Tag Archives: ancestor

Country Roads Leading Home

9 Nov

1, 2, 3, 4 just a bit of Homestead Rapport.

Searching in the field for an ancestral homestead or legal land location requires a knowledge of meridians, four meridians. Four? you say, yes, historically genealogists applying themselves to Saskatchewan, Canada research may indeed, need to know about four meridians.

A homestead application form from the Provincial Archives of Saskatchewan or a certificate of land patent from the Canadian Library and Archives LAC would both have the legal land location of the pioneer homestead location showing the quarter, the section, township, range and meridian. These are survey notations, and the numbers for township, range and meridian can be found on Rural Municipality maps, and historic maps of the province. Land was also awarded as M├ętis scrip, and soldier settlement awards, however if this land location proved to be some distance from their family or prior residence it may have been sold. Land not suitable for agricultural development may have been abandoned, or farmers may have sought employment in an urban centre during the dirty thirties. Not all legal land locations became ancestral homes, indeed, however there are primary source documents for genealogy research which may prove useful even if the land were abandoned for whatever reason, or if the land was sold.

The Century Family Farm Award Program inaugurated 1981 by Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food for the 75th provincial anniversary (1980) to honour Saskatchewan’s farm families. Between 2007-2014 over 3,600 families received the award. “Farm and ranch families have played a significant role throughout our province’s history,” Agriculture Minister Bob Bjornerud said. “These Century Farm Family Award recipients continue to build on the traditions of their ancestors, bring new ideas and innovation to agriculture, and will be an essential part of Saskatchewan’s future.”source In 2010, 635 , over 300 (2007), over 350 (2013) and 85 families in 2016 were honoured by the Information Services Corporation (ISC) Century Farm Award. “The family farm has always been the backbone of Saskatchewan’s economy and has helped shape the rural traditions of our province,” Minister responsible for ISC June Draude said. “Homesteaders had a strong work ethic and today’s farm families have that same strength and character. I congratulate all recipients for reaching the centenary milestone.” source

The Rural Municipalities (RM) only occur in the southern portion of the province, the prairie, grasslands and aspen parkland eco-systems. The RMs occur where there is rural settlement upon. Agricultural land was surveyed during the Dominion Land Survey for homesteads. The RMs indicated on the map below have changed since their inception in the early 1900s. Those RMs larger than 18 square miles have subsumed adjacent RMs if the population was scarce, or to allow for uban centre expansion, &c. The Northern Municipality refers to the northern province ~ the Canadian shield, tundra, and boreal forest area~ an area not surveyed under the Dominion Land Survey system. Urban municipalities are towns, cities, hamlets with a separate civic government.

Province of Saskatchewan, Canada map Author Hwy43 Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

Province of Saskatchewan, Canada map after 1905 Adapted from Author Hwy43
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

The first task is to determine the ancestral homestead or quarter section. This may be written on the birth certificate, in the census, upon the homestead application form or Western Land Grant Certificate (1870-1930).

For researching a very common surname, it may be beneficial to delimit the search by meridian of the neighbouring post office, rail siding, town or village to the ancestral farm. Use the Geographical Names of Canada, an historical map index, the post office database at LAC, Atlas of Saskatchewan by the University of Saskatchewan, or Geographic Names of Saskatchewan book by Bill Barry to find the legal land location of the nearby locality to narrow the search.

For the sake of example, perhaps the research results came up with these legal land locations from the Battle of Iwuy soldier research. Randomly selecting: Belt, John Henry Army 73427 Canadian Infantry (Saskatchewan Regiment) “A” Coy. 28th Bn. Residence “Little Red River Reserve”, Alingly, SK SE-17-51-27-W2, Enlistment, Prince Albert, SK, Died Thun-Saint-Martin. Military Medal Born: February 21, 1893 Darlington, England Son of Robert and Elizabeth Belt, of Alingly, Saskatchewan. The following land locations may not be relevant, and obtaining the source homestead document and conducting further comparison to oral history, and other documents are required for confirmation.

Belt, John Henry SE 28 51 27 W2
Belt, Robert NW 28 51 27 W2
Belt, Elizabeth SE 28 51 27 W2
Belt, James Victor SW 27 51 27 W2
Belt, William Thomas SW, 28 51 27 W2

This study will focus on the above record for a Belt, John Henry Sout east quarter of section 28 township 51 range 27 West of the 2nd meridian.

Township can be abbreviated T, Tsp or Twp.
Range may be abbreviated R, or Rge.

Alingly, Saskatchewan at SE 17-51-27 W2 on the map is a nearby locale to SE 28-51-27 W2. The farm is within an acceptable distance to drive a horse and cart into town. Further to this, the surnames might also found on census, and in local history books. Homesteaders on application needed to prove up their land. The provincial archives online listings also indicate military personnel who received Soldier Settlement Grants. Homesteaders could cancel their application if they found the land unsuitable, if they procured occupation in town, &c. Soldier Settlement Grants, Scrip, and those homesteads which were successfully proved up, could be sold in private transactions. Whenever one ancestor is found in the listing, pay attention to those of the same surname farming nearby, – they be cousins, brothers, uncles, &c Family farmed together to helping each other in homestead duties, at seeding times and harvest.

So to locate the legal land location, look at an historical map or a Rural Municipality map, and find Alingly in this case. This is where the meridians come in handy. A meridian seeks to have congruency with the Geographic Coordinate System of latitude and longitude. Because the earth is a sphere, correction lines are built into the Dominion Lane Survey.

The first meridian is located in Manitoba and farms west and east of the “first” or “prime” meridian are those, of course in the province of Manitoba. Additionally Ranges 28, 29, 30 and 31 west of the first meridian are located in southern portion of the province of Saskatchewan as there is some overlap where the border comes across the meridian. There is an addendum here, perhaps the primary source document with the legal land location was dated 1870-1905, then the ancestor was indeed a resident of the North West Territories. To determine which provisional district of the NWT, the farm may have resided in, compare to the township and range numbers here.

1900 Map of Manitoba and the North-West Territories

1900 Map of Manitoba and the North-West Territories Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
(note the border north and west of the province of Manitoba does not correlate at all with the 1905 eastern border of Saskatchewan which is nearly true to the second meridian)

The second meridian is near the eastern limits of the province of Saskatchewan, and the entirety of homesteads west of the “second” meridian are all in the province of Saskatchewan.

The third meridian arrives next, and again, the entirety of homesteads west of the “second” meridian are all in the province of Saskatchewan.

The fourth meridian extends in conjunction with the Alberta and Saskatchewan border which was created in 1905. Before this time, land belonged to the North West Territories. The provisional districts of Assiniboia in the south, provisional district of Saskatchewan centrally located, and provisional district of Athabasca to the north had different boundaries not congruent with the fourth meridian. If the pioneer document was dated 1870-1905, then the homestead started up in the North West Territories. Check with the township and range numbers here to see which provisional district of the NWT the homestead may have fallen into.

800px-north-west_territory_canada_1894

1894 North West Territories Map showing Provisional Districts
(note the border west of the Assiniboia and Saskatchewan provisional districts does not correlate with the fourth meridian)

Once the meridian is located on the map, travel west to locate the range number, and also ascend north along the listing of township numbers. For John Henry Belt go north to township 51, and go west of the second meridian to range 27. This locates the 6 mile by 6 mile township in which he farmed. If the map shows quarter sections then also find section 28 which is 1 mile by 1 mile, and know that John Henry Belt farmed the 1/2 mile by 1/2 mile quarter in the south east of this section. If the map chosen does not show sections, then realize that the township is divided into sections as shown here on the chart.

As the farm is at SE 28-51-27 W2 and Alingly is at SE 17-51-27 W2 it is seen that as the townships are divided into sections that the farm section number being 28, and the town being 17 does make the farm section about 1-1/2 miles north of Alingly and 1/2 miles to the west. Ordering a rural municipality (RM) map from the RM office indicates where contemporary highways are situated in relation to legal land locations. historical maps mostly indicate the rail system, so they would indicate where the farm was in relation to the rail lines.

To drive to the ancestral homestead, now convert the legal land location into Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates using a handy online converter, and use this method to find the centre of the 1/2 mile by 1/2 mile quarter where this pioneer had farmed.

Country roads, take me home to the place I belong. ~ John Denver

Once driving in Saskatchewan, realize that Canadians have adopted the metric system in 1970, and distances and mileage is by kilometers and kilometer/hour. Without a GPS system the ancestral homestead will need to be found measuring miles traveled along the highway or grid road. A very quick way to get a good approximation and convert kilometers to miles is to multiply by 6 and move the decimal to the left one. For instance, a traffic sign posting a speed limit of 100 kilometers/hour is thus converted by multiplying by 6 (100 * 6 = 600), and then changing the decimal one backward arriving at 60 miles per hour. (an actual online conversion 100 km to miles is 62.1371) On an historic map showing miles, do the opposite, 10 miles divided by 6 would result in (10 / 6 = 1.6 and move the decimal) with a result of 16  kilometers. (an actual online conversion calculations shows that 10 miles is  16.0934 kilometers)

The other very handy item to know when traveling on Roads in Saskatchewan is to read the grid road signs! Range roads are those used when driving north or south, and township roads take the traveler in an east and west direction. Picturing the range lines on the map, will help to orient driving and using range road numbers in the field, and similarly with township lines and township roads.

The numbers on the signs are very handy, as they correlate to the Dominion Land Survey system and legal land coordinates.

1917-28-51-27-w2

1917 Scarborough Map showing a portion of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada (RM 491)

Range road signs begin with the meridian number. To locate John Henry Belt’ homestead the range road signs would all begin with 2 ~ (his farm was SE 28-51-27 W2). Ranges increment every 6 miles in distance traveled. On the Range road sign, the next two digits are the range number. So to find this particular farm, the Range Road sign should indicate 27 as the next two digits following the 2. Now the last number on a Range road sign is how many miles into the range that the road has been laid down, these miles increment east to west, and can number up to 5. Examining how a township is split into one mile by one mile sections it can be ascertained that the SE quarter section 28 is 3 miles west of range road 27, situating the farm between Range road 2273 and Range road 2274.

1924-28-51-27-w2

1924 Rand McNally Map showing a portion of Saskatchewan, Canada

A township road sign determines the road name when driving east or west, and the first number is the township number. All township numbers for the province of Saskatchewan begin at the United States and Canada international border (the 49 parallel), and the township numerals increment every 6 miles in a northerly direction. John Henry Belt farming at SE 28-51-27 w2 would have his farm along township road beginning with the numeral 51. As township numbers increment every 6 miles, the next numeral is the mile number within the township between 0 and 5 still increasing in value from the south to the north. Looking again at how a township is divided it can be ascertained that SE quarter section 28 is 4 miles north of township line 51; therefore  John Henry Belt’s farm is has an allocation between township road 514 and township road 515.

Township lines or roads begin and end around geological features, and urban centres, and then continue north to the tree line. The Range lines or roads also extend straight as an arrow, and there is a lake or city, similarly, the range will continue along in the same way as a latitude or longitude line. Gravel roads, highways, and municipal roads can all have concurrency with township and range road numbering. Historically, there was allowance for a township road every mile, and a range road allowance was allocated every two miles.

So, whether determining the location for a homestead applied for in the North West Territories or in the province of Saskatchewan between 1905-1930, these insturctions should assist in arriving successfully at the pre-requisite destination. These driving instructions should also apply for any legal land location, as perchance the pioneering ancestors, or contemporary family may reside on an agricultural rural allotment with a township, range and meridian number. Settlers could also buy pre-emptions, land from colonization companies, from the railway companies or once they proved up their land, they were free to sell it on the open market.

Think on this. Imagine that the pioneer who crossed the ocean in a steamer and the journey took a few weeks. Arrival would very likely be an eastern port of Canada or the USA, and then progress overland would continue via rail to the closest stopping off point to their destination in the west. The transcontinental rail way was completed on November 7, 1885, and it traversed through the southern portion of the provisional district of Assiniboia, North West Territories. From this date onward rail companies established their own lines at various speeds and times throughout the province. Branch lines and main trunks traversed the North West Territories, continuing on after the Saskatchewan became a province in 1905. (In many cases the current highway thoroughfares run parallel to the main trunk line railway grade.) From the furthest point of the rail, the pioneer would disembark and begin walking. If a relative arrived ahead of time, the early settler may be met at the rail station by horse and cart or ox and buggy, and receive transport. An early purchase was conveyance.

After traveling around the countryside, the pioneer would need to find a iron marker placed between four monuments (pits) on an unclaimed section of land. The iron marker with the section number on it stands in the North East corner of the one mile by one mile section. The wise new-comer would need to compare the soil sample on this land with the soil of his home country to have the greatest success with his learned agricultural tillage methods and implements brought forward on the long journey. If the section and land was acceptable, the potential homesteader would then hasten to the land titles office, to fill out an application form, and lay down a $10 filing fee, returning to the land to begin his duties.

Imagine again, if you will, finding an iron post driven into the ground without asphalt roads, no GPS, absolutely not a road sign anywhere, nestled into the grasslands, or within the Trembling Aspen bluffs, and in the 1800s amid herds of buffalo. Consider, also this, the iron marker in the north west corner of the section bears Roman Numerals for section township and range. As this in this example, John Henry Belt homestead was SE 28-51-27 w2) the iron post would have read XXIV XXX XII. Early immigrants may have settled in ethnic bloc settlements to facilitate communication, agricultural harvesting work bees and settlement chores in proving up the land.

NOTE: It is always wise and prudent to contact the nearby locality before driving out to an ancestral homestead to learn how to make contact with the current owners. Ask at the regional library, museum, RM office, or town hall for advice. Seek to purchase an up to date RM map from the RM office. Consider buying an historical Cummins map from the Provincial Archives of Saskatchewan and marked herein the ancestor’s name. Phone the current land owner perchance with Mysask.com or Canada411. Do not trespass on private property or farm land without permission, ever. Such practices can, indeed, be detrimental and even fatal to livestock, devastating to crops and violate the landowners sensibilities and legal rights. Also many historical township roads and range roads do not exist anymore. With the straightening and paving of highways, and the advent of motorized travel, it is not necessary for the Ministry of Highways nor the RM to maintain each and every single range road and township road from the Dominion survey system so the roads may not exist anymore. That former road allowance may now be in a farmer’s field, or pasture land. That is why a contemporary RM map is so handy for this journey to the homestead.

FOR MORE INFORMATION:

Saskatchewan Provincial Standard System of Rural Addressing. Adapted by Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipalities (SARM) Information Services Corporation. Regina, SK.

To find lands in the field part 1

To find lands in the field part 2

To find lands in the field part 3

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Is my ancestor’s grave marked with a tombstone?

6 Jan
Tears in my Eyes ~ Bleeding Heart by Julia Adamson (AumKleem)) on 500px.com
Tears in my Eyes ~ Bleeding Heart by Julia Adamson

Is my ancestor’s grave marked with a tombstone?

To answer this query, “Is my ancestor’s grave marked with a tombstone,” it is necessary to determine the cemetery used for the burial site. As genealogists start researching by moving from the “known” towards the “unknown” locating a person’s place of burial can be researched in this same method. It is best to consult with relatives, family records, cemetery and church records, newspaper obituaries, professional genealogists and historians. In this way the cemetery can be located, then the next step would be to contact the local infrastructure department, church or private individual who maintain Saskatchewan cemeteries.

Once the internment location has been found, through research it may be that the burial site is unmarked. The plot may not have received a tombstone perhaps due to neglect, inattention, or hard times. The cemetery itself may have a policy of no tombstones such as at Forest Hills Memorial Park in Berks County, Reading, Pennsylvannia. In some cases the family or the person themselves may request no tombstone. Steve Jobs, Apple Inc. founder, has no tombstone. The internment sites of notable comedian John Belushi, and American author, H.P. Lovecraft, remain unmarked, and the family erected a cenotaph in a separate location.

Descendants may decide to erect a gravestone upon discovering this ancestor in their family tree, and honour their ancestor with a memorial. Genealogy societies such as the African Atlantic Genealogical Society (AAGS) joined with the he American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) to honour the unmarked gravesite of Eubie Blake, an African American composer. In researching notable local figures, societies, historians or agencies first must contact family descendants to receive permission to erect a tombstone. A similar project honoured and memorialised the unmarked gravesite of blues guitarist, Tommy Bankhead, by the Killer Blues Headstone Project in St. Louis.

For most of Saskatchewan’s cemeteries volunteers from various agencies have initiated their own cemetery projects to record burials. It is then possible to search internet grave registries to locate internment sites. There are global sites such as Find a Grave, Internment.net, or the Cemetery Junction Directory. In Saskatchewan alone several agencies have come together to compile listings of cemetery burials. These agencies are listed at Saskatchewan Gen Web – Cemetery Records – Obituary Records Just a very few agencies recorded at the aforementioned site are the Ancestor Recognition Project – Cemetery Preservation: Online Digitization, Canada Gen Web Cemeteries Project, City and town infrastructure departments, Odessa Library — a German-Russian Genealogical Library, Doukhobor.org, GRHS (Germans from Russia Heritage Society), International Internet Genealogical Society Library, Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness, Rural Municipality offices, Saskatchewan Cemeteries Project, Saskatchewan Mennonite Cemetery Finding Aid, Saskatchewan Genealogy Society and branches.

In Saskatchewan the Genealogy Index Search listing is online by the Government of Saskatchewan eHealth Vital Statistics division providing searchable information on “births registered with Vital Statistics more than 100 years ago, and deaths registered more than 70 years ago”. The burial index is searchable online available from research done by Saskatchewan Genealogy Society SGS members from their volunteer cemetery transcription projects. Many of the SGS transcriptions have been put on microfilm and are held with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Family Search centre.

It may aid the individual to search in the family biography / local history books published locally in the province by various communities during the province’s 50th anniversary celebrations (1955), 75th anniversary, (1980) and 100th anniversary (2005). Indexed books can be searched through the Saskatchewan Resident’s Index SRI or Our Roots Nos Racines to see if there are any family names within these resources. The local history committees who came together to write these books are an invaluable source of information as are the local museum curators and librarians.

If the town or placename that the individual resided is unknown, check the homestead records to determine the legal land location (address) for the pioneering family residence. Pinpointing this location on a map will indicate the closest rural placename and the nearest large centre. Entering these placenames in a library catalogue may assist in finding the relevant local history / family biography book. At times these books will also profer cemetery listings as well as biographies of the local residents submitted by the families themselves.

Locating the homestead on a map is actually very wise to assist narrow down the closest or most likely cemetery for the family to adopt. For instance the Rural Municipality of Excelsior #166 maintains 40 cemetery records and Sliding Hills RM #273 maintains 49 cemeteries. On average a rural municipality encompasses 9 townships each 6 miles by 6 miles square, so the RM itself would be an 18 mile by 18 mile area unless boundaries were altered due to population or natural boundaries such as rivers. Such a cemetery density would offer the family a choice of cemetery locations close to their homestead. They may opt for a church yard corresponding to their religious beliefs, desire to be interred in family plot, or choose a town or city plot if the final years were spent residing in an urban centre near senior’s or healthcare resources.

Without a cemetery transcription nor photographs of headstones available, it may be fruitful to ask the assistance of a professional genealogical researcher or some kind soul on the local mailing list or query board for the relevant region of Saskatchewan to check the cemetery for the ancestral burial site. If this is the case, do not expect an answer during the winter months. Between the months of October and April, snow covers the ground making traipsing through cemeteries difficult, and rendering headstones buried beneath the snow invisible to the sight.

To determine if a person is actually interred in a specific cemetery it would be helpful to consult church records, newspaper obituaries, cemetery burial certificates, census records or perhaps family records.

Cemetery burial records are held by the local administration; city or town authorities usually handle cemetery queries in their infrastructure department, parks and cemeteries. Similarly cemetery plot maps, and internment certificates are held by the rural municipality, the civic administration overseeing private rural farm and ranch lands, unorganised hamlets, unincorporated areas, localities, villages and former towns. Burial registers are held by religious denominations officiating at churchyard burials.

If the cemetery plot is located on private land, it is necessary to contact the private land owners for access to the site. This can be done by contacting the rural municipality office and purchasing an RM map of the area.

At times the cemetery may have unmarked graves, and cemetery owners may indulge in ground penetrating radar surveys to find and document all historic internment sites. If a cemetery has a paper trail, such as death certificates, or obituaries to show that an internment had taken place in the graveyard, then radar technology or grave dowsing may help to locate any unmarked sites.

In regards unmarked older cemeteries, it is necessary to contact the local historians for information and directions to a cemetery. For public cemeteries, a local resident would be able to offer directions to a cemetery currently in use. A rural municipality map purchased from the rural municipality would demark cemeteries, townships, ranges along with current roadways.

If a researcher is fortunate in finding the cemetery gravestones photographed online or the cemetery transcribed on the internet, that may help in locating the gravesite, unless the name is not listed. Such may be the case for the Ogema Cemetery in the RM of Key West 70, located in the northwest quarter of section 22 township 7 range 22 West of the 2nd meridian where both a cemetery transcription and tombstone photographs are online from two different agencies. If the ancestor’s name is not listed from either of these listings, but does indeed show up in the provincial genealogy index search where the Government of Saskatchewan eHealth Vital Statistics division indicates “births registered with Vital Statistics more than 100 years ago, and deaths registered more than 70 years ago”, then it would be wise to follow up with further research.

In the case of Key West 70 there are 27 local cemeteries, which are listed at in at least two sites online; Canada Gen Web or the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Cemetery Index . Another note to consider is that the town of Ogema is located in the southeastern portion of the rural municipality there is a chance that the family may have chosen a cemetery in a neighbouring RM such as Norton RM # 69 to the east, The Gap RM # 39 to the southeast, or Bengough RM # 40 to the south.

If one encounters such an experience of finding the death certificate in Saskatchewan with the Vital Statistics division, but no record of the ancestral name in the expected cemetery listings, it may be necessary to apply for the death certificate from Vital Statistics and or the burial (internment) permit from the Rural Municipality or in the case of this example, the Ogema town office. Most rural municipalities, cities and towns have their own individual websites online along with their contact information. The Government of Saskatchewan also has the Municipal Directory System online with contact information. MySask.com and Canada 411 are two online phone (and address) directories.

Officially civic registration of births, marriages and deaths did begin in 1905 with the formation of the province, registration did not become a regular practice until 1920. The government system to register deaths began in 1888 when the area was still part of the Northwest Territories. These early records of the Northwest Territories may be included in the Saskatchewan Provincial Archives or Manitoba Provincial Archives (Hudson Bay records) vital records collection. If the family chose to be buried in a churchyard, the church burial registers may indicate where an ancestral loved one may be found. If the deceased were registered under the terms of the Indian Act, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) maintains the Indian Register containing dates of birth, death, marriage and divorce information.

Equipped with a date of passing provided by the provincial EHealth genealogy index search another venue opens up. It becomes easier to follow up on an obituary search in an historic newspaper. However as indicated previously if families did not regularly register for a death certificate in the early pioneering years, they may not run an obituary, especially if the passing occurred in the dearth of winter, 40 degrees below zero, no plowed roads, actually no formal paved roads at all, and only horse and buggy for conveyance, or ox and cart. However, there were newspapers, and indeed some obituaries were run. Newspapers were published in the Northwest Territories in the late 1800s serving all of northwestern Canada. As settlement expanded out west, additional local newspapers sprang up across the province. Some these newspapers can be researched online as a few historic newspapers have been placed online by Google News for instance. Various editions of historic newspapers are held on microfilm in the provincial archives and public library system.

Additionally, with the known departure date, application can be made to the Saskatchewan Law Courts to search for wills, letters probate, letters of administration, estate titles which are held in the Wills and Estates Registry dating back to 1883. If desiring to erect a gravesite marker on an unmarked grave, it may behoove one to check if there is a will to honour any requests made by the departed if they wished to lie in an unmarked grave.

So in this way, by starting with the known, and working towards the unknown, steps can be taken to determine cemeteries in the locality where an ancestor resided. Searches can be made of transcriptions made by local residents to determine if the internment took place in a cemetery in the region. Many of these transcriptions are coming online. It is wise to investigate several regional cemeteries to cover all the bases. Without an ancestor’s name listed on a transcription made from tombstones, local church or civic registries can be consulted for historic burials in unmarked gravesites. Additionally the death certificate can be ordered from Vital Statics, Ministry of Health. Without a primary source document, to show that an ancestor was buried in the cemetery, it may not be possible to erect a tombstone, in such a case, perhaps a bench, cenotaph, a tree planting or commemorative sign could be placed in the cemetery honouring the relative and acknowledging their unmarked gravesite.

Article written by Julia Adamson

Bibliography

Saskatchewan Genealogy MagazineSaskatchewan Genealogy Web : Sask Gen Web E-Magazine
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