Tag Archives: Library and Archives Canada

Rich history of 1885 | Northwest Rebellion

25 Apr

Church At Batoche, Saskatchewan, The church of Saint Antoine de Padoue

Rich history of 1885 | Northwest Rebellion

In 1885, post-Confederation Canada’s first “naval battle” was fought in Saskatchewan.

Special events are around the corner for the Batoche National Historic Site. This site was the last battlefield of the 1885 Northwest Rebellion. It was here that Louis Riel established the “Provisional Government of Saskatchewan”.

Records relating to Louis Riel and the North West Rebellion are digitised and online. 1,066 images scanned online by Canadiana.org from the National Library and Archives of Canada. Records consist of correspondences, lists, notes, warrants and evidence statements including Louis Riel’s papers from Batoche May 11, 1885.

Additionally, Library and Archives Canada have scanned images of Louis David Riel (1884-1885) and these digital photos are accessible at Flickr.

If you are planning a trip to Batoche (the area formerly known as St. Laurent Settlement, La Colonie De St Laurent) for the festivities take in a round trip of the nearby Fish Creek (formerly known as La Petite Ville, Tourond’s Coulee, Coulée des Tourond ) which depicts the history of the Battle of Fish Creek, and Duck Lake which is also nearby. The Duck Lake Battle. It is very easy to swing by Fort Carlton while visiting Batoche.

A little further afield from Batoche are the events and historic sites of Frog Lake, Alberta; Fort Battleford; Fort Pitt, Frenchman’s Butte; and Cut Knife.

To get an idea of the life and times of Métis, pioneer settler and Mounted Police, peruse these historical newspaper accounts from the late 1800s.

The visitor will be able to experience traditional Métis food at the special events, and gain an appreciation of the Métis lifestyle between 1860 to 1900 from these interpretive historical centres.

For more information:

Saskatchwean Gen Web – War and Military Resources

Saskatcheawn Gen Web Project – SGW – Métis Saskatchewan Genealogy Roots.

Saskatchewan Gen Web Project – SGW – First Nations Saskatchewan Genealogy Roots.

Copyright © Adamson, Julia. Web Publish Date: All Rights Reserved

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Saskatchewan Genealogy MagazineSaskatchewan Genealogy Web : Sask Gen Web E-Magazine
Answering Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ): 

Montgomery Place Est. in 1946 by our War Veterans

9 Oct

Montgomery Place.

Est. in 1946 by Our War Veterans.

 


General Bernard L. Montgomery watches his tanks move up. North Africa, November 1942
General Bernard L. Montgomery
Photographer: Keating G (Capt) Imperial War Museums public domain photograph E 18980.

Canadian Forces veterans built their homes in the Saskatoon neighborhood community of Montgomery Place during the years 1946-77. Montgomery Place was established with small agricultural land holdings outside the city of Saskatoon under the Federal Government’s Veteran’s Land Act (VLA) for men and women returning from World War II (1 September 1939 – 2 September 1945) and the Korean War (25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953).

According the Library and Archives Canada, the “British and French Governments encouraged former soldiers to settle in Canada.” More than 140,000 veterans applied for grants and loans under the Veteran’s Land Act 1942. The Soldier Settlement Act of 1917 “to those who framed the Veteran’s Land Act of World War II, which avoided many of the problems inherent in the 1919 legislation.”Soldier Settlement

The 1942 Veteran’s Land Act was put forward to assist thousands of returning soldiers needing accommodation following the war. Grants and loans were made available to veterans wishing to construct their own home. Initially, qualified veterans could receive a maximum of $4,800, “of which $3,600 is the maximum for land and buildings and $1,200 is the maximum for chattels. But the maximum indebtedness the veteran assumes is $2,400.” A veteran wishing to be settled on a small holding near a village, town or city, in order to secure employment, an apply for assistance to build a home on the small acreage. Veterans could apply for a loan to be put toward fencing, a well, sundry tools, small implements, household equipment. 10 per cent of the land cost is due the Directory, and 2/3 of the land and improvement cost needs to be repaid over the next 25 years at an interest rate of three and a half percent.


In life, each of us falls a serious chance, some do not realize the full significance of the moment and miss him. Others, focused and dedicated, grab the opportunity with both hands and use it to the full, and the good people always show scruples in the choice of means to achieve their goals, they do not come on the head those who stand in their way.
~Field marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery

Generally “Land Settlement” refers to settlement on the land for full-time farming operating a wheat farm, mixed farm or dairy. The Veteran’s Land Act of 1942 aimed to provide for those veterans who had no experience nor background to undertake an agricultural operation. Assistance was offered with the aim that a “small holding settlement or part-time farming coupled with industrial, commercial, or other employment from which it is expected the main income will be derived. In this way, veterans established in a small holding settlement close to employment opportunities they could follow the trade or profession of their expertise and not feel obligated to start out in a full-time agricultural operation where they have no skill or experience.

In this way veterans held enough land in a small holding to “erect a home, landscape, and work to his own advantage…the majority of small holders are carrying on year by year with a planned property improvement. Each year further use and pleasure is being derived from the opportunities afforded by these generous-sized properties. There is family enjoyment from ample play yards, game areas, and flower gardens and pleasure to be derived from planting your own trees, shrubs, and flowers. Savings can be realized from the well planned home garden, and in many cases substantial incomes are being derived from special crops such as bush fruits, and perennial vegetables. Many of the small holdings home owners realized sufficient income to meet their taxes, or other expenses through vegetable or fruit crops grown on their property.”S-P 08-25-52 I.L. Holmes, acting district superintendent for the V.L.A. in Saskatoon said, “the over-all picture would lead to a lowering of general overhead costs.”S-P 08-25-52

By October 31, 1945, over 500,000 acres had been purchased across Canada by the Veterans Land Act Administration, of which 20,424 acres were purchased as small holdings at a cost of $4,306,280, and of these 12,392 were already in use. By the end of 1945, it was expected that 80 VLA homes would be completed in Saskatchewan, of which 25 were in the Saskatoon area. The following year, 1946, six houses were to be readied for occupancy.

 


“The morale of the soldier is the greatest single factor in war.”

~Field marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery

The Veteran’s Lands Act aimed at settling the veteran’s as part-time farmers or small agricultural holders who could supplement their income with chickens, vegetable growing, fruit trees, and gardens on their half acre lots. (Property lots in the Montgomery Place neighbourhood have frontages of 30-meters (100 feet). Several lots are close to half an acre. This compares to other neighbourhoods in Saskatoon, where property lots average 7.5 meters (25 feet) frontages in inner city areas, and 15-meters (50 feet) in other areas of the city. )

In 1963, Montgomery Place was expanded, and an additional 78 small land holdings of half an acre each were added. Under the revised VLA arrangements, “if title was secured and the plan approved, a war veteran making application for assistance to establish a small holding could receive a maximum of $12,000SP 5-19-62 in the form of a loan with which to erect a home. The maximum loan amounts were increased regularly to ease financial burdens upon the veterans due to inflation. The VLA arrangement came to an end in 1971, and non-veterans have also made residence in the Montgomery Place community. Over the course of the VLA operation over 125,000 veterans settled successfully.

Discussions to amalgamate the community of Montgomery Place with the city of Saskatoon began in 1954, and the neighborhood incorporated within the city January 1, 1955. A special property tax agreement was enacted protecting the veteran residents. This tax agreement expired in 1979, and full city property taxes were assessed. However, by this year, 50 of the landowners had subdivided parcels of land into smaller lots and sold them.

The Veterans Land Act was a program offering servicemen a welcome back home and an opportunity to re-establish themselves into civilian life. The Government supported this period of adjustment and desired to “put the veteran in as good or a better position than he enjoyed if he had not enlisted.”S-P 7-17-45

Located southwest of the 11th Street and Dundonald Avenue intersection in Saskatoon, the neighborhood of Montgomery Place streets and roadways memorialize the war effort; Caen Street, Arnhem Street, Normandy Street, Ortona Street, Merritt Street, Dieppe Street, Mountbatten Street, Currie Avenue, McNaughton Avenue, Rockingham Avenue, Haida Avenue, Simonds Avenue, Cassino Avenue & Place, Crerar Drive, Crescent Boulevard, Lancaster Boulevard & Crescent, Bader Crescent.

Arnhem Street Battle of Arnhem
Bader Crescent Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader ( February 21, 1910 – September 5, 1982) Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter ace
Caen Street Battle for Caen
Cassino Avenue and Place Battle of Monte Cassino
Crerar Drive, Crescent, Boulevard General Henry Duncan Graham “Harry” Crerar (April 28, 1888 – April 1, 1965)
Currie Avenue “Major David Vivian Currie, (8 July 1912 July 8, 1912)
Sutherland, Saskatchewan – 20 June 1986)”
Dieppe Street Battle of Dieppe
Gougeon Park
Haida Avenue HMCS – HAIDA
Lancaster Boulevard and Crescent Avro Lancaster Bomber
Lt. Col. Drayton Walker Park Lt. Colonel Drayton Walker (1900-1975)
McNaughton Avenue General Andrew George Latta McNaughton,( February 25, 1887 – July 11, 1966)
Merritt Street Lt. Colonel Charles Cecil Ingersoll Merritt ( November 10, 1908 – July 12, 2000)
Montgomery Place and Montgomery Park Field Marshal B.L. Montgomery ( November 17, 1887 – March 24, 1976)
Mountbatten Street Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; ( June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979)
Normandy Street D -Day, the Normandy Invasion
Ortona Street Battle of Ortona
Rockingham Avenue Brigadier General John Meredith Rockingham ( August 24, 1911 -1988)
Simonds Avenue and Lt. Gen. G.G. Simonds Park Lieutenant-General Guy G. Simonds (April 23rd, 1903 – May 15th, 1974.)


Field Marshall B.L. Montgomery 1887-1976

Field Marshall B.L. Montgomery (1887-1976)
Photographer Julia Adamson

The neighborhood of Montgomery Place, Montgomery Park and Montgomery School all take their name from Field Marshal B.L. Montgomery (1887-1976). According to a plaque erected within the neighborhood, “Montgomery was one of the most inspirational British military leaders of the Second World War. After significant victories over German General Erwin Rommel in North Africa (1942-1944), he was promoted to Field Marshal in command of British and Canadian troops. Montgomery presided over the Battles of Arnhem and Normandy and accepted the formal surrender of the German military at Luneburg Heath on May 4, 1945. His flair for command and the absolute belief in his infallibility made him a legendary, if not always popular, leader.” The BBC reports that Winston Churchill felt that his victory at the Battle of El Alamein was the turning point in the Second World War.

 


I have always maintained that the army – not just a certain amount in one place people with such a number of tanks, guns, machine guns, etc., and that the strength of the army – not just the sum of its parts. The real strength of the army is and must be much more than this amount. Extending the power it gives morale, morale, mutual confidence in each other commanders and subordinates (in particular this applies to the high command), a sense of camaraderie, and many other subtle spiritual factors.

Raw materials, which have to deal with the general – the people. The same is true for civilian life. I think the managers of large industrial concerns are not always aware of this report, it seems that the raw materials – is iron ore, cotton and rubber – not people, and goods. In talking with them, I would not agree with this, and claimed that their main raw material – the people. Many generals also misunderstand this important moment, not aware of what is behind them, and this is one of the reasons that some of them were not successful.

In battle, the army should be as strong as steel, and make it possible, but just as she began to acquire its best quality only after a lot of preparation, and provided that its composition properly selected and processed. Unlike steel army – very delicate instrument, which is very easy to damage, its main component – the people, and to have a good command the army, you need to understand human nature. In humans lies a huge emotional energy, it breaks out, and need to use it for the intended purpose and to give out so that warms the heart and stirs the imagination. If the commander is to the human factor is cold and impersonal, it has not achieved anything. But if you manage to win the trust and loyalty of your soldiers, if they feel that you care about their interests and security, then you become the owner of priceless assets, and the greatest achievements are you on the shoulder.

The morale of the soldiers – the most important factor in the war, and victory in battle – the best way to strengthen their morale during the war. Good general who wins the battle with minimal losses, but maintaining a high morale and a great loss if the battle is won and the soldiers know that the victims brought knowingly and that took care of the wounded, and the bodies of the fallen gathered and interred with dignity.

Some people think that the morale of the English soldier is highest, if you provide it with all necessary allowances, surrounding clubs, canteens, etc. I do not agree. My personal experience is that they are all determined to win when they are asked to stay in the most severe conditions.”
~
Bernard Law Montgomery Memoirs

Lt Colonel David Vivian Currie

Lt Colonel David Vivian Currie
Library and Archives Canada MIKAN ID number 4233303 public domain image.

Lt. Colonel David Vivian Currie (1913-1986) is honoured by the naming of Currie Avenue. “Lt. Colonel David Currie is the only Saskatchewan born holder of the Victoria Cross. Born in Sutherland and raised in Moose Jaw, Currie joined the 29th Canadian Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment in 1939. An
unflappable and, apparently, unstoppable individual” Currie and his troops defended St. Lambert in the battle of Falaise Gap in August, 1944. Down to 60 men and 12 tanks, Major Currie held the town against repeated German counter-attacks for 36 hours. In 1966 he became Sergeant at Arms of the House of Commons” reports the memorial erected in his honour.

General Andrew George Latta McNaughton, February 25, 1887 –  July 11, 1966

General Andrew McNaughton

Library and Archives Canada public domain image MIKAN ID number 4232580

General Andrew McNaughton was memorialized in the title of McNaughton Avenue. “General Andrew McNaughton first attained prominence in the First World War as a Brigadier General in command of the Canadian artillery at the age of 31. By the Second World War he was head of the National Research Council, but returned to the army as commander of the First Canadian Division. He was instrumental in keeping Canadian troops together as one army, rather than distributed amongst British units. He later served as Minister of Defense and as a delegate to the United Nations.”

Lieutenant General Guy C. Simonds (1903-1974)
Lieutenant General Guy C. Simonds (1903-1974)

Library and Archives Canada public domain image MIKAN ID number 4232760

Simonds Avenue identifies the achievements of Lieutenant General Guy C. Simonds (1903-1974). “Lieutenant General Guy C. Simonds commanded the 1st Canadian Infantry Division in the Sicilian and Italian campaigns. He then led the Canadian Corps through the Normandy Invasion and the taking of the Islands in the Scheldt Estuary covering the approaches to Antwerp, Belgium. Lieutenant General Simonds subsequently became Chief of the General Staff from 1951-1955.”


Brigadier General John Meredith Rockingham 1911-1988

Brigadier General John Meredith Rockingham (1911-1988)

Julia Adamson photographer

Rockingham Avenue extols Brigadier General John Meredith Rockingham (1911-1988). Montgomery Place community residents remember Rockingham thusly; ” Brigadier General John Rockingham commanded the 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade in the campaign in northwest Europe during the last year of World War II. “Rocky”, as he was affectionately known, would be recalled to service in 1950 as the senior Canadian soldier in the Korean war. His masterful tactics, and his determination that the Canadian Army would not shirk its assigned duties, were instrumental in Canada’ contributions in Korea.”

Montgomery Place, Saskatoon Monument

Montgomery Place Monument, Saskatoon
Photographer Julia Adamson

Merritt Street remembers and pays tribute to Lt. Colonel Cecil Merritt, who is eulogized as “Lt. Colonel Cecil Merritt (1908-1991) Lt. Col. Cecil Merritt won the first Victoria Cross given to a Canadian in WWII for gallantry and inspired leadership during the disastrous raid in Dieppe. He landed with the South Saskatchewan Regiment at Pourville on August 19, 1942. To capture important high ground to the east, they had to cross the Scie by a bridge under heavy fire. Seeing the situations, Merritt walked on to the bridge, waved his helmet to encourage his men, and shouted: “Come on over, there’s nothing to worry about here.” After hours of heavy fighting, Merritt and his men were taken captive. Merritt was commended for his leadership while a prisoner.”


“Don’t listen to anyone who tells you that you can’t do this or that. That’s nonsense. Make up your mind, you’ll never use crutches or a stick, then have a go at everything. Go to school, join in all the games you can. Go anywhere you want to. But never, never let them persuade you that things are too difficult or impossible.”~Group Captain Sir Douglas Bader

Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader

Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader.

UK Royal Air Force Museum public domain image

Group Captain Sir Douglas Bader (1910-1982) was honoured similarly with a plaque which reads, “A hero of the Battle of Britain whose name came to define triumph over adversity. Bader joined the RAF at 20, and lost both legs in a crash in 1931. Discharged in 1933, he pestered the RAF until re-instated in 1935. His disability proved an advantage in dogfights, as he was immune to blackouts caused by blood rushing to a pilot’s legs during tight turns. Bader devised innovative battle formations which led to 22 kills before he was shot down. Captured in France, he would make many escape attempts, forcing the Germans to take away his artificial legs each night. Bader was knighted for his work on behalf of the disabled.”


” “Rules are for the guidance of wise men and the obedience of fools.”~Group Captain Sir Douglas Bader

First Canadian Army generals in the Netherlands, on May 20 1945. Sitting, from left to right: Stanislaw Maczek, 1st Polish Armoured Division; Guy Simonds, II Canadian Corps; H.D.G. Crerar, 1st Canadian Army; Charles Foulkes, I Canadian Corps; B.M. Hoffmeister, 5th Armoured Division. Standing, from left to right: R.H. Keefler, 3rd Infantry Division; A.B. Matthews, 2nd Infantry Division; H.W. Foster, 1st Infantry Division; R.W. Moncel, 4th Armoured Brigade; S.B. Rawlins, 49th British Division.
Seated center H.D.G. Crerar, 1st Canadian Army (First Canadian Army generals group picture)
Photographer Ken Bell Department of National Defence / National Archives of Canada, public domain image number PA-137473.

Crerar Drive, Crescent Boulevard acknowledges the impact on the war effort by Lt. General Harry D. Crerar (1888-1965). Montgomery Place residents recalls, that “as the Canadian Chief of Staff, Crerar wanted a distinctly Canadian corps, bringing together armoured and infantry divisions in a unified fighting force. In the past, Canadian regiments had been apportioned out to British armies, depending on the needs of the moment. Crerar created the First Canadian Corps. It consisted of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division, 5th Canadian Armoured Divisions, 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade and supporting units. After D-Day, Canadian troops led by Gen. Crerar distinguished themselves fighting against some of Hitler’s crack divisions.”

Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

Public domain image from the U.S. Federal Government National Park Service employee.

Mountbatten Street shows respect for “Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten (1900-1979). A British Royal, Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia, received the surrender of 680,879 officers and men of the Imperial Japanese Forces. He also supervised the ill-fated raid on Dieppe where almost 70% of the fighting force was killed, wounded or captured. With the American joining the war, he and Gen. George C. Marshall created the first integrated Allied headquarters in 1942. Lord Mountbatten was assassinated in 1979 by the provisional wing of the Irish Republican Army, who had planted a bomb on his pleasure boat.”


Montgomery Place Monument

Montgomery Place Monument

Photographer Julia Adamson

Lt. Col. Drayton Walker Park honours “Lt. Colonel Drayton E. Walker (1900-1975) born in Maple Creek, Saskatchewan, Drayton Ernest Walker achieved prominence as both a veteran and an educator. He left a teaching career to serve with the Saskatoon Light Infantry in 1939, fighting in the invasion of Sicily. He became commanding officer achieving the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Injured in 1943, he received the Distinguished Service Order. Walker returned to Saskatoon where he became Principal of Bedford Road Collegiate and later the first Principal of Mount Royal Collegiate. He retired in 1966 after a 3 year term as Principal of the Armed Services School in Marville, France.”

Dieppe
Dieppe
Public Domain Image by Elodie Marnot
Dieppe Street received its title paying homage to Dieppe, “a French resort town, Dieppe was the site of a Canadian – British amphibious raid on August 19, 1942. The plan was to destroy several German installations and leave immediately. The timing depended strictly on sunrise with troops having to retreat before the high tide. It failed. Of 5,000 Canadian troops to land 900 were killed and 1,300 were taken prisoner. Many lessons were learned from this ill-fated attack, including the importance of prior air bombings and support of assault troops with artillery fire. These valuable tactics were implemented in subsequent raids, contributing to the success at Normandy two years later.”


Sign monument Montgomery Place

Montgomery Place Monument
Julia Adamson Photographer

Arnhem Street received its appellation to give tribute to The Battle of Arnhem. “On Sept. 17, 1944 the Battle of Arnhem, in Holland, was the last and most crucial phase of Operation Market Garden. It was the biggest airborne military operation ever mounted and was designed to bring the war in Europe to a quick end. The plan was to take control of 8 bridges along the German-Dutch border. British troops were deliberately dropped 8 miles from the bridges. It was impossible for them to reach their target before the Germans knew of the attack. Nearly 6,000 from the 1st Airborne Division were captured and 1,174 killed. Almost 1,900 men escaped. The battle was immortalized in the book and movie A Bridge Too Far.”


Canadian Armour Passing Through Ortona, by Dr. Charles Fraser Comfort.

Ortona


Dr. Charles Fraser Comfort public domain image CN 12245 Canadian War Museum.

Similarly another sign honours the Battle of Ortona, the namesake for Ortona Street. “The Loyal Edmonton Regiment fought at the Battle of Ortona during World War II. Canadian troops met German troops at the Moro River just outside the Italian town of Ortona, and fought their way into town during eight bloody days in December, 1943. 1,375 Canadian troops lost their lives securing the town. The Allies also used this seaport battle as a diversion to delay and prevent Hitler from sending troops up to France or on to Rome, where the survivors of the brutal battle eventually wound up.”


Battle Of Ortona memorial

Battle of Ortona
Julia Adamson photographer


H Captain Callum Thompson, a Canadian chaplain, conducting a funeral service in the Normandy bridgehead, France, 16 July 1944.

Normandy
Library and Archives Canada public domain image reference number PA-190111 and under the MIKAN ID number 3520665

Normandy Street received its designation recalling D-Day and the Battle of Normandy. “On June 6, 1944, Allied troops stormed the beaches of Normandy in France. Canadian sea and airmen were among the first into action. Their high casualty rate reflected the specific tasks of the Canadian Army during the campaign and the fact that it continually faced the best troops the enemy had to offer. D-Day and the Battle of Normandy, which led to the end of WWII, was one of Canada’s most significant military engagements. The armies of the Nazi regime had suffered a resounding defeat. In the process, Canada’s troops had been forged into a highly effective army.”


Sign monument dedicated to Caen Street in Montgomery Place

Caen
Julia Adamson Photographer

A plaque within the community commemorates Caen Street, “Caen, a town in the Normandy region of France, was captured by Canadian and British troops following D-Day in 1944. After two days of vicious battle, during which company casualties frequently reached 25%, the Allies clawed their way in and declared Caen their own. The Germans still occupied much of the surrounding area including the airfield to the west and the high ground ridge to the south. Much Canadian blood would be shed during the following weeks in order to finally seize these key positions.”

Monte Cassino

Monte Cassino
Public Domain Images from the Army Quartermaster Museum Collection at MOUT Image Collection

The Battle of Cassino is memorialized in the naming of Cassino Avenue and Cassino Place. The plaque reads “The town of Cassino, Italy and the nearby Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino were the scene of one of WWII’s most fierce battles. Monte Cassino overlooked the road the Allies needed to travel to reach Rome. German artillery placed around the Abbey prevented any use of the road by Allied troops. Finally, after five months of repeated attempts to dislodge the Germans by ground assaults, air strikes and one of the largest artillery barrages in history, a combined force of Polish and Canadian troops succeeded in taking the Abbey. Monte Cassino Abbey was reduced to rubble, but has been largely rebuilt.”

Avro Lancaster PA474

Avro Lancaster PA474

Public domain image from the photographer Adrian Pingstone

Lancaster Boulevard & Crescent pay tribute to the Lancaster Bomber. Montgomery Place honours this plane thusly; “The Lancaster Bomber was built by the A.V.Roe Company during World War II. It was a favourite with bomber crews due to its strong reliable performance and was said to be “a delight to fly.” Along with the Halifax Bomber, it was the mainstay of the RCAF. Some 7,378 planes were manufactured, with 403 being built in Canada. During the war it flew 156,023 sorties and dropped 608,612 UK tons of bombs, more than all the rest of the British bombers combined. Its service life extended far beyond World War II, with many converted for peacetime use.”

HMCS Haida

HMCS Haida (G63)

Public domain image from the photographer (Rick Cordeiro)

The reputation of HMCS Haida is observed in the title given to Haida Avenue. “The destroyer HMCS Haida served Canada during the Second World War. Named after the native people of the Queen Charlotte Islands in BC, she escorted merchant ships to Russia on the Murmansk run and was on the scene when the Scharnhorst was sunk. In a little more than four months in the English Channel the convoy of ships she serviced in, sank or helped destroy two large torpedo boats, two destroyers, a U-boat, trawler, minesweeper, cargo ship and patrol boat. HMCS Haida is proudly displayed in Toronto.”


“Every soldier must know, before he goes into battle, how the little battle he is to fight fits into the larger picture, and how the success of his fighting will influence the battle as a whole.”
~
Bernard Law Montgomery

Article Written by Julia Adamson

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Bibliography

 

Veterans Who Built Homes in Montgomery Place under The Veterans Land Act 1948-1977 ALPHABETICAL LISTING BY SURNAME

 

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Although my team doctrine requires sufficiently detailed explanation, in principle they can be reduced to one word: leadership.

In his memoirs, Truman said that of course he got the following stories: “The leader – a person who has the ability to make other people do what they do not want, and still experience the pleasure.”

Leadership may be too complex a phenomenon to fit it in such a short definition. On the other hand, the word is often used somewhat loosely, not realizing its full value. I give a definition of leadership: “The capacity and the will to rally men and women to achieve a common goal, and personality, able to summon the confidence.”

This ability alone is small, the leader must have the desire and the will to use it. This means that his leadership is based on truth and the peculiarities of his personality: the leader can not lie about the purpose and needs to have a strong character.

Not everyone understands the need for truth. Leader has to speak the truth to his subordinates. If he does not, they soon find out that he lied to them, and no longer trust him. I have not always told the soldiers in the war the whole truth. This is not was necessary, moreover, it would place at risk kept secret.

I told them all they needed to know to successfully complete their task. But I always told them the truth, and they knew it. Thus was worked out and strengthened mutual trust. Good military leader subdues the tide. It should just let things be strong for him, and he immediately ceases to be a leader.
When all is said and done, the leader should actively influence the course of events, which largely depends on his personality – from the “heat” that it can emit, the flame that burns in him, magnetism that attracts the hearts of those around him . Personally, I would like to know about the leader of the following:

Where is he going?

Whether he will go to the end?

Does he have this ability and the necessary data, including the knowledge, experience, and courage?
Will he make decisions, taking full responsibility, whether ready if necessary to take the risk?

Will it be in this case, to share power and go whether to decentralize command and control, after having built the system of organization with the specific decision-making centers, providing fast and effective implementation?

Crucial role played by the problem of “solving” the plan. The current trend – to avoid making a decision, to play for time in the hope that all by itself. A military leader has no other option but to be decisive in the battle and show calm in critical situations. Well guided by these principles and political leader.

I am of the opinion that a leader must know what he wants. It must clearly define their target, and then focus on its achievement, it should bring to everyone what he wants and that is the basis of his strategy. He should provide strong leadership and give clear guidance. It is required to create what I call the “atmosphere”, and in this atmosphere will live and work his subordinate commanders.”~
Bernard Law Montgomery Memoirs

 

Saskatchewan in 1921 and the 1921 Census.

6 Feb

Celestial Blue

Saskatchewan in 1921 and the 1921 Census.

1921, an era of transition and change begins. Evolution of a community happens over the course of considerable years. It does not happen, no, that an entire province of people rush out on June 1, 1921 to all buy tractors all at once, and leave Daisy nibbling in the field. The transition from horse and plough to tractor began in a farm here and there, and slowly more and more farmers owned tractor, farm truck and automobile. The 1921 census tells a story of people, and their land, the successes and failures of immigration schemes and homesteading ventures and how life was changing.

History “conjures up feelings of what it was like in a day and age not our own,” speaks John C. Charyk. The first two decades of the 1900s brought with them a huge wave of people to the plains of Saskatchewan. By 1921, these pioneer settlers were proud to call Saskatchewan their home. The early pioneer had divested their time, energy and blood into the land because they had “faith in the possibilities of the country, stood by that faith, and made a success of their undertaking.[1]

“The unorganized territories of British North America had been ceded to the Dominion soon after Confederation, and the West had been tapped and traversed by the Canadian Pacific Railway in the eighties and nineties,” documented the Yearbook of Canada 1922/1923. The 1926 Financial Post reported that there were 6,268.72 miles of railway stretching across the province by 1922 serving “2,139 elevators, 896 loading platforms, 554 stockyards, in addition to depots, warehouses, etc.” The yearbook continues, “but though western population doubled with each of these decades, it was only with the launching of a large scale immigration movement after 1900 that western settlement and production became a first-rate economic factor.” In the two decades 1901-1911 and 1911-1921, the census returns showed over 1,800,000 immigrant arrivals to Canada in each of the decades, over 3,600,000 persons in twenty years.

As W.G. Cates, points out, “the 1921 census, as it shows a much lower rate of increase in population during the 1911-1921 period than that of 1901-1911, is naturally disappointing; but the returns must be considered in the light of the Great War…tens of thousands went overseas to their native land to fight; while other tens of thousands went to the United States in order to escape military service.” Some 60,000 militia gave the supreme sacrifice in the theatre of war, and 20,000 Canadians who served remained in the United Kingdom following their term of service. Of these 60,000 Canadians 6,428 were Saskatchewan boys according to the Saskatchewan Virtual War Memorial. The mass exodus of citizens, the loss of life, accompanied by the tens of thousands of Saskatchewan personnel serving in the armed forces overseas, might lead one to predict a drop in population, however the 1921 census still showed a population increase.

  • In the early days of the war we were much comforted by the fact that men and women were ready to make sacrifices for this, the greatest cause of all. In Canada, and I am sure elsewhere throughout the Empire, there has been manifest a spirit of co-operation, of mutual helpfulness, of a desire to assist, of self-sacrifice which is most comforting to those who have at heart the welfare of our Empire in years to come. So I am sure it will be in the future. The influence of a spirit of helpfulness and self-sacrifice, which we see everywhere throughout the world, and within our Empire, is one for which I give thanks and am most grateful.” ~ August 14, 1915. Right Honourable Sir Robert Laird Borden, G.C.M.G., M.P. eighth Prime Minister of Canada

The population of Canada was recorded at 7,206,643 in 1911, and according to the Canada Year book 1922-1923, it rose to 8,788,483 in 1921. (Saskatchewan was 757,510.)
If the trend of the first decade had continued, it was estimated that the population should have reached 10,100,000. There were at least a couple of factors at work towards the increase of population. “It should also be taken into account that the returns for the western provinces include about 25,000 returned men, who have been placed on farms through the Soldier Settlement Scheme” noted Cote in his census analysis. The 1921 census showed that not only is there immigration from Europe and the United States, but there is a definite migration from East to West.

70 per cent of the arable farm land was in farms by 1921, and the settlement pattern was established. Professor W.B. Baker chairman of the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life looks at it this way, “in 1901, 96 per cent of our farmers were owners and 61 per cent of the 13,445 farms were under 200 acres in size. The average size of farm was 285 acres. In 1921, 76.7 per cent of 119,451 farms were owner-operated and 32.5 per cent were under 200 acres while the average size of farm had increased to 369 acres.” In Saskatchewan, 71 per cent of the population was rural, and the remainder urban. The Morning Leader relates that, “more people means more schools and better schools; more roads and better roads; better medical services; more enjoyable community life with all the advantages which must follow.”

However, James Thomas Milton Anderson speaks of the immigration “problem” in the book “The education of the new-Canadian: A treatise on Canada’s greatest educational problem.”  He writes in 1918 following the war years “throughout the prairie provinces great stretches of land have been settled by immigrants from European countries. The language of the home is German, Ruthenian, Hungarian, Bohemian, or Polish, as the case may be. In the villages where they trade they have their own merchants, speaking their own language. In these settlements there is but one force at work to Canadianize their children—the public school.” Dr. Harold W. Foght Specialist in Rural School Practice, summed up the post war hysteria, “Are we to be a homogeneous people on these plains or are we to repeat the tragic sufferings of polyglot Austria” He goes on to discuss “the process of making one Canadian-speaking and thinking people” in A Survey of Education. In 1919, a new school act was passed permitting English as the only language of instruction.

The war had a devastating effect on the peace of mind of the community. Settlers looked at neighbours knowing now who had served for Canada during the Great War, who had deserted, those who chose not to serve, those who left to serve their ancestral lands and those who had lost sons and daughters overseas. Saskatchewan, the great melting pot of immigrants began to give rise to division looking at those who had served with the allies and which communities may have a different allegiance. Saskatchewan peoples along with the rest of Canada sought for a Canadian identity, what it meant to be truly Canadian.

  • In Western Canada there is to be seen to-day that most fascinating of all human phenomena, the making of a nation. Out of breeds diverse in traditions, in ideals, in speech, and in manner of life, Saxon and Slav, Teuton, Celt and Gaul, one people is being made. The blood strains of great races will mingle in the blood of a race greater than the greatest of them all.
    It would be our wisdom to grip these peoples to us with living hooks of justice and charity till all lines of national cleavage disappear, and in the Entity of our Canadian national life, and in the Unity of our world-wide Empire, we fuse into a people whose strength will endure the slow shock of time for the honour of our name, for the good of mankind, and for the glory of Almighty God.” ~ Rev. Dr. Charles William Gordon

Anderson, beginning as inspector of schools around Yorkton between 1911-1918, was appointed director of Education 1918-1922. The Morning Leader reported that “the School Attendance Act was rigidly enforced…a larger percentage of pupils passed their examinations and a great percentage of children made better progress because of regular attendance.” It was to this end that school room classes were awarded $3 a day if an average of 15 pupils attended during the school year, and if the schools offered classes beyond grade 7. During the settlement era, 1901-1921, the Department of Education boasted that a new school district was organised every day of the year, however in 1921 only 100 school districts were formed. The department and community both recognised the benefits of consolidated school districts, however the cost of conveying rural children to a consolidated school placed such a transition on hold in 1921.

So what was life like in Saskatchewan in 1921? Saskatchewan men who had served with the military in the Great War (1914-1918) were beginning to return home. This marked great happiness for families with returned love ones, and a time of grief and sadness mourning those who would never come home. However, not only did the communities have the economic transition of the discharged soldiers entering the work place, but the Spanish influenza set in. About 5,000 lives were lost in Saskatchewan alone from this epidemic.

The war time population in 1916 of 647,835 had grown in five years to 757,510. The Model T automobile began to replace the horse and buggy across the prairies, by 1921 there were 34,085 cars. Dotting farms as well, tractors were commencing to replace horse and plough. In 1921, 19,243 tractors were counted in the census returns on 17,523 farms across the province.

With the increase in mechanized travel, the Department of Highways commenced a project in 1920 of laying better roads and bridges. These early roads followed the surveyed township roads, and travel could be done “on the square”, it was not until the 1950s and 1960s that highways were “straightened”.

Families would have no televisions, nor computers nor video games. “The school children are actively engaged in eliminating Mr. Gopher, and in some cases some ingenious methods of capturing and killing have been invented by the school boys of the province.”Source” Children would receive two cents bounty or thrift stamps on delivery of gopher tails to their school teacher. By May 1 of 1917, 514,000 gophers had been taken care of by the “Junior Agricultural Service League of Saskatchewan” that spring alone.

1921 was the year before the first Saskatchewan radio station was established, there was no widespread electricity available. Rather than having a television agricultural forum or radio call in “talk show” to catch up on the latest news, farm families could just pick up the telephone and listen in to the “party line” which was often connected to about eight other neighbourly homes. Central exchanges connected various party lines, and in the coldest of winters, without roads, and snow blowers neighbours could catch up on the latest gossip, sales, funerals and chat back and forth.

The high influx of settlers, meant pasture land was being taken up by homesteaders, and the era of the great ranches drew to a close around 1921. The last round up for the Matador ranch was 1921 when 3,400 head of cattle would be taken from the ranch near Saskatchewan Landing (Moose Jaw area) to Waldeck and on to Chicago for sale. No longer would the spring cattle trek see yearlings and two year olds arrive from Texas to the Matador ranch. The ranchers would work long hours, before sun up and after sun down even during the months of long summer days, the treks gave the ranch hands and the settlers an event, and the cowboys had their “semi annual trip to town.”Source Gone now were the days when “One arriving in town, the first thought was for a drink. In the old days the men would ride right into the building and up to the bar.”

  • Come alive you fellers,” hear the foreman shout .“Drop your books and banjos, fetch your saddles out…

    Shake that squeaky fiddle, Red, go and get your hoss,

    “Dutch, ain’t you got duties, as the chuck-wagon boss?

    “Range is gettin’ grassy, winter draws its claws,

    “Calved are fat an’ sassy, teasin’ of their maws,

    “Loafin’ days are over, dreamin’ time is gone,

    No more life in clover, for the round-up’s on.”

    ~ Folksong

1921 was a year of a severe economic depression, Saskatchewan farmers were still reeling from the drought of 1920. Prairie farmers were also hit by the international wheat market collapse of 1921. The growing season of 1921 looked promising showing 14 bushels to the acre as compared to 11 bushels of 1920. Farmers, and communities were very optimistic. The rains came during harvest season and No. 1 Northern Wheat was reduced to No. 4. Despite their threshing efforts, it cost more to take off the crop quickly, and the market price was low. The price for a bushel of wheat brought $1.50, compared to $0.76 in 1921, wheat fell a whopping 50 per cent. During the Great War, the Dominion government “controlled the sale and pricing of wheat” through the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) in 1917, “wheat prices rose to $2.21 a bushel and then $2.62 by 1919.” This same year (1919) that the CWB was dismantled.

The Soldier’s Settlement Act provided for land and loans set at 5% as assistance to erect buildings, purchase livestock, implements and equipment. Though the prices were excellent in 1918 when the soldiers returned home, the growing season was affected by drought, hail and grasshopper infestations. The year of 1919 proved challenging, grasshoppers remained prevalent, wheat was affected by a fungal disease called rust and some areas were hard hit by drought. Returning servicemen on their new Soldier’s Grants were tasked with clearing the land on their newly allocated quarter sections. However, these quarters were not the “best of the best” sections of land, those had already been taken for homestead settlement. The only land which was left were areas which had been already abandoned by homesteader or Indian reserve, forest reserves, and unused school lands.

The drought of 1920 affected the livestock industry of 1921, as there was a shortage of feed, and the market had taken a downward trend. During the “depression in 1921…thousands of farmers and ranchers were ruined….the average dept-ridden farmer of today cannot possibly pay taxes, interest and carry on farm operation on the proceeds of the present prices on farm products,” reported the Calgary Herald. The Minister of Agriculture, Honourable C.M. Hamilton testified “that the average Saskatchewan farm of a half-section worth $12,000, had a mortgage on it of $5,000.” Without tax payments, the school districts had no ability to pay their teachers, Austin F. Cross recalls months of despair and agony which culminated in a turning point in his life when the bank relented to loaning the school trustees money.


  • Saskatchewan, the land of snow,
    Where winds are always on the blow,

    Where people sit with frozen toes–

    And why we stay here, no one knows.

    Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan,

    There’s no place like Saskatchewan.

    We sit and gaze across the plains,

    And wonder why it never rains,

    Till Gabriel doth his trumpet sound,

    And says the rain has gone around.

    ~ William W. Smith

The government under William Melville Martin, second premier of Saskatchewan The provincial government supported railway freight rate reductions, and rail branch line construction. Although the government coffers were drained from the wartime effort, Martin established $5 million available to farmers through a mortgage lending organization through the sale of government bonds.

As of June 1, 2013 92 years will have elapsed since 1921 when the census enumerators went out door to door on June 1, 1921. So, according to Library and Archives Canada, the census should be released from Statistics Canada and transferred over to Library and Archives Canada LAC for public usage. According to the LAC, “The 1921 Census was taken on June 1st, which means that it will be in the custody of Library and Archives Canada on June 1, 2013. Our intention is to make it available to researchers online, in the same format as previous censuses, as soon as possible after that date.Source“//

The Canadian Century Research Infrastructure CCRI is currently creating a 4% sampling of the 1921 Census of Canada in conjunction with Statistics Canada. Currently the instructions to enumerators is available as a pdf file. The CCRI will also look towards establishing databases for the 1911, 1921, 1931, 1941 and 1951 census as well.

  • The lure of love and the west.If you’ve heard the wild goose honking, if you’ve seen the sunlit plain,

    If you’ve breathed the smell of ripe grain, dewy, wet,

    You may go away and leave it, say you will not come again,

    But it’s in your blood, you never can forget.

    ~Nellie McClung

~ Article written by J. Adamson

Further Information:

Census Information

Saskatchewan History and Ethnic Roots

1919 Alberta, Saskatchewan Manitoba Waghorn’s Guide

1925 Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba Waghorn’s Guide

Gazetteer of U.S. and Canadian Railroads 1922

Saskatchewan Highway Map 1925

Rand McNally 1924 Indexed Pocket Map

Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Maps 1924

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Related posts:

Saskatchewan Census News Release

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

Where were Saskatchewan Homesteads Located?

How do I locate my ancstor’s home town in Saskatchewan? Have you ever visited your ancestral home?

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Follow me on Flickr, Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, 500 px and Flickriver

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Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

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Thank you for stopping by, your comments are much appreciated. All rights reserved. Images copyright © Aum Kleem; Article copyright © J Adamson. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed through Getty images. Peace and love be with you. Namaste.

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Saskatchewan Census News Release

6 Feb

The Time of His Life

Saskatchewan Census News Release

It is truly an exciting time for genealogists and historians researching roots in Canada, as public record keeping which began in pre-confederation times, and in the early years of Canada can now be released to the general public.

Census records provide invaluable information to the genealogical researcher. A primary source record when gives the family members in relation to the head of the family, the address. The agricultural census provides a look at land holdings and livestock to get an idea how a homesteader was faring proving up his land in the early twentieth century.

The census taken every ten years between 1851 to 1911 have been indexed and offered online at ancestry.com. Searchable as well is the census of western Canada taken in 1906 and 1916. This was part of a project initiated in 2008 when the Library and Archives Canada partnered up with Ancestry.ca Additionally the historical census are also searchable online via Ancestry.com covering the era between 1851-1916.

The original holdings of the census or the primary source records are at the Library and Archives Canada. To search for a particular family or surname, the census originals on the LAC web site are arranged by Federal enumeration district. To determine the district you can search for the land location through the homestead (land) records, by reading a local history / family biography book, the census records transcribed on automated genealogy, using a rural municipality or historical map to determine township, range and meridian, searchable database, finding the cemetery, birth, death or marriage (bmd) record which would record the place of residence

Ancestry.ca took it upon themselves to digitize and index the microfilm records in the LAC holdings. At some time the complete digitized records will be available free of charge to visitors of the LAC website. At this time, the Census of the Northwest Provinces, 1906 is fully searchable on Library and Archives Canada by surname, given name, age and province.

When using the census for other years at Library and Archives Canada to locate an ancestral family, a knowledge of historical geography will be of assistance. Saskatchewan became a province in 1905, and before this the population was enumerated as part of the Northwest Territories. In 1882 the Northwest Territories were divided into provisional districts using distinct and different borders than the current provinces.

To determine other Saskatchewan census information and web sites online, a collection is assembled at the Saskatchewan Gen Web Census Information web page. This web page includes the Census for the Hamlet of Insinger, Saskatchewan taken in 1921, the Census for the Hamlet of Duff, Saskatchewan 1920, as well as the Census for the Hamlet of Duff, Saskatchewan 1920 which were compiled online by Sue (Kesiah).

Provincial archives additionally have a number of other village and town census records. These records done on the years when the National census was not being taken were compiled to determine the localities eligibility to incorporate as a town and the need to show the pre-requisite population of 500 or more residents. If a town, the locality may choose to incorporate as a city with a population of 5,000 or more persons, if the census count so warrants.

Public libraries have on file the census 1666-1916 available on microfilm or can obtain it via interlibrary loan if they have a microfilm reader. Along with the Census of Canada, the 1918 Census of Independent Doukhobors: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia compiled into a finding aid by Jonathon Kalmakoff is available through the provincial archives and libraries.

“Library and Archives Canada is pleased to be part of this collaborative agreement with Ancestry.ca, which” said Mr. Ian E. Wilson, Librarian and Archivist of Canada, “…will truly enhance Canadians’ ability to fully explore their documentary heritage and will also be of great interest to those around the world with ancestors who immigrated to or visited Canada.”

“This is a win-win relationship for Library and Archives Canada and Ancestry.ca as the partnership,” says Josh Hanna, Senior VP, Ancestry International reports, “…will create a seamless flow for digitizing and indexing vast Canadian records and will be a huge benefit to family history researchers in Canada who will soon have the opportunity to access more collections than ever before.”

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints also partnered with Ancestry.com providing the expertise, experience and person hours in the indexing of the 1916 census. Family Search now provides the 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, and 1916 census online . The
1911
census is in the Family History libraries.

First partnering with the LAC back in 2008 in regards to the census, now Ancestry.com is partnering with the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society. Look toward the addition of the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Indexes in 2013 to the Ancestry.com Canadian collections.

The Library and Archives Canada has indeed become “your gateway to Canadian’s past.” It is with pleasure and inspiration to see the several diverse communities and organizations come together to share the information in the new digital age. Enjoy the new records being released which provide an insight into diverse peoples and settlers. The information reveals a fascinating insight into Saskatchewan’s rich agricultural history and multicultural heritage. ~ Article written by J. Adamson

Further Information:

Census Information

Saskatchewan History and Ethnic Roots

1919 Alberta, Saskatchewan Manitoba Waghorn’s Guide

1925 Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba Waghorn’s Guide

Gazetteer of U.S. and Canadian Railroads 1922

Saskatchewan Highway Map 1925

Rand McNally 1924 Indexed Pocket Map

Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Maps 1924

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Bibliography:

Archives Canada Directory of Selected Genealogical Resources.

Canadian Census Collection 1997-2013 Ancestry.com

Censuses of Canada 1851, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1906, 1911 and 1916. Library and Archives Canada.

The Historical Canadian Census Collection 1851-1916 ~ Ancestry.com 1997-2013 Ancestry.com

Library and Archives Canada Partners with Ancestry.ca ~ What’s New ~ Library and Archives Canada Partnership allows unprecedented online access to Canadian historical records.
2008-11-10

Saskatchewan Gen Web Project ~ Census

What to Search Topics: Genealogy and Family History ~ Library and Archives Canada 2011-08-22.

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Related posts:

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

Where were Saskatchewan Homesteads Located?

How do I locate my ancestor’s home town in Saskatchewan? Have you ever visited your ancestral home?

______________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Flickr, Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, 500 px and Flickriver

______________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

______________________________________________________________________________

Thank you for stopping by, your comments are much appreciated. All rights reserved. Images copyright © Aum Kleem; Article copyright © J Adamson. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed through Getty images. Peace and love be with you. Namaste.

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When Were Saskatchewan Homestead Applications Available?

17 Feb

Seasons Spinning Time

When Were Saskatchewan Homestead Applications Available?

Pioneers settling the CanadianLast Best West” could apply for a homestead for a $10 filing fee if they were British subjects over the age of 18. A genealogist researching a family tree starts from the known and works toward the unknown to discover names, dates and places of their ancestors. The various homestead and lands databases online assist this endeavour for Saskatchewan about one century ago.

Between 1870 to 1930 Letters Patent were issued by the Lands Patent Branch of the Department of the Interior to successful homesteaders. To be successful pioneers needed to “prove up” their land. Settlers had to live on their homesteads for a three year period, clearing and farming some of the land and making improvements.

From 1871 until 1890 and again from 1908 until 1918, a homesteader who had received patent on his homestead could apply for a pre-emption. They would pay the market price of the time which was about $2.00 acre, this rate changed and the rate was recorded as $1, $2 or $3 an acre depending on the era. Even numbered sections were reserved for homesteads and pre-emptions, while odd-numbered sections were sold. A pre-emption was the quarter section adjacent to his homestead if it was available. In this way the homesteader could expand his own farm for himself or for his children.

Homesteaders had the option to purchase Hudson Bay Company lands, railway lands, and school lands. These gave way also to larger farms. Sections 11 and 29 of each township were allocated toward school sections. Railway rants allowed the Canadian Pacific Railway (C.P.R.) 24 miles on either side of the railroad. The Dominion Lands Act of 1872 provided that the Company should receive all of section 8 in each township, all of section 26 in each township with a number divisible by 5, and the southern half and the northwest quarter of section 26 in all other townships.

240 acres of land were offered to Métis families between 1886-1902. Due to the location of these lands, a majority of Métis sold their scrip to land speculators.

In 1871, land grants were offered to soldiers and militia who had served in Manitoba and the North West Territories, to North West Rebellion veterans, Boer War veterans, and North West Mounted Police retirees. The 1918 Soldier Settlement Act provided World War I veterans with a free quarter section of land or scrip.

There were some ranching concerns in the southern portion of the province, where land was leased out for grazing. From 1872 to 1905, open grazing leases were available. These lands were not guaranteed in any way, and could be put up for sale.

After 1908, a closed grazing lease of farming land in Saskatchewan could be obtained for one cent an acre for up to 21 years subject to a two year’s cancellation.

In 1914, grazing leases of 12,000 acres of unfit farming land could be obtained under a ten year closed lease. There were many other subsequent changes in regulations concerning grazing land periodically.

The pioneer starting out with their quarter section homestead may continue on the land and expand by purchasing additional land from a variety of sources. They may sell their land after successfully proving it up, and re-locate. A few homesteaders were not successful, and in such cases a Declaration of Abandonment was filed with the Land Titles Office.

Using the Land Patent database held by Library and Archives Canada LAC, the Land Titles Application database called The Saskatchewan Homestead Index Project (SHIP), the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society’s HOME (Historical Ownership Mapping Endeavour) or the Glenbow Archives CPR database which shows “Sales of agricultural land by the Canadian Pacific Railway to settlers in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, 1881-1906.” One piece of the family history search may indeed be completed, and that would be to discover their place of residence.

The place of residence can further unlock local history books, birth, marriage and cemetery records which may be held locally and census records.

An important clue in early Saskatchewan genealogy research is to delve into legal land locations and determining homestead locations and expansion.
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Further Reading:

Homestead Record Information on Saskatchewan Gen Web ~ a Rootsweb project at Ancestry.com

Homestead Form Examples

Homestead Legal Land Location, Township Range and Meridian explained

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Related posts:

What can be found at the NEW Saskatchewan Provincial Archives website?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•Love and Marriage in Saskatchewan- a comprehensive guide

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

•How to locate birth, marriage and death certificates in Saskatchewan, Canada

Are there genealogy sites that can compete with Ancestry.com?
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Image:Seasons Spinning Time

“To every thing there is a season, and time to every purpose under the heaven:

A time to be born, and a time to die;
A time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted
A time to kill, and a time to heal
A time to break down, and a time to build up
A time to weep, and a time to laugh
A time to mourn, and a time to dance
A time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones together
A time to embrace and a time to refrain from embracing
A time to get, and a time to lose; a time to keep, and a time to cast away
A time to rend, and a time to sew
A time to keep silence, and a time to speak
A time to love, and a time to hate
A time of war, and a time of peace. ”

The Bible, Ecclesiastes 3:18.

All rights reserved. Copyright © Aum Kleem. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed throgh Getty images. .. Peace and love be with you.
Namaste.

______________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on 500 px, Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, Flickr, and Flickriver

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Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

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