tranquil you lie, your knightly virtue proved,

Your memory hallowed in the land you loved.

~ Sir John Stanhope Arkwright

 

Barnhart related a lesson taken on by history students where each pupil in the class was assigned a country. The assignment was to “trace through hour by hour and day by day the events leading up to … August 4, 1914, the beginning of the first world war one”. Such an indepth study brings home the politics one hundred years ago, that even though August 4 officially started the war, there were many contributing factors and forces in play which finally gave way to the imminence of war.

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Memorial Ribbons Admiration
Memorial Ribbons Admiration
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Petty Officer 1st Class Warren Noble CD Recruiter
University of Saskatchewan
Memorial Ribbons Plaque
Petty Officer 1st Class Warren Noble CD Recruiter
HMCS Unicorn
National Defence
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Honour Roll Addendum Professor Dean McNeil Trumpet Solos
Honour Roll Addendum ~ Professor Dean McNeil Trumpet Solos
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Petty Officer 1st Class Warren Noble CD Recruiter Sub Lieutenant Alicia Morris
Petty Officer 1st Class Warren Noble CD Recruiter
Sub Lieutenant Alicia Morris
HMCS Unicorn
National Defence

Though the University had only been open for seven years, Barnhart recounts that within three months of the First World War commencement, a recruitment program was in place. Seventy five per cent of the student body saw active service. Alongside students, staff and faculty served in the war effort. So many were absent from the College of Engineering, that it was forced to close during the 1916-7 academic year amid the Great War.

Regarding the students enrolled on the University campus in 1914; “It’s highly traumatic for that small academic community, because these people were walking beside them a short time before, and now they’re in the army, and now they’re dead.” ~ James Pitsula retired University of Regina History Professor.[[1]

Students were given one year’s credit towards their degree program which at the time they felt was a triumphant entitlement as the war was predicted to last short of one year. Faculty positions were held for all those who had enlisted.

During the renovations of the Peter McKinnon building a special insulation was installed over the memorial ribbons which was then encased in plywood casings to preserve the historic carvings. In this way no paint, no hammer nor any construction event could damage the commemorative ribbons.

“War changed Canada,” Barnhart affirmed, “in many ways Canada was no longer a colony”. Canada may have entered the Great War as a colony, however emerged as a country in its own right signing the armistice alongside the Allies of World War I on November 11, 1918.

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Memorial GSwift-JDCumming-HJBlair-MemorialRibbons
G Swift-J D Cumming-H J Blair-Memorial Ribbons

Story spoke on behalf of the University of Saskatchewan’s Great War Commemoration Committee which is chaired by Professor Emeritus Bill Waiser. This ceremony, the “Remember Us – Honouring our heroes” unveiling ceremony is the inaugural event sponsored by the Great War Commemoration Committee, there will be many more memorial events upcoming in the next four years.

Joseph Boyden has been scheduled to give a talk about two aboriginal snipers of World War I whom he wrote about in the much acclaimed novel, “Three Day Road”. There is in the making the “Great War Soiree” which will feature a theatrical number, and a musical score in tribute to the First World War.

In the works, is a public talk by Brain Gable, University of Saskatchewan alumnus, and award winning cartoonist for the Globe and Mail. Gable depicts editorial or political cartoons, containing commentaries and illustrations relating to the effects that the Great War had on society during the contemporary news releases of the Great War Centenary. His cartoons provide insight into issues and historical context of World War I embracing sensitivity, seriousness and satire on the outcome of events with a point of view 100 years later.

Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee College Building Plaque
College Building Plaque
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Memorial Peter McKinnon Building National Historic Site College Building
Peter McKinnon-(College Building) National Historic Site
Honouring our heroes - Remember Us - University of Saskatchewan Great War Commemoration Committee Peter McKinnon Building -College Building Plaque.
Peter McKinnon Building -College Building Plaque

Proposals yet to come from the Great War Commemoration Committee may feature the following. In 2016, a feature based upon the “The Antiques Road Show” will take place showcasing memorabilia, artefacts and antiques from the Great War. A culinary week is in progress studying the recipes and foods sustaining the appetites during the First World War years. Finally in 2018, the University of Saskatchewan Archives website will be completed and expanded with an grand ceremony unveiling featured topics such as “How to research”, blogs and articles on the Great War.

The Soul of the Soldier
Sketches from the Western Battle-Front

A Belgian Poem

“I came to a halt at the bend of the road;

I reached for my ration, and loosened my load;

I came to a halt at the bend of the road.

“For thee that I loved, I went down to the grave,

Pay thou the like forfeit thy Country to save;

For thee that I loved, I went down to the grave.

“Fulfilled is the sacrifice. Lord, is it well?

Be it said–for the dear sake of country he fell.

Fulfilled is the sacrifice. Lord, is it well?”

by Thomas Tiplady

While Story suggests these aformentioned ceremonies as tantalizing morsels of events yet to come over the next four years, it is by no means an exhaustive list. To follow more about plans undertaken by the Great War Commemoration Committee please see their facebook page and twitter page online.

World War I ~ “The war to end all wars”~ how is it remembered? The Great War Commemoration Committee tackles the issues, the evolution, and culture of the war years, and its impact on the University and its role in the greater community of the city of Saskatoon, the province of Saskatchewan the nation of Canada on the world stage. The evolution of the University was inevitable and dramatic during the war years contrasting sharply with the life of contemporary students, faculty and staff. The University of Saskatchewan’s motto Deo et Patriæ (Latin) translates to For God and Country.‘Deo et Patriæ’ has been the guiding slogan of the university since its foundation, and the strength and fervor of that slogan were amply demonstrated during the dark years of the War, when students and professors marched shoulder to shoulder in the grim chaos of Flanders.”
Saskatoon Star Phoenix [Saskatoon Daily Star] July 15, 1926.

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN HONOUR ROLL ADDENDUM
Andrew Melville Anderson
Albert F. Bailey
Louis Brehaut 28th Bn.
John Rich Bunn Can. Army Med. Corps.
Harry Ray Contelon 1st Univ. Co., PPCLI,D
William Kenneth Forbes
J.W. French R.A.F.
General Middleton Grant 1st Depot Bn.
David Robert Green 1st Depot Bn., R.F.C.
William James Hall
William Cameron MacIntosh 28th Bn., 65th Overseas BN.
Kenneth McKenzie 196th Bn.
Vernon Ulysses Miner
Andrew Ernest Stewart
Robert Stewart 65th Bn, 72nd Bn, Wounded.
George Moir Weir
John McIntyre White Y.M.C.A. 46th Bn
Paul Peter Wiklund 44th Bn., Killed

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Adamson, Julia. Archives ~Resources National, Provincial, City, and University archives. Saskatchewan Gen Web. April 10, 2014. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia. Libraries Resources Saskatchewan Gen Web. April 10, 2014. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia. War and Military resources Saskatchewan Gen Web. April 10, 2014. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia Millions of Archival Newspaper Pages set to go online Saskatchewan Gen Web E~Magazine May 27, 2014. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia. Michelle Lang. Canadian Journalist. Jan. 31, 1975-Dec 30, 2009. Afghanistan Casualty. Saskatchewan Gen Web E~Magazine November 11, 2012. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia. Naval Monument honours Royal Canadian Navy prairie seamen and RCN ships. H.M.C.S. Regina (K234) and H.M.C.S. Weyburn (K 173) Saskatchewan Gen Web E~Magazine September 25, 2013. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson, Julia. Montgomery Place Est. in 1946 by Our War Veterans. Saskatchewan Gen Web E~Magazine. October 9, 2013. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Adamson Julia. H.W. Balfour’s Truly Impressive Career. Recognized for Outstanding Civic Service and Meritorious Military Achievement. Saskatchewan Gen Web E~Magazine April 7, 2013 Date accessed August 7,2014.

Barnhart, Gordon. Oliver, Edmund H. (1882–1935) Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Biber, Francois. Saskatoon Great War Memorial last of its kind in Canada. What began in 1923 remaing and has grown to more than 1,200 memorials CJME news. August 6, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Brian Gable. Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. July 30, 2013. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Brian Gable Editorial Cartoonist Bio. The Globe and Mail. June 3, 2009. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Brian Gable on Facebook Date accessed August 7, 2014.

[1] Charlton, Jonathan. Great War shaped Saskatoon and U of S The Saskatoon Star Phoenix. Page A5. Thursday July 31, 2014.

Coggins, Jack. A Chaplain’s War. Edmund Henry Oliver and the University of Vimy Ridge, 1916-1919 (pdf) Univeristy of Saskatchewan Library Archives. History Department Essays 2004. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Dawson, Anna-Lilja. The U of S held strong through the World Wars. The Sheaf. November 7, 2013. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

England declares war on Germany The Guardian. August 5, 1914. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Eric Story on Facebook Eric Story (The_RealEAS) on Twitter Date accessed August 7,2014.

Ferguson, Mark. The University of Saskatchewan will rename the historic College Building to the Peter MacKinnon Building to honour the outgoing U of S President. University of Saskatchewan News. June 14, 2012. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Gable, Brian 1949- Something about the author, Scholarly Magazines, Encyclopedia.com. January 2009. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Globe and Mail on Twitter (#globeandmail) ‘The war to end all wars’: Today’s editorial cartoon by Brian Gable. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Great War Commemoration Committee on Facebook. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Great War Commomoration Committee on Twitter (#GWCP306) Date accessed August 7,2014.

Halliwell, J. Joseph Boyden. The Agenda with Steve Paikin. Video. Joseph Boyden: First Nations and the First World War July 31, 2014. Author Joseph Boyden discusses the important role Aboriginals played in the First World War, and the real-life Ojibwe soldier that inspired his novel “Three Day Road.”2014. The Ontario Educational Communications Authority (TVO) Date accessed August 7,2014.

Harvey, Alban.
Joseph Boyden The Canadian Encyclopedia. Aboriginal Peoples. March 6, 2014. Date accessed August 7,2014.

Hayden, Michael. Why Are All Those Names on the Wall? The University of Saskatchewan and World War I. Saskatchewan History 58, no. 2 (2006): 4.14.

Higher Education. The University of Saskatchewan: The Start Saskatchewan News Index. Top News Stories. University of Saskatchewan Library. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Joseph Boyden. Wikipedia The free encyclopedia. March 7, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Lacey, Dana. Documents show Harper;s extreme political control The Canadian Journalism Project. June 8, 2010. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Long-lost names added to U of S War Memorial. 18 names will be added to the Roll of Honor. August 6, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Mattern, Ashleigh. Alumnus Profile: Brian Gable, editorial cartoonist for the Globe and Mail. Centennial Committee. April 16, 2012. The Sheaf, One Hundred Years.Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Nurse, Donna Bailey. Joseph Boyden Author Profile. Way of the Warrior. Joseph Boyden brings new voice to First World War epic. Quill and Quire, Canada’s magazine of Book News and Reviews. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Pitsula, James M. Manly Heroes: The University of Saskatchewan and the First World War. In Paul Stortz and E. Lisa Panayotidis, eds., Cultures, Communities, and Conflict: Histories of Canadian Universities and War. University of Toronto Press, 2012.

Preston, Richard. First World War centenary: how the events of August 1, 1914 unfolded. Telegraph. August 1, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014

Preston, Richard. First World War centenary: how the events of August 2, 1914 unfolded. Telegraph. August 2, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014

Preston, Richard. First World War centenary: how the events of August 3, 1914 unfolded. Telegraph. August 3, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014

Preston, Richard. First World War centenary: how the events of August 4, 1914 unfolded. Telegraph. August 4, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014

Remember Us Great War Commemoration project begins with plaque unveiling. Facebook.
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Sibbald, Kirk. Cartoons and Calculus. Green and White. FAll 2010. Features. University of Saskatchewan. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Stoon Great War on twitter (#StoonGreatWar) Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Story, Eric. Saskatchewan History online. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Streck, Aaron. Eighteen alumni names complete U of S commemoration from WWI Global News. Shaw Media Inc. August 7, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Tipalady, Thomas. The Soul of the Soldier Sketches from the Western Battle-Front Fleming H. Revell Company. New York. 1918. Project Gutenberg.org Ebook #46323 Produced by Al Haines. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

University remembers those who served in First World War. CTV news. August 7, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

University of Saskatchewan Great War on Twitter (#usaskGW) Date accessed August 7, 2014.

University of Saskatchewan honours students, faculty and staff who fought in WWI August 7, 2014. University of SAskatchewan News. August 7, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Three Day Road [This novel written by Joseph Boyden follows the journey of two young Cree men, Xavier and Elijah, who volunteer for that war and become snipers during World War I] Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. August 2, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Waiser, Bill. Opinion: Let’s protect future census data. Edmonton Journal Reprinted by the Ottawa Citizen. May 26, 2014. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

World War I Campus History. University of Saskatchewan. University Library. University Archives and Special Collections. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

  • Database at World War I:
  • Killed, died or wounded
  • U of S affiliation at enlistment
  • Batallion/unit at enlistment
  • Batallion/unit – all assignments
  • U of S College
  • Date of death
  • Decoration type
  • Rank

 

World War one Centenary on Twitter. (#wwicentenary) Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Stewart, Les. Why won’t this federal government support our invisibly wounded soldiers? Cartoon from the Globe and Mail, re posted by the Springwater Park Citizen’s Coalition, a sustainbale business plan for Springwater Provincial Park in Midhurst, Ontario. December 20, 2013. Date accessed August 7, 2014.

WWI Canada Centennial Commemoration on facebook Date accessed August 7, 2014.

Notice and Disclaimer:

The purpose of the information on this site is to assist genealogists, historians and other interested parties in locating information regarding the World War One Centenary Celebrations. Please e-mail the author at saskgenweb@yahoo.com if you have any further updates or additions. Thank you.

To cite this article:

World War One Remembered at the University of Saskatchewan . Saskatchewan Gen Web. Rootsweb. Ancestry.com . Retrieved .

E-mail saskgenweb@yahoo.com

 

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Iceland to Saskatchewan

11 Jul

Iceland to Saskatchewan

Icelandic migration to Canada, New Iceland Manitoba Lake Region, two settlements in southeast Saskatchewan Thingvalla and Churchbridge areas and Foam Lake settlement

Adapted from by Wikimedia commons File:Canada (orthographic projection).svg CC-BY-3.0 by Aquarius.geomar.de

…..From their homes in Iceland, via ferry to Scotland, then by way of steamer across the vast Pacific Ocean reaching the prairies by rail, such was the path taken by the Western Icelanders who established themselves in New Iceland along the shores of the great Manitoba lakes in 1875. Six years later, the settlement expanded into the North West Territories establishing Thingvalla and Logberg. This area expanded to the south, creating Vesturbyggd or or the “Western Settlement” also called the Concordia district (near Churchbridge). Around 1887, Vatnsdalur the “Water Valley” District around Vallar and Hólar (now known as Tantallon) received Icelandic migrants. Five years later Icelanders also made homes around the Quill Lakes, Fishing Lake and Foam Lake which became known as Vatnabyyður or Vatnabyggd “Lakes Settlement.” During this early settlement era, these ethnic bloc settlements were part of the District of Assiniboia, North West Territories. It wasn’t until 1905 that the province of Saskatchewan was incorporated in Canada.

Komdu sæl og blessuö.
Hello and Blessings.

…..“Rocked in their infant days to the tunes of the old sagas, Canada’s Icelanders have provided names for commemoration in the sagas yet to be written in the persons of such historic figures as Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Minister of public works in the Norris Administration; Wilhelm Paulson, Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA); Bryan Bjarnason, MLA; Bill Sveinson, MLA; Raymond Thorsteinsson, geologist; Stephan G. Stephansson, poet; Rev. Jon Bjarnason, Founder of the Icelandic Lutheran Synod of North America and many famous office holders.”1 such as Leo Kristjanson, Ph.D. president of the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) 1980-1989, Laurel Johannesson, artist; (Hans) Jakob Jónsson, Lutheran Minister, and Thorbergur Thorvaldson M.Sc., PhD. head of the U of S Department of Chemistry. “To maintain their common ideals an association was formed in 1919 known as the Icelandic National League of North America embracing both sides of the line on the same principals as the Sons of England and Caledonian Society.”1


Af godu upphafi vonast godur endir.

Translation: A good beginning makes a good ending.
~European proverb.

…..According to Joan Eyolfson Cadham, “the Icelandic Eddas, prose and poetry were preserved orally until they were written down during the 13th century…. Gudmundur Andri Thorsson, an Icelandic author columnist and editor, explained that, in Icelandic, ‘the old meaning of the word edda is langamma – great grandmother ..somewhere deep inside we hear the voices of our great-grandmothers – our Eddas – who knew all the stories and sometimes drew us into the strange and beautiful world of storytelling.’ “2 These tales tell of the “ancient Icelandic strength, courage and determination that defied everything, even the elements and death itself.6

“As the generations passed, the Icelanders sent their children off to university–an unattainable dream in the Old Country–where they became mostly lawyers, judges, teachers, and journalists, sometimes of great distinction. ” ~Bill Holm

It is the perseverance, hard work and the ingenuity of its people in harnessing their resources that have made Iceland a modern and progressive society, and a well-respeced member of the international community.” Jón Jónsson, Consul of Iceland in Saskatchewan at the 13th annual Vatnabyggö Club þorrabloót, winter festival, ” It is also a community that is proud of and determined to preserve its literary, artistic, and cultural heritage.”#

 

…..The Icelanders came to Canada in family groups mainly organized by their own personal initiative following the advice of friends, relatives or immigration agents who had traveled to the new country before them. Truly, the ethnic network of Saskatchewan has been truly enriched by this infusion of Icelandic roots and culture.


Ég skildi, að orð er á Íslandi til um allt, sem er hugsað á jorðu.

I understood, that a word in Iceland exists, covering every thought on Earth

~Einar Benediktsson.

…To read more…Iceland to Saskatchewan Source Page, bibliography, maps, homestead records, and resources.

The southern aspect of the province of Saskatchewan showing the Icelandic Settlements
Historic Railway Maps

Click on map for larger size.

South Eastern Saskatchewan
Thingvalla – Lögberg (1886)
Vatnsdalur, Vesturbyggd “Western Settlement” or the Concordia District
“Water Valley” the District around Vallar – Hólar (now known as Tantallon) (1887)
South Eastern Icelandic Colonies South Eastern Saskatchewan Thingvalla - Lögberg (1886) Vatnsdalur, Vesturbyggd 'Western Settlement' or the Concordia District, 'Water Valley' the District around Vallar - Hólar (now known as Tantallon) (1887)
Settlement
School Districts South Eastern Icelandic Colonies South Eastern Saskatchewan Thingvalla - Lögberg (1886) Vatnsdalur, Vesturbyggd 'Western Settlement' or the Concordia District, 'Water Valley' the District around Vallar - Hólar (now known as Tantallon) (1887)
School Districts
East Central Saskatchewan
Vatnabyyður or Vatnabyggd “Lakes Settlement” (1891)
East Central Saskatchewan Vatnabyyður or Vatnabyggd 'Lakes Settlement
Settlement
East Central Saskatchewan Vatnabyyður or Vatnabyggd 'Lakes Settlement School Districts
School Districts

…To read more…Iceland to Saskatchewan Source Page, bibliography, maps, homestead records, and resources.

D-Day, June 6, 1944, 70th Anniversary Commemoration

27 May

D-Day, June 6, 1944, 70th Anniversary Commemoration
Are you ready for a trip to France?

Adapted from Library and Archives Canada images on Flickr. Set of images:D-Day

On June 6, 1944 – D-Day, the day of the Normandy Landings ~ Western Allied effort to liberate mainland Europe from Nazi occupation during World War II
Adapted from Library and Archives Canada images on Flickr. Set of images:D-Day

The Canadian Government has organised ceremonies in Canada and in France to honour those who served in World War II. This occasion commemorates the 70th anniversary of D-Day (June 6, 1944) and the Battle of Normandy.

Veterans from all nations and Canadians are all invited to attend the ceremonies. Provinces across the nation will additionally have ceremonies demarking the occasion. Financial assistance from Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) is available to help Veterans attend the overseas events in France.

Postcards for Peace is one method for youth to become involved in remembering the sacrifices made in times of war or in active service. Although Veteran’s Affairs suggests other ways to remember, such as inviting a Veteran or Canadian Armed Forces as a guest speaker to a classroom or to a community event, or to write stories and poems about remembrance for a few of the ideas they offer as ways to remember. Valentine’s for Vets encourages hand made valentines for our Canadian Veterans.

According to A Historical Atlas of Canada from Canada there were 22,817 army fatalities, 2,019 navy casualties and 17,101 casualties from the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) who had served in World War II. The Saskatchewan Virtual War Memorial lists 4,952 who paid the supreme sacrifice from Saskatchewan or 11.8% of the World War II Canadian contingent.

The 1952-53 Canada Year Book reports that Saskatchewan as a province had a population of 895,992 in 1941 and 831,728 in 1951, whereas the nation of Canada had a total population of 11,596,655 in 1941 and 14,009,429 in 1951. Saskatchewan represented 7.7% of the Canadian population in 1941, and 5.9% of the population in 1951.

The strategy and planning that went into D-day and the landings in Normandy resulted in the vitally strategic capture of Caen on July 9. According to the CBC, “For Canada, 14,000 soldiers were to land on the beaches; another 450 were to drop behind enemy lines by parachute or glider. The Royal Canadian Navy supplied ships and about 10,000 sailors.” Counting the casualties from the D-Day invasion from all allied forces has been estimated at 10,000 dead and wounded. Veterans Affairs reports that about three hundred and forty Canadians were killed on D-Day on Juno Beach alone. Over 5,000 paid the supreme sacrifice.

Saskatchewan Virtual War Memorial presents a Roll of Honour for those from Saskatchewan who paid the ultimate sacrifice during World War II.


“Lest We Forget

 

They shall gow not old, as we that are left grow old, age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun, and in the morning, we will remember them.

We will remember them

Lord God of Hosts

Be with us yet,

Lest we forget,

Lest we forget.”

Author Julia Adamson

For more information:

1952-53 Canada Year Book Statistics Canada. 2009-06-09. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia Saskatchewan Gen Web – Military Resources. Date Accessed May 26, 2014.

Barry, Bill. Saskatchewan Virtual War Memorial Date accessed May 26, 2014.
Canada and the Second World War. Canada at D-Day. Canadian War Museum. Canadian Museum of History. Government of Canada. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

CBC D-day The Allied Invasion of Normandy. june 4, 2009.

Kerr, D.G.G., editor. Historical Atlas of Canada. Canadian Historical Associations Committee on a Historical Atlas of Canada. 1960. Thomas Nelson and Sons (Canada) ltd. Library of Congress catalog card number 60-9189.

Library and Archives Canada images on Flickr. Set of images: D-Day

Veterans Affairs Canada >> Remembrance >>
History >>
The Second World War >>
D-Day and the Battle of Normandy

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Saskatchewan Evolutionary Changes

27 May

Saskatchewan Evolutionary Changes

1900 Map of Manitoba and the North-West Territories

Manitoba and the North West Territories in 1900

In many instances, the boundaries and names of current place names have changed from historical accounts, correspondences and census enumeration regions. In fact, the province of Saskatchewan established the current provincial boundaries on September 1, 1905. Even though the provisional districts of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Athabaska of the North-west Territories were amalgamated to form the new province, the boundaries of these early provisional districts were similar to the new provincial boundaries, the boundaries were not concurrent with each other.

Genealogical research centers around discovering ancestral lines by delving into research focusing on the ancestral family name, the time period, momentous occasions, birth and death dates and thirdly the location where the family lived. These three, name, date and place names can help to draw a picture of the history of the family. From the place names, the education and occupation can be sought after. The region also will uncover documents such as newspaper obituaries, birth, christening and marriage announcements, wills, land patent titles and scrip to name just a few. Census enumerators canvassed the population by region as well, so if an historical census is released for online viewing which covers the time period of the ancestral family, it can be perused by region. Neighbouring family members can be ascertained from the census along with occupation and residence.

The province’s boundaries are:

1. The 4th Meridian of the Dominion Land Survey or 110°W longitude at the western demarkation between the province of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

2. The 49th parallel US-Canada international boundary line makes the southern provincial border.

3. Upon breaking apart from the North-west Territories into a separate province, the North-west Territories continued on north of 60th parallel, the province’s northern boundary.

4. The eastern boundary does not lie upon the 2nd Meridian, but is rather east of the 102nd meridian west (the 2nd Meridian of the Dominion Land Survey) thus forming the division between the province of Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

Some confusion has arisen regarding historical and current place names. For example if one possesses historical letters which may provide an address say of Cannington Manor, Assa, NWT. Assa was a common abbreviation for the provisional district of Assiniboia in the North-West Territories (1882-1905). (The hyphen in North-west Territories was removed in 1906 becoming Northwest Territories) The District of Assiniboia is described as the 33rd township (about 51.97 degrees north) southward to the U.S.A.- Canada border. The eastern border of Assiniboia abutted the western boundary of the province of Manitoba which was between 101 and 102 line of longitude. Assiniboia’s western border likewise extended past the fourth meridian, the current westerly provincial border to meet with the provisional district of Alberta. The provisional district of Assiniboia extended westward to the further than the fourth meridian to about 112 °W meridian longitude between about range 10 and 11, past the fourth meridian (110°W longitude).

For example, historical maps show Medicine Hat section 31, township 12, range 5, west of the fourth meridian as being within the boundaries of the District of Assiniboia, NWT. Medicine Hat is within the province of Alberta boundaries after 1905.

 

Likewise, Brandon located at section 23, township 10, range 19 west of the prime meridian or latitude longitude 49º 50′ 49” N, 99º 57′ 8” W was outside of the boundaries of the original :postage stamp” province of Manitoba which had a western boundary at the 99th line of longitude. However, Brandon was not within the boundaries of Assiniboia, NWT whose eastern boundary was between the 101 and 102 line of longitude. Currently Brandon is within the province of Manitoba.

Fort Pelly and Fort Ellice were both close to the Provisional District of Assiniboia – Province of Manitoba boundary. Fort Ellice within Manitoba, and Fort Pelly within the Provisional District of Assiniboia. It is interesting to note that Fort Livingstone, headquarters for the North-West Mounted Police was the first capital of the North-West Territories 1876-1877. Fort Pelly is the closest settlement to Fort Livingstone. The current village of Fort Pelly is close to the Hudson Bay Company post of Fort Pelly existing between 1824-1912.

The provisional district of Assiniboia in the North-west Territories can be seen to encompass a sizeable district, quite distinct from the current place name of Assiniboia which is a town in the province of Saskatchewan located at section 10 township 8 range 30 west of the 2nd meridian or latitude, longitude 49º 37′ 45” N, 105º 59′ 19” W.*

It is of note that this provisional district of Assiniboia was created as a regional administrative district in 1882 by the North-West Territories. The first district of Assiniboia (1812-1869) referred to the Red River Colony as created from the 1811 Selkirk Concession with the United States.

Similarly, Athabaska (also spelled Athabasca) was the provisional district of the North West Territories for the northern portion of present day Saskatchewan (Township 71 and northward to the District of MacKenzie NWT at the present border between Saskatchewan and the NWT). In 1882, the eastern boundary of the provisional district followed the routes taken by the Athabasca and Slave rivers to an area south of the Clearwater River fork. The eastern boundary then separated from following natural features and was a straight line between the 111th and 112th meridian longitude. By 1895, the eastern border of Athabasca extended easterly absorbing area from the North-west Territories. The eastern border became now the 100th meridian longitude. The western boundary followed along the 120th meridian abutting the province of British Columbia which had been formed on July 20, 1871. The southerly edge of the Athabasca provisional district ran along the provisional districts of Alberta and Saskatchewan along the 18th correction line just north of 54 degrees latitude north. The provisional district of Athabasca lost land to the province of Alberta, and the NWT Keewatin district in 1905 when the province was created. (As an aside, Manitoba’s borders were extended northward absorbing land from the NWT Keewatin District in 1912.)

Within the provisional district of Athabasca was a post office located at north west section 20, township 66, range 22, west of the 4 meridian which opened in 1901 under the name of Athabaska Landing, changing names in 1914 to Athabaska, and again seeing a name change in 1950 to Athabasca. Athabasca is currently located within the province of Alberta boundaries.

Of note is the provisional district of Saskatchewan, NWT, which possessed boundaries very different from the current province of Saskatchewan. In 1882, the eastern boundary of the provisional district was the 100th meridian longitude alongside the District of Keewatin. These borders were modified in 1898, when the provisional district of Saskatchewan did in fact make use of natural geographical features in its boundary, extending eastward to Lake Winnipeg (now wholly within the province of Manitoba) and the Nelson River. Between the 111th and the 112th meridian longitude was a straight line border which formed the border with the provisional district of Alberta. The northern reach extended as far as the Dominion Survey of township 70 about 54 degrees north, and the southern boundary was township 35 located at about 51.97 degrees north. The provisional district of Saskatchewan lost land to the province of Alberta, and the NWT Keewatin district in 1905 when the province was created.

The post office named Saskatchewan operated between 1884 and 1891 at the eastern half of section 35 township 38 range 4 west of the third meridian placing it in the provisional district of Saskatchewan NWT. However Fort Saskatchewan (former name Edmonton) located at Section 32, Township 54, Range 22, West of the fourth meridian, was located in the provisional District of Alberta, NWT. Fort Saskatchewan currently locates in the province of Alberta.

The settlement of Saskatoon (which changed names to Nutana in 1902) was located at section 28 township 36 range 5 west of the third meridian and is usually shown on maps as being within the Provisional District of Saskatchewan, NWT. Nutana, Riversdale and West Saskatoon (change of names in 1902 to Saskatoon) were three villages which amalgamated to form the city of Saskatoon in 1903 latitude longitude 52º 8′ 23” N, 106º 41′ 10” W.

Saskatchewan is commonly abbreviated Sask, and Saskatoon may sometimes be seen as S’toon. The current abbreviation for the province of Saskatchewan adopted by Postal Canada is SK.

By watching the dates of historic documents, it is easier to ascertain correctly the placenames of Saskatchewan ancestors. Oral history may recollect that an ancestor lived in a certain district, which may indeed refer to one of the three provisional districts, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan or Athabasca or it may refer to a One Room Schoolhouse District. Canada became a nation in 1867. Saskatchewan didn’t become a province of Canada until 1905, before this it was a part of the NorthWest Territories (1868-1905). The Rupert’s Land Act 1868 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, authorized the transfer of Rupert’s Land from the control of the Hudson’s Bay Company to the Dominion of Canada. The North West Territories was divided into districts in 1870. The British (in 1670) had given Rupert’s Land to the Hudson Bay Company which gave the company dominion over lands where there was water passageway from the Hudson Bay.

~Article written by Julia Adamson

For further information:

Adamson, Julia. Placenames of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Gen Web. 03-May-2012. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Placenames of Saskatchewan Comments Saskatchewan Gen Web. 05-Jun-2005. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. An analysis of Saskatchewan placenames Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Maps. 30-Apr-2005. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse project. Saskatchewan Gen Web. 31-May-2013. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Saskatchewan History Saskatchewan Gen Web. 25-Mar-2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia Maps of Saskatchewan 15-May-2014 Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Rural Municipalities of Sakatchewan Saskatchewan Gen Web E-magazine. May 15, 2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia 1921 Canada Census: Place of Habitation :: Rural Municipalities Saskatchewan Gen Web E-magazine. March 24, 2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. How do I locate my Ancestors Home Town in Saskatchewan? February 23, 2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Where were Saskatchewan Homesteads Located? February 10, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created? February 7, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. When Were Saskatchewan Homestead Applications Available? February 16, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adamson, Julia. Maps of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Gen Web Project 15-May-2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adopted by Saskatchewan Gen Web and Julia Adamson. Saskatchewan Historical Geography May 25, 2014. Family Search. org Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adopted by Saskatchewan Gen Web and Julia Adamson. Saskatchewan May 25, 2014. Family Search. org 24 October 2013. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Adopted by Saskatchewan Gen Web and Julia Adamson. Saskatchewan History. 31 July 2013. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Barry, Bill. Geographic Names of Saskatchewan. 2005. People Places Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-897021-19-2

Comprehensive Atlas of Canada and the World. George Philip. London. 1985.

Daly, Ronald C. The Macmillan School Atlas Revised Metric Edition. Gage Educational Publishing Company. Toronto, ON. 1982. ISBN 0-7715-8268-4.

Evolution Boundaries 1882 Atlas of Saskatchewan. Page 10
RICHARDS, J. Howard & FUNG, K.I. (1969). Atlas of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: Modern Press. republish date online Saskatchewan Gen Web Saturday, 11-Mar-2000. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Evolution Boundaries 195 Map Atlas of Saskatchewan. Page 10
RICHARDS, J. Howard & FUNG, K.I. (1969). Atlas of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: Modern Press. republish date online Saskatchewan Gen Web Saturday, 11-Mar-2000. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

File:Manitoba and Northwest Territories (1900).jpg Date accessed May 26, 2014

The First Boundary Extension The Association of Manitoba Land Surveyors Date accessed May 26, 2014

Fort Esperance, Fort Pelly, Fort Livingstone National Historic Sites of Canada Management Plan. Parks Canada. ISBN 978-0-662-49893-3. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Fung, K.I., Bill Barry and Michael Wilson. (1999) Atlas of Saskatchewan Celebrating the Millennium. Saskatoon: Printwest.

Government of Manitoba Postage Stamp Province
Historic Sites of Manitoba Postage Stamp Province 1870 (RM of Alexander) Manitoba Historical Society. 2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014.

Historical Maps of Canada. Canadian Geographic Magazine. 2014. Date accessed May 26, 2014

Historical Boundaries Canadian Heritage Government of Canada. 2013-08-28. Date accessed May 26, 2014

Kerr, D.G.G., editor. Historical Atlas of Canada. Page 66, 67 Canadian Historical Associations Committee on a Historical Atlas of Canada. 1960. Thomas Nelson and Sons (Canada) Ltd. Library of Congress catalog card number 60-9189.

Southern Alberta 2012 Aerial Imagery MD of Willow Creek. July 15, 2012. Date accessed May 26, 2014

Watson, J. Wreford, editor. Nelson’s Canadian School Atlas. 1958.

Saskatchewan Genealogy Magazine

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Rural Municipalities of Saskatchewan

16 May


Rural Municipalities of Saskatchewan

A rural municipality (RM) is a type of incorporated municipality in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The purpose of municipalities is to ensure that services and facilities are made available to maintain safety, and implement the economic, social, and environmental improvements considered necessary and desired by the community at large. A rural municipality is created by the Minister of Municipal Relations by ministerial order via section 49 of The Municipalities Act. The Municipalities Act (MA) oversees the legislation pertaining to rural municipalities as well as towns, villages and resort villages. Northern Municipalities are regulated under The Northern Municipalities Act, and city legislation falls under The Cities Act. That being said, local governments are also cognizant of The Line Fence Act, The Local Government Election Act, The Noxious Weed Act, The Planning and Development Act, The Stray Animals Act, The Tax Enforcement Act as well as other statutes and acts.

“Good leaders value change, they accomplish a desired change that gets the organization and society better.”
~ Anyaele Sam Chiyson

A rural municipality, often abbreviated RM, is a form of municipality in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, perhaps best comparable to counties or townships in the western United States. Unlike most counties in the United States or Canada, rural municipalities specifically exclude designated official cities, towns, villages, and First Nations Indian reserves from their territory. They are essentially the rural portion of what would normally be a county. In this way, they could perhaps best be compared to certain counties in the state of Virginia, United States, that have independent cities excluded from their territory, although, in Virginia there is usually only one independent city per county, whereas there can be many officially excluded communities in the geographical territory of rural municipalities.

“Efforts and courage are not enough without purpose and direction.”
John F. Kennedy


Where a city structure may consist of a mayor and councillor for each ward, a reeve is the local official elected to oversee the discharge duties in relation to the municipality as the chief magistrate. Councillors are members of the municipal legislative body and hold the rank of chief officer for the council representing their district. Councillors are elected to represent the interests and well being of the residents in their division developing, planning and ensuring that policies, programs and services are in place for the municipality. The strength of the policies, bylaws, and decisions made by the council define the direction of the municipality. Council works hand in hand with residents thinking about and identifying the needs of the community from which remarkable actions are able to take shape.

“If you do not know where you come from, then you don’t know where you are, and if you don’t know where you are, then you don’t know where you’re going. And if you don’t know where you’re going, you’re probably going wrong.”~ Terry Pratchett

The Municipal Ordinance of 1883 was enacted by the North-West Territories to provide services to a rural area and provide some means of municipal governing. Saskatchewan and Alberta became provinces in 1905. North West Territorial Government issues Statute Labour Ordinance (1897) and sets of Fire Districts, Statute Labour and Fire (SLF) Districts or Statute Labour Districts. Community residents could pay taxes or supply a couple days per quarter section labour constructing roads, bridges, fireguards instead of paying taxes. The prairie fires in the 19th century were devastating affairs with flames raging across the wide open plains miles and miles across burning everything in its path. As the Big Beaver Historical Society point out, “in the late 1800;s and early 1900’s, after the buffalo vanished from the prairies, and before it was populated with cattle, there was a tremendous growth of grass on the prairies which made good fuel for fires.” Igniting from the spark of the steam engine along the rail line, lightning, or accident, fires grew to hundreds of miles in length, and burned for weeks on end. In the early pioneering days, it often took a river or a rainy spell to extinguish the tremendous flames. Along with great loss to the region, buildings, “Prairie Wool” (the winter feed needed to feed the livestock) of course also lives of animals and livestock, and the very population, the settler’s lives were endangered. One fire of the early 1900s is the huge prairie fire that began near Swift Current Creek, and carried on to Moose Jaw (a distance of about 177 km or 110 miles). Another fire burned for several days, starting at the east shore of Last Mountain Lake (Long Lake), and carrying on, burned everything around the lake. The lake is about 93 km (58 miles) in length, and 3 km (two miles) in width to show the terrific extent of the blaze. Prairie fires were a menace to the early settlers. A good fire guard was necessary to protect homesteads in an era where there was no means of communicating to the residents of the imminent danger approaching. However even an excellent fire guard sometimes cannot sway the path of the towering inferno. The prairie fire of 1894 began near Silton, soared across Boggy Creek within an hour and soon carried over the Qu’Appelle River, two natural fire guards unable to diminish the course of the blaze. Residents within the Fire Districts came together to plough several furrows at a 45 degree angle to the wind direction hoping to narrow the fire and re-direct the aim of the devastation. Another technique used was to start a small back fire which was very small in size, and could be controlled. The theory was to remove fuel from the uncontrollable blaze thus creating a fire guard with a burned patch of land. If the fire was coming straight on to the home, settlers would drape themselves in water soaked blankets and thus covered up, lay down upon the field till the blaze had passed

.


“Safety is not an intellectual exercise to keep us in work. It is a matter of life and death. It is the sum of our contributions to safety management that determines whether the people we work with live or die” ~Sir Brian Appleton after Piper Alpha

The mail route, and post offices were often the early founders of the community followed by churches, schools and stores. The early one room schools became community centres featuring picnics, fairs, and a number of community gatherings. These schools also provided classes to newcomers who wished to learn to speak English.

“Politics isn’t about big money or power games; it’s about the improvement of people’s lives.”
Paul Wellstone


The early years saw immigrant homesteaders arriving who were coming to the “Last Best West” in search of land. After travelling for days aboard a steamer, and arriving at an Eastern Canadian or American port, the journey continued to the rail’s end. These early travellers would then continue by ox and cart, horse and wagon or by foot to locate a surveyor’s stake that defined the land they wished to lay claim to. They would then seek out the nearest provincial land titles agency for application forms. These first settlers were settled sparsely about the rural countryside and needed to erect a shelter and set up housekeeping with those sundry supplies they had brought with them. These early homes were “soddies” homes made from breaking the prairie turf and piling the sod for walls. Roofs were made of timber poles for framework, upon which more sod was laid. Once enough logs were cut, the sod homes were replaced by log houses.


“With all these blessings, what more is necessary to make us a happy and prosperous people? Still one thing more, fellow-citizens,~A wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned. This is the sum of good government, and this is necessary to close the circle of our felicities.”~Thomas Jefferson

Fire districts were later called Local Improvement Districts (1898), typically called LID, were the precursors of Rural Municipalities. December 13, 1909 saw the beginning of the discontinuance of Local improvement districts in favour of smaller rural municipal areas. LID were instrumental at improving the community, honouring those killed in action with the erection of War Memorial Cairns, establishing a suitable site for cemeteries and seeking adequate health care and the necessary hospital facilities where possible. In the early 1900s it was necessary for the councillors to seek a doctor’s services to traverse the area ministering to the sick. The Spanish Flue epidemic hit communities hard. Many were sick, and anyone who was well, were taking care of those stricken with the illness, making coffins, burying the dead, and doing chores for families fallen to the flu. When the rail line came through, if the rail was laid down outside of town, the settlers came together to move the buildings from the first settlement three or four miles away to be placed astride the new transportation route. Old Nipawin picked up and moved their settlement. Settlers who came to the Parkside area, moved their businesses to Willis, when the rail came through. The movement to the rails caused the name of Willis to adopt the new name of Parkside, and the original Parkside location some four miles south and one mile west of the rails changed its name to Honeywood to avoid confusion.*

“Without continual growth and progress, such words as improvement, achievement, and success have no meaning.”
Benjamin Franklin

One of the first tasks was the construction of roads which took place with horse graders, horse drawn slips and wheel scrapers, replacing prairie trails. Spring floods would defeat previous efforts, washing away the roads laid the summer before. Bridges were erected across steams, and ferry systems established across rivers. These early roads were a slow time consuming construction process up until the mid twentieth century when the provincial government brought into place the grid road system.

“The world is a place of constant change. If we are open and ready to consider everything while remaining unbiased, we will be ready to accept these changes and utilize them to improve our lives.”~Daniel Willey


Typically, an RM consists of about nine townships, each six miles by six miles in area. Settled areas of denser populations could form urban municipalities with a village, town or city governance. Further improvements came to the rural municipalities in the form of consolidated schools replacing the one room schoolhouse, telephone lines came in the early 1900s, electrical power lines were installed in the 1950s, followed by the installation of farm water and sewer. The councillors were required to provide ensure an adequate water supply and improve recreational facilities. Early streets were gravelled, street lights installed, trees planted in parks and in the community, community rinks, ball diamonds, horse race tracks and arenas were typical improvements to the rural areas. Farmers welcomed irrigation which arrived following world war two, an improvement made available by Prairie Farm Assistance, Federal Government grants, and the Saskatchewan Department of Agriculture supplements.

A municipal council consists of seven men
Who solve many problems of what, where and when
They decide how much your taxes will be
What roads will be built, what gravel you’ll see
The budgets allows for only so much
A bit here and there and for such and such.
!Memories and musings : book II Leonard Loppe

Municipal councils are afforded political powers having corporate status incorporated to govern a territory. The rural areas are in need of core infrastructure and essential services including, animal control, building codes, crime prevention, emergency measures organisation, fire prevention, garbage removal, land planning, recreational facilities, and program implementation, roads and transport, snow and ice removal, water and sewer treatment facilities. Council has within its authority the ability to decide if a day or a portion of a day is a civic holiday.
North of the tree line in northern Saskatchewan the large Northern Local Improvement District was replaced by the Department of Northern Saskatchewan in 1972 and was not subdivided into smaller Rural Municipalities.

“The thing is, continuity of strategic direction and continuous improvement in how you do things are absolutely consistent with each other. In fact, they’re mutually reinforcing”.
Michael Porter


Old Post, Saskatchewan is the largest Rural Municipality encompassing 1,757.00 square kilometers in area and it was formed from the last Local Improvement District. Saskatchewan’s largest and smallest rural municipalities in terms of population are the RM of Corman Park No. 344 and the RM of Glen McPherson No. 46 with populations of 8,354 and 73 respectively. There are currently close to 300 rural municipalities serving in Saskatchewan ranging in number from Argyle No. 1 to Beaver River No. 622.

“Improving your life doesn’t have to be about changing everything ~it’s about making changes that count.”
~Oprah Winfrey

Bibliography:
13 ways to kill a community Doug Griffiths. Saskatchewan South East Enterprise Region. 2014 SSEER.

From buffalo grass to wheat : a history of Long Lake district

Shiels, Leonard A.

The golden jubilee of the Nipawin rural municipality, no.487 : 1913-1963
Allan, Gladys Lillian Lamb, Allan, Billie Lamb. Publication information Codete, Saskatchewan: s.n., 1964

Happy Valley happenings : Big Beaver and district

Big Beaver Historical Society

History of Rural Municipality of Excelsior No. 166 : 1910-1967 Charles Lee. Publication information Saskatchewan: R.M. of Excelsior, 1967

List of Rural Municipalities in Saskatchewan

Memories and musings : book II Leonard Loppe. c2002

Municipal Relations Home/About Municipal Relations/Municipal Administration/Elections-General/Understanding the Role, Time Commitment and Powers of Municipal Council Government of Saskatchewan.

Reflections of the Past. History of Parkside and the Districts of Bygland, Cameo, Hilldrop, Honeywood, Ordale and Spruce Glen. Compiled and published by Parkside and District History Book Committee. c1991.page 626.

Municipal Council Member Handbook Government of Saskatchewan Advisory Services and
Municipal Relations Branch. March 2012

Rural Municipality Wikipedia

Rural Municipal Administrators’ Association (RMAA)

The Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipalities (SARM)

Urban Municipal Administrators Association of Saskatchewan (UMAAS)

“The direction of your focus is the direction your life will move. Let yourself move toward what is good, valuable, strong and true.”
Ralph Marston



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The purpose of the information on this site is to assist genealogists, historians and other interested parties in locating information regarding Saskatchewan rural muncipalities. Please e-mail saskgenweb@yahoo.com if you have any further updates or additions. Thank you.




To cite this article:

Adamson, Julia. Rural Municipalities of Saskatchewan Name Mergers and Name Changes. . Saskatchewan Gen Web. Rootsweb. Ancestry.com . Retrieved .

E-mail saskgenweb@yahoo.com


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Rich history of 1885 | Northwest Rebellion

25 Apr

Church At Batoche, Saskatchewan, The church of Saint Antoine de Padoue

Rich history of 1885 | Northwest Rebellion

In 1885, post-Confederation Canada’s first “naval battle” was fought in Saskatchewan.

Special events are around the corner for the Batoche National Historic Site. This site was the last battlefield of the 1885 Northwest Rebellion. It was here that Louis Riel established the “Provisional Government of Saskatchewan”.

Records relating to Louis Riel and the North West Rebellion are digitised and online. 1,066 images scanned online by Canadiana.org from the National Library and Archives of Canada. Records consist of correspondences, lists, notes, warrants and evidence statements including Louis Riel’s papers from Batoche May 11, 1885.

Additionally, Library and Archives Canada have scanned images of Louis David Riel (1884-1885) and these digital photos are accessible at Flickr.

If you are planning a trip to Batoche (the area formerly known as St. Laurent Settlement, La Colonie De St Laurent) for the festivities take in a round trip of the nearby Fish Creek (formerly known as La Petite Ville, Tourond’s Coulee, Coulée des Tourond ) which depicts the history of the Battle of Fish Creek, and Duck Lake which is also nearby. The Duck Lake Battle. It is very easy to swing by Fort Carlton while visiting Batoche.

A little further afield from Batoche are the events and historic sites of Frog Lake, Alberta; Fort Battleford; Fort Pitt, Frenchman’s Butte; and Cut Knife.

To get an idea of the life and times of Métis, pioneer settler and Mounted Police, peruse these historical newspaper accounts from the late 1800s.

The visitor will be able to experience traditional Métis food at the special events, and gain an appreciation of the Métis lifestyle between 1860 to 1900 from these interpretive historical centres.

For more information:

Saskatchwean Gen Web – War and Military Resources

Saskatcheawn Gen Web Project – SGW – Métis Saskatchewan Genealogy Roots.

Saskatchewan Gen Web Project – SGW – First Nations Saskatchewan Genealogy Roots.

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