Tag Archives: census

Should Genealogy Research be Conducted Scientifcally?

22 Jun

Inside these brick walls

How do we observe our family history?

Genealogy comes from two roots; Logy to speak, or to pick out words when speaking for a treatise, discourse, science or doctrine.  The second root of Genealogy has root in the  Latin genealogia meaning “tracing of a family and the Greek genealogia; “the making of a pedigree.”  Genealogy; therefore is speaking out about the family history.

Science, on the other hand, is a word which comes from the Latin root scientia from scire “to know.” It is important to examine how we, as genealogists, “know.”

Genealogists seek by careful and deliberate reasoning determine quantitative data, and come to know an ancestor’s time of birth, marriage and death, place they were born, worked, moved to, lived and died, whom they married, how many children they raised, and how large a family they descended from.  Names, places and times are all quantitative data which can be found scientifically in primary source documents such as birth, marriage and death certificates, wills, obituaries, etc.

Genealogists must know how to separate scientific facts from historical observations, attributes and social phenomena.  Is qualitative data  also a vital component of social research?  Qualitative data forms the basis for social and ethical research and procedure.

Recording names, dates, and places brings together a family unit rather as a census enumerator fills in the census questionnaire.  However, the family genealogist must be aware of deductive theories which may arise from oral history and provide an amazing discovery of an event or about a person verifiable in archival documentation.

And yet on the other hand, an inductive theory is using a specific observation and forming a general pattern or deduction.  Observing the birth dates in a family and comparing these to marriage dates is a specific observation.  Would deductions and conclusions inferred from these date comparisons be based on societal norms in the contemporary era, or would these deductions and conclusions be the same from the context of history in the explanation of events.  Would inductive theories lead the genealogist astray, or help the researcher to further sources of knowledge?  Ethical situations arise – historical ancestor hand in hand with the genealogist-when it comes to skeletons found in the family tree.  Perhaps the brick wall went up in the face of the genealogist’s research because of facts the ancestral family tried to leave hidden or at best “not spoken about.”

As times and eras change, those events not spoken about in previous generations are not embarrassing social attributes in this day of age as society has evolved and accepted those events in contemporary discourse.  However, each family reacts differently to the presentations made by the family genealogist.

Genealogy has two main purposes therefore, describing and explaining the family tree.  It is wise to discern facts from variables, generalized accounts and theories.  Genealogists need to step back and examine their motivation to delve into family research, is it to make sense of the past, and the family legacy, or is it to gain knowledge and grow the family tree descendant chart as far back in lineage as is possible?  The genealogist who speaks out for the family ancestry at the next reunion may wish to bring the knowledge they have acquired and make a positive difference and impact on the current and future generations.

Note The new Saskatchewan Region Gen Web is online at https://saskgenweb.site123.me the original Saskatchewan Region Gen Web site is under maintenance by Ancestry/Rootsweb.com. Check periodically for progress on the historical site at http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cansk while waiting please check out https://saskgenweb.site123.me/

Saskatchewan in 1921 and the 1921 Census.

6 Feb

Celestial Blue

Saskatchewan in 1921 and the 1921 Census.

1921, an era of transition and change begins. Evolution of a community happens over the course of considerable years. It does not happen, no, that an entire province of people rush out on June 1, 1921 to all buy tractors all at once, and leave Daisy nibbling in the field. The transition from horse and plough to tractor began in a farm here and there, and slowly more and more farmers owned tractor, farm truck and automobile. The 1921 census tells a story of people, and their land, the successes and failures of immigration schemes and homesteading ventures and how life was changing.

History “conjures up feelings of what it was like in a day and age not our own,” speaks John C. Charyk. The first two decades of the 1900s brought with them a huge wave of people to the plains of Saskatchewan. By 1921, these pioneer settlers were proud to call Saskatchewan their home. The early pioneer had divested their time, energy and blood into the land because they had “faith in the possibilities of the country, stood by that faith, and made a success of their undertaking.[1]

“The unorganized territories of British North America had been ceded to the Dominion soon after Confederation, and the West had been tapped and traversed by the Canadian Pacific Railway in the eighties and nineties,” documented the Yearbook of Canada 1922/1923. The 1926 Financial Post reported that there were 6,268.72 miles of railway stretching across the province by 1922 serving “2,139 elevators, 896 loading platforms, 554 stockyards, in addition to depots, warehouses, etc.” The yearbook continues, “but though western population doubled with each of these decades, it was only with the launching of a large scale immigration movement after 1900 that western settlement and production became a first-rate economic factor.” In the two decades 1901-1911 and 1911-1921, the census returns showed over 1,800,000 immigrant arrivals to Canada in each of the decades, over 3,600,000 persons in twenty years.

As W.G. Cates, points out, “the 1921 census, as it shows a much lower rate of increase in population during the 1911-1921 period than that of 1901-1911, is naturally disappointing; but the returns must be considered in the light of the Great War…tens of thousands went overseas to their native land to fight; while other tens of thousands went to the United States in order to escape military service.” Some 60,000 militia gave the supreme sacrifice in the theatre of war, and 20,000 Canadians who served remained in the United Kingdom following their term of service. Of these 60,000 Canadians 6,428 were Saskatchewan boys according to the Saskatchewan Virtual War Memorial. The mass exodus of citizens, the loss of life, accompanied by the tens of thousands of Saskatchewan personnel serving in the armed forces overseas, might lead one to predict a drop in population, however the 1921 census still showed a population increase.

  • In the early days of the war we were much comforted by the fact that men and women were ready to make sacrifices for this, the greatest cause of all. In Canada, and I am sure elsewhere throughout the Empire, there has been manifest a spirit of co-operation, of mutual helpfulness, of a desire to assist, of self-sacrifice which is most comforting to those who have at heart the welfare of our Empire in years to come. So I am sure it will be in the future. The influence of a spirit of helpfulness and self-sacrifice, which we see everywhere throughout the world, and within our Empire, is one for which I give thanks and am most grateful.” ~ August 14, 1915. Right Honourable Sir Robert Laird Borden, G.C.M.G., M.P. eighth Prime Minister of Canada

The population of Canada was recorded at 7,206,643 in 1911, and according to the Canada Year book 1922-1923, it rose to 8,788,483 in 1921. (Saskatchewan was 757,510.)
If the trend of the first decade had continued, it was estimated that the population should have reached 10,100,000. There were at least a couple of factors at work towards the increase of population. “It should also be taken into account that the returns for the western provinces include about 25,000 returned men, who have been placed on farms through the Soldier Settlement Scheme” noted Cote in his census analysis. The 1921 census showed that not only is there immigration from Europe and the United States, but there is a definite migration from East to West.

70 per cent of the arable farm land was in farms by 1921, and the settlement pattern was established. Professor W.B. Baker chairman of the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life looks at it this way, “in 1901, 96 per cent of our farmers were owners and 61 per cent of the 13,445 farms were under 200 acres in size. The average size of farm was 285 acres. In 1921, 76.7 per cent of 119,451 farms were owner-operated and 32.5 per cent were under 200 acres while the average size of farm had increased to 369 acres.” In Saskatchewan, 71 per cent of the population was rural, and the remainder urban. The Morning Leader relates that, “more people means more schools and better schools; more roads and better roads; better medical services; more enjoyable community life with all the advantages which must follow.”

However, James Thomas Milton Anderson speaks of the immigration “problem” in the book “The education of the new-Canadian: A treatise on Canada’s greatest educational problem.”  He writes in 1918 following the war years “throughout the prairie provinces great stretches of land have been settled by immigrants from European countries. The language of the home is German, Ruthenian, Hungarian, Bohemian, or Polish, as the case may be. In the villages where they trade they have their own merchants, speaking their own language. In these settlements there is but one force at work to Canadianize their children—the public school.” Dr. Harold W. Foght Specialist in Rural School Practice, summed up the post war hysteria, “Are we to be a homogeneous people on these plains or are we to repeat the tragic sufferings of polyglot Austria” He goes on to discuss “the process of making one Canadian-speaking and thinking people” in A Survey of Education. In 1919, a new school act was passed permitting English as the only language of instruction.

The war had a devastating effect on the peace of mind of the community. Settlers looked at neighbours knowing now who had served for Canada during the Great War, who had deserted, those who chose not to serve, those who left to serve their ancestral lands and those who had lost sons and daughters overseas. Saskatchewan, the great melting pot of immigrants began to give rise to division looking at those who had served with the allies and which communities may have a different allegiance. Saskatchewan peoples along with the rest of Canada sought for a Canadian identity, what it meant to be truly Canadian.

  • In Western Canada there is to be seen to-day that most fascinating of all human phenomena, the making of a nation. Out of breeds diverse in traditions, in ideals, in speech, and in manner of life, Saxon and Slav, Teuton, Celt and Gaul, one people is being made. The blood strains of great races will mingle in the blood of a race greater than the greatest of them all.
    It would be our wisdom to grip these peoples to us with living hooks of justice and charity till all lines of national cleavage disappear, and in the Entity of our Canadian national life, and in the Unity of our world-wide Empire, we fuse into a people whose strength will endure the slow shock of time for the honour of our name, for the good of mankind, and for the glory of Almighty God.” ~ Rev. Dr. Charles William Gordon

Anderson, beginning as inspector of schools around Yorkton between 1911-1918, was appointed director of Education 1918-1922. The Morning Leader reported that “the School Attendance Act was rigidly enforced…a larger percentage of pupils passed their examinations and a great percentage of children made better progress because of regular attendance.” It was to this end that school room classes were awarded $3 a day if an average of 15 pupils attended during the school year, and if the schools offered classes beyond grade 7. During the settlement era, 1901-1921, the Department of Education boasted that a new school district was organised every day of the year, however in 1921 only 100 school districts were formed. The department and community both recognised the benefits of consolidated school districts, however the cost of conveying rural children to a consolidated school placed such a transition on hold in 1921.

So what was life like in Saskatchewan in 1921? Saskatchewan men who had served with the military in the Great War (1914-1918) were beginning to return home. This marked great happiness for families with returned love ones, and a time of grief and sadness mourning those who would never come home. However, not only did the communities have the economic transition of the discharged soldiers entering the work place, but the Spanish influenza set in. About 5,000 lives were lost in Saskatchewan alone from this epidemic.

The war time population in 1916 of 647,835 had grown in five years to 757,510. The Model T automobile began to replace the horse and buggy across the prairies, by 1921 there were 34,085 cars. Dotting farms as well, tractors were commencing to replace horse and plough. In 1921, 19,243 tractors were counted in the census returns on 17,523 farms across the province.

With the increase in mechanized travel, the Department of Highways commenced a project in 1920 of laying better roads and bridges. These early roads followed the surveyed township roads, and travel could be done “on the square”, it was not until the 1950s and 1960s that highways were “straightened”.

Families would have no televisions, nor computers nor video games. “The school children are actively engaged in eliminating Mr. Gopher, and in some cases some ingenious methods of capturing and killing have been invented by the school boys of the province.”Source” Children would receive two cents bounty or thrift stamps on delivery of gopher tails to their school teacher. By May 1 of 1917, 514,000 gophers had been taken care of by the “Junior Agricultural Service League of Saskatchewan” that spring alone.

1921 was the year before the first Saskatchewan radio station was established, there was no widespread electricity available. Rather than having a television agricultural forum or radio call in “talk show” to catch up on the latest news, farm families could just pick up the telephone and listen in to the “party line” which was often connected to about eight other neighbourly homes. Central exchanges connected various party lines, and in the coldest of winters, without roads, and snow blowers neighbours could catch up on the latest gossip, sales, funerals and chat back and forth.

The high influx of settlers, meant pasture land was being taken up by homesteaders, and the era of the great ranches drew to a close around 1921. The last round up for the Matador ranch was 1921 when 3,400 head of cattle would be taken from the ranch near Saskatchewan Landing (Moose Jaw area) to Waldeck and on to Chicago for sale. No longer would the spring cattle trek see yearlings and two year olds arrive from Texas to the Matador ranch. The ranchers would work long hours, before sun up and after sun down even during the months of long summer days, the treks gave the ranch hands and the settlers an event, and the cowboys had their “semi annual trip to town.”Source Gone now were the days when “One arriving in town, the first thought was for a drink. In the old days the men would ride right into the building and up to the bar.”

  • Come alive you fellers,” hear the foreman shout .“Drop your books and banjos, fetch your saddles out…

    Shake that squeaky fiddle, Red, go and get your hoss,

    “Dutch, ain’t you got duties, as the chuck-wagon boss?

    “Range is gettin’ grassy, winter draws its claws,

    “Calved are fat an’ sassy, teasin’ of their maws,

    “Loafin’ days are over, dreamin’ time is gone,

    No more life in clover, for the round-up’s on.”

    ~ Folksong

1921 was a year of a severe economic depression, Saskatchewan farmers were still reeling from the drought of 1920. Prairie farmers were also hit by the international wheat market collapse of 1921. The growing season of 1921 looked promising showing 14 bushels to the acre as compared to 11 bushels of 1920. Farmers, and communities were very optimistic. The rains came during harvest season and No. 1 Northern Wheat was reduced to No. 4. Despite their threshing efforts, it cost more to take off the crop quickly, and the market price was low. The price for a bushel of wheat brought $1.50, compared to $0.76 in 1921, wheat fell a whopping 50 per cent. During the Great War, the Dominion government “controlled the sale and pricing of wheat” through the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) in 1917, “wheat prices rose to $2.21 a bushel and then $2.62 by 1919.” This same year (1919) that the CWB was dismantled.

The Soldier’s Settlement Act provided for land and loans set at 5% as assistance to erect buildings, purchase livestock, implements and equipment. Though the prices were excellent in 1918 when the soldiers returned home, the growing season was affected by drought, hail and grasshopper infestations. The year of 1919 proved challenging, grasshoppers remained prevalent, wheat was affected by a fungal disease called rust and some areas were hard hit by drought. Returning servicemen on their new Soldier’s Grants were tasked with clearing the land on their newly allocated quarter sections. However, these quarters were not the “best of the best” sections of land, those had already been taken for homestead settlement. The only land which was left were areas which had been already abandoned by homesteader or Indian reserve, forest reserves, and unused school lands.

The drought of 1920 affected the livestock industry of 1921, as there was a shortage of feed, and the market had taken a downward trend. During the “depression in 1921…thousands of farmers and ranchers were ruined….the average dept-ridden farmer of today cannot possibly pay taxes, interest and carry on farm operation on the proceeds of the present prices on farm products,” reported the Calgary Herald. The Minister of Agriculture, Honourable C.M. Hamilton testified “that the average Saskatchewan farm of a half-section worth $12,000, had a mortgage on it of $5,000.” Without tax payments, the school districts had no ability to pay their teachers, Austin F. Cross recalls months of despair and agony which culminated in a turning point in his life when the bank relented to loaning the school trustees money.


  • Saskatchewan, the land of snow,
    Where winds are always on the blow,

    Where people sit with frozen toes–

    And why we stay here, no one knows.

    Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan,

    There’s no place like Saskatchewan.

    We sit and gaze across the plains,

    And wonder why it never rains,

    Till Gabriel doth his trumpet sound,

    And says the rain has gone around.

    ~ William W. Smith

The government under William Melville Martin, second premier of Saskatchewan The provincial government supported railway freight rate reductions, and rail branch line construction. Although the government coffers were drained from the wartime effort, Martin established $5 million available to farmers through a mortgage lending organization through the sale of government bonds.

As of June 1, 2013 92 years will have elapsed since 1921 when the census enumerators went out door to door on June 1, 1921. So, according to Library and Archives Canada, the census should be released from Statistics Canada and transferred over to Library and Archives Canada LAC for public usage. According to the LAC, “The 1921 Census was taken on June 1st, which means that it will be in the custody of Library and Archives Canada on June 1, 2013. Our intention is to make it available to researchers online, in the same format as previous censuses, as soon as possible after that date.Source“//

The Canadian Century Research Infrastructure CCRI is currently creating a 4% sampling of the 1921 Census of Canada in conjunction with Statistics Canada. Currently the instructions to enumerators is available as a pdf file. The CCRI will also look towards establishing databases for the 1911, 1921, 1931, 1941 and 1951 census as well.

  • The lure of love and the west.If you’ve heard the wild goose honking, if you’ve seen the sunlit plain,

    If you’ve breathed the smell of ripe grain, dewy, wet,

    You may go away and leave it, say you will not come again,

    But it’s in your blood, you never can forget.

    ~Nellie McClung

~ Article written by J. Adamson

Further Information:

Census Information

Saskatchewan History and Ethnic Roots

1919 Alberta, Saskatchewan Manitoba Waghorn’s Guide

1925 Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba Waghorn’s Guide

Gazetteer of U.S. and Canadian Railroads 1922

Saskatchewan Highway Map 1925

Rand McNally 1924 Indexed Pocket Map

Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Maps 1924

______________________________________________________________________________

Related posts:

Saskatchewan Census News Release

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

Where were Saskatchewan Homesteads Located?

How do I locate my ancstor’s home town in Saskatchewan? Have you ever visited your ancestral home?

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Follow me on Flickr, Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, 500 px and Flickriver

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Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

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Thank you for stopping by, your comments are much appreciated. All rights reserved. Images copyright © Aum Kleem; Article copyright © J Adamson. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed through Getty images. Peace and love be with you. Namaste.

______________________________________________________________________________

Saskatchewan Census News Release

6 Feb

The Time of His Life

Saskatchewan Census News Release

It is truly an exciting time for genealogists and historians researching roots in Canada, as public record keeping which began in pre-confederation times, and in the early years of Canada can now be released to the general public.

Census records provide invaluable information to the genealogical researcher. A primary source record when gives the family members in relation to the head of the family, the address. The agricultural census provides a look at land holdings and livestock to get an idea how a homesteader was faring proving up his land in the early twentieth century.

The census taken every ten years between 1851 to 1911 have been indexed and offered online at ancestry.com. Searchable as well is the census of western Canada taken in 1906 and 1916. This was part of a project initiated in 2008 when the Library and Archives Canada partnered up with Ancestry.ca Additionally the historical census are also searchable online via Ancestry.com covering the era between 1851-1916.

The original holdings of the census or the primary source records are at the Library and Archives Canada. To search for a particular family or surname, the census originals on the LAC web site are arranged by Federal enumeration district. To determine the district you can search for the land location through the homestead (land) records, by reading a local history / family biography book, the census records transcribed on automated genealogy, using a rural municipality or historical map to determine township, range and meridian, searchable database, finding the cemetery, birth, death or marriage (bmd) record which would record the place of residence

Ancestry.ca took it upon themselves to digitize and index the microfilm records in the LAC holdings. At some time the complete digitized records will be available free of charge to visitors of the LAC website. At this time, the Census of the Northwest Provinces, 1906 is fully searchable on Library and Archives Canada by surname, given name, age and province.

When using the census for other years at Library and Archives Canada to locate an ancestral family, a knowledge of historical geography will be of assistance. Saskatchewan became a province in 1905, and before this the population was enumerated as part of the Northwest Territories. In 1882 the Northwest Territories were divided into provisional districts using distinct and different borders than the current provinces.

To determine other Saskatchewan census information and web sites online, a collection is assembled at the Saskatchewan Gen Web Census Information web page. This web page includes the Census for the Hamlet of Insinger, Saskatchewan taken in 1921, the Census for the Hamlet of Duff, Saskatchewan 1920, as well as the Census for the Hamlet of Duff, Saskatchewan 1920 which were compiled online by Sue (Kesiah).

Provincial archives additionally have a number of other village and town census records. These records done on the years when the National census was not being taken were compiled to determine the localities eligibility to incorporate as a town and the need to show the pre-requisite population of 500 or more residents. If a town, the locality may choose to incorporate as a city with a population of 5,000 or more persons, if the census count so warrants.

Public libraries have on file the census 1666-1916 available on microfilm or can obtain it via interlibrary loan if they have a microfilm reader. Along with the Census of Canada, the 1918 Census of Independent Doukhobors: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia compiled into a finding aid by Jonathon Kalmakoff is available through the provincial archives and libraries.

“Library and Archives Canada is pleased to be part of this collaborative agreement with Ancestry.ca, which” said Mr. Ian E. Wilson, Librarian and Archivist of Canada, “…will truly enhance Canadians’ ability to fully explore their documentary heritage and will also be of great interest to those around the world with ancestors who immigrated to or visited Canada.”

“This is a win-win relationship for Library and Archives Canada and Ancestry.ca as the partnership,” says Josh Hanna, Senior VP, Ancestry International reports, “…will create a seamless flow for digitizing and indexing vast Canadian records and will be a huge benefit to family history researchers in Canada who will soon have the opportunity to access more collections than ever before.”

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints also partnered with Ancestry.com providing the expertise, experience and person hours in the indexing of the 1916 census. Family Search now provides the 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, and 1916 census online . The
1911
census is in the Family History libraries.

First partnering with the LAC back in 2008 in regards to the census, now Ancestry.com is partnering with the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society. Look toward the addition of the Saskatchewan Genealogy Society Indexes in 2013 to the Ancestry.com Canadian collections.

The Library and Archives Canada has indeed become “your gateway to Canadian’s past.” It is with pleasure and inspiration to see the several diverse communities and organizations come together to share the information in the new digital age. Enjoy the new records being released which provide an insight into diverse peoples and settlers. The information reveals a fascinating insight into Saskatchewan’s rich agricultural history and multicultural heritage. ~ Article written by J. Adamson

Further Information:

Census Information

Saskatchewan History and Ethnic Roots

1919 Alberta, Saskatchewan Manitoba Waghorn’s Guide

1925 Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba Waghorn’s Guide

Gazetteer of U.S. and Canadian Railroads 1922

Saskatchewan Highway Map 1925

Rand McNally 1924 Indexed Pocket Map

Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Maps 1924

______________________________________________________________________________

Bibliography:

Archives Canada Directory of Selected Genealogical Resources.

Canadian Census Collection 1997-2013 Ancestry.com

Censuses of Canada 1851, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1906, 1911 and 1916. Library and Archives Canada.

The Historical Canadian Census Collection 1851-1916 ~ Ancestry.com 1997-2013 Ancestry.com

Library and Archives Canada Partners with Ancestry.ca ~ What’s New ~ Library and Archives Canada Partnership allows unprecedented online access to Canadian historical records.
2008-11-10

Saskatchewan Gen Web Project ~ Census

What to Search Topics: Genealogy and Family History ~ Library and Archives Canada 2011-08-22.

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Related posts:

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

Where were Saskatchewan Homesteads Located?

How do I locate my ancestor’s home town in Saskatchewan? Have you ever visited your ancestral home?

______________________________________________________________________________

Follow me on Flickr, Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, 500 px and Flickriver

______________________________________________________________________________

Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

______________________________________________________________________________

Thank you for stopping by, your comments are much appreciated. All rights reserved. Images copyright © Aum Kleem; Article copyright © J Adamson. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed through Getty images. Peace and love be with you. Namaste.

______________________________________________________________________________

Uncovering Historical Census and Cemetery Records ~ Quiz Two Answers.

29 Jun

Abundance Abounds

Uncovering Historical Census and Cemetery Records

Here are the answers to the Landmarks and Geophysical Saskatchewan Placenames. Quiz Two. Along with the quiz, Saskatchewan historical information and invaluable resources to locate placenames in Saskatchewan were provided.

Genealogists have much to gain by studying a map of rural municipalities in Saskatchewan. Towns, villages, resort villages and rural municipalities are legislated under The Municipalities Act. The municipality provides services, and facilities necessary and desirable for all or part of the municipality. When seeking ancestral records, rural cemeteries are classified by their rural municipality. The cemetery may be privately run or under the stewardship of the village or local religious community.

Census records canvas individuals by enumeration areas. Rurally the census records the legal land description as the address for each resident. Additionally, the rural municipality has been recorded by the census representative as the residential address in some census years, particularly on the newly released 1916 census records.

Studying historical maps which show the evolution of Saskatchewan’s boundaries such as those in the Atlas of Saskatchewan are invaluable to the genealogist to understand the land areas of Rupert’s Land, and the districts of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Athabasca (also known as Athabaska) in the North West Territories. The area was designated as the province of Saskatchewan in 1905, the North West Territories between 1870 and 1905, and Rupert’s Land 1670 to 1870.

Additionally perusing Saskatchewan historical places in conjunction with their modern area names along with rural municipalities and their names facilitates the location of local history and family biography books which were compiled by communities for the 50th and 75th provincial anniversaries.

Quiz Two Answers

1. Algae, Water basin. Answer. Green Lake. Green Lake is a northern village of Saskatchewan which had 361 residents in 2006, the last census. Located amidst the lakes region of Saskatchewan, the village is 17 km (11 miles) from the lake of the same name.

2. Sight, Summit. Answer. Eye Hill. The rural municipality of Eye Hill No. 382 was incorporated in 1910 and locates its offices in Macklin, Saskatchewan. The rural municipality reeve and councilors serve a population between 650 to 700 residents.

3. Grand earth. Answer. Goodsoil. Located in the rural municipality of Beaver River No. 622, Saskatchewan, the village of Goodsoil has a population of about 250 residents. Father J. Shultz and F.J. Lange Sr. came together offering land in the area in 1926.

4. Rapid, Waves. Answer Swift Current. The city of Swift Current makes its home on the banks of the Riviere au Courant or the Swift Current Creek. The creek and Battleford-Swift Current Red River Cart Trail encouraged settlement, and ranches sprang up which were further enhanced by the Canadian Pacific Railway depot and bridge across the creek. As early as 1881, the area had developed a Local Improvement District, and the settlement of Swift Current became a village in 1903. Currently a city of about 145,000 residents along the Trans Canada Highway. An early letter may show the address as SC, ASSA, NWT or Swift Current, District of Assiniboia, North West Territories.

5. Expansive panorama. Answer. Broadview. The town of Broadview, population 611 (2006) received its name from the Canadian Pacific Railway Company CPR in 1882. Historical documents may show the location as Broadview, District of Assiniboia, North West Territories until the province was formed in 1906. Abbreviated the location may read Broadview, Assa, NWT. Assiniboia was demarked as East and West Assiniboia on many historical maps, and Broadview would have been within East Assiniboia, whereas Swift Current (above) would have been located in West Assiniboia.

6. A bend or half turn. Answer. Elbow. The village of Elbow is located within the Loreburn No. 254, Rural municipality. With about 300 persons, Elbow is located on the newly formed manmade Lake Diefenbaker, originally the village was founded upon the South Saskatchewan River in 1909. Lake Diefenbaker is a reservoir created following the construction of the Gardiner Dam on the South Saskatchewan River and the Qu’Appelle River Dam

7. Gigantic, Watercourse. Answer. Big River.
The town of Big River has over 700 residents and is situated in the rural municipality of Big River No. 555. The river through the area was first named by the local Cree. Oklemow Cee-Pee translates into Big River. On historical maps this area would have been a part of Rupert’s Land 1670 to 1870. Later historical documents may show the address as either township 56 range 7 west of the 2nd meridian or Big River, District of Saskatchewan, North West Territories between 1870 and 1905. Abbreviated this would be Big River, Sask, NWT. Note; the provisional district of the North West Territories named Saskatchewan does not comprise the same land area as the current province of Saskatchewan. The District of Saskatchewan was only the central portion, between townships 35 and 70.

8. Colour, Meadow. Answer. Yellow Grass. Around 400 persons make their home in the town of Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan. Yellow Grass, had a post office as early as 1896, and it incorporated as a village in 1903 therefore, it would show up on historical documents as Yellow Grass, District of Assiniboia, North West Territories. Located in the south western portion of the province, the Greater Yellow Grass Marsh was responsible for mudslides, and spring flooding in the 1800s and early 1900s. Over 20 dams on the Souris and Qu’Appelle Rivers were required to alleviate the flooding of settlements.

9. Diminutive Mountains. Answer. Little Hills. Little Hills 158—517.20 hectares (1,278.0 acres), Little Hills 158A—38.30 hectares (94.6 acres), Little Hills 158B—131.20 hectares (324.2 acres) are Indian Reserves of about 5 persons located at township 70 range 23 West of the 2nd Meridian about 13 km (8 mi) from the town of La Ronge. These are 3 of the 19 Indian Reserves of the Woodland Cree Lac La Ronge First Nations. La Ronge & Stanley Mission Band of Woods Cree Indians signed Treaty 6 in 1889. Historically the location of the Little Hills reserves was on the border of the North West Territories’ Provisional District of Saskatchewan which encompasses township 70, and Provisional District of Athabasca which was north of township 71.

10. Colour, Soil. Answer. Red Earth. Red Earth 29 is an Indian Reserve of 383 residents as well as an unincorporated area or locality found in Carrot River 29A. Red Earth and Red Earth 29 are 5km (3 mi) from each other. Following Treaty 5, signed in 1876, the Red Earth Plains Cree First Nation reside at Red Earth 29 which was first surveyed in 1884 at townships 51, 52 ranges 6,7 W of the 2nd meridian. Carrot River Indian Reserve was surveyed 1894. This would place both historically in the provisional district of Saskatchewan, NWT before Saskatchewan became a province in 1905.

Learning more about the historical evolution of the country, its provinces and regions enables a genealogist to know where their ancestor lived, and where to find current records.

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Quizzes:
Test your knowledge of Saskatchewan ~ Quiz One.

The Value of Standardizing Placenames for Genealogists. Quiz One Answers.

Landmarks and Geophysical Saskatchewan Placenames. Quiz Two.

For more information:

•Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouse Project

•Online Historical Map Digitization Project

•Search Saskatchewan Placenames

•How do I locate my Ancestors Home Town in Saskatchewan?

•Maybe the Ghosts Will Live Again
Saskatchewan Ghost Towns…

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Related Posts:

•The Value of Standardizing Placenames for Genealogists. First Quiz Answers.

•Test Your Knowledge of Saskatchewan’s Placenames. First Quiz.

•What can be found at the NEW Saskatchewan Provincial Archives website?

•The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

•Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•Love and Marriage in Saskatchewan- a comprehensive guide

•How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

•Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•How to locate birth, marriage and death certificates in Saskatchewan, Canada

•Are there genealogy sites that can compete with Ancestry.com?

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How do the Saskatchewan 2011 Canadian Census Statistics Compare to History?

14 Feb

Engaging Powers of the Paperwhite

How do the Saskatchewan 2011 Canadian Census Statistics Compare to History?

The latest census to be taken was completed in 2011. The results showed that Saskatchewan has shown an increase in population. What’s most exciting is you can look a young person in the eye and say . . . ‘It’s as good, or better, here.’” said Kent Smith-Windsor president of the Saskatoon Chamber of Commerce, “This is a pretty amazing growth cycle. It has the potential to be truly historic.”

Saskatchewan’s growth increased 6.7% from the previous census in 2006. Of this population 60.9% lived within one of the “Census metropolitan areas”, namely Saskatoon, Regina, Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Lloydminster, North Battleford, Yorkton, Swift Current of Estevan. Saskatoon and Lloydminster saw the largest growth spurt. Saskatoon, the largest CMA, was enumerated at 260,600 persons and the CMA of Regina, a population of 210,556.

“Saskatchewan has gone from a province where people were moving out, to a province where people are choosing to stay and moving in,” Premier Brad Wall said in a statement. That is because of our growing economy, plenty of job opportunities and our great quality of life.” said Premier Brad Wall, “Saskatchewan is simply the best place in Canada to live, to work, to raise a family and to build a life. More and more people are now discovering that and it is why our population is growing.”

To put the 2011 census into context with historical data for the genealogist. Regina, the capital city of Saskatchewan has a 2011 population of 193,100 making it the second largest city of the province. However in 1901 its population was 2,249 making it the largest city of the area now known as Saskatchewan. This trend continued, and Regina remained the largest city with a population of 6,100 (1906) 30,213 (1911) and 26,127 (1916). Beginning as Pile O’ Bones in 1882, Regina became both incorporated as a town and the territorial capital of the North-West Territories in 1883, a city in 1903 and the provincial capital in 1905.

The current largest city of Saskatoon has a population of 222,189 in 2011 compared to 113 in 1901, and 3,011 in 1906. Saskatoon became a city in 1906 with a population of 4,500, by amalgamating the communities of Saskatoon, Riversdale, and Nutana. Saskatoon meanwhile showed a population of 3,011 (1906), 12,004 (1911) and 21,048 (1916) behind Regina’s population of the early 1900’s.

Prince Albert, one of the fastest growing settlements of the late 1800s was enumerated at 1,785 in 1901. The third largest city in Saskatchewan has a 2011 population of 35,129. The city’s growth rate (2.9%) was below both the provincial (6.7%) and national average (5.9%). As early as 1876, Prince Albert had a booming population of 750 persons, and 8,500 cattle and horses. Prince Albert was formerly the capital (1882-1905) of the District of Saskatchewan, a regional administrative division of what then constituted the Northwest Territories. The District of Saskatchewan, NWT comprised a central area of present day Saskatchewan extending as far south as Saskatoon, and as far north as Prince Albert. Beginning as the Isbister Settlement, Nisbet Mission and Porter Town, Prince Albert incorporated as a town in 1885 and as a city in 1904. In 1879, it was considered that 40-50 days was good timing for a trip from Winnipeg, Manitoba to Prince Albert traveling on average 20 miles per day. In the early 1900s travel along Red River Cart trails was abandoned in favour of the railway lines for transportation.

Moose Jaw was the third city of (present day) Saskatchewan in 1901 with a population of 1,558. Moose Jaw remained the third largest city through 1906 (6,249), 1911 (13,823) and 1916 (16,934). Moose Jaw incorporated as a city in 1903, and is now the province’s fourth largest city with a population of 33,274 in 2011 up from 32,132 in 2006. In 1880, when John Macoun traveled the Moose Mountains, the present site of Moose Jaw was called the Souris Plains.

Between 1876 and 1883, Battleford was the territorial capital of the Northwest Territories, and home to the North-West Mounted Police. The Battlefords refers to both Battleford and North Battleford who are directly across from each other on either bank of the North Saskatchewan River. Battleford had a burgeoning population of 609 by 1901, and 4,065 in 2011. North Battleford was not large enough to be enumerated in 1901, and in 2011 had grown to 13,888. By 1911 North Battleford surpassed Battleford in size 2,100 persons to 1,335, continuing in 1916 3,148 to 1,436 persons.

Fort Livingstone, North-West Territories was the territorial capital 1876–1877. This site near Pelly, Saskatchewan was sometimes referred to as Fort Pelly or Swan River. Currently it has no population, only a plaque declaring it a provincial heritage site.

The 1881 Swift Current settlement blossomed following the arrival of the rail over the years 1882-1883 in the midst of a ranching community. Swift Current had a population of 121 in 1901, was able to incorporate as a village in 1903, a town in 1907 with a population of 550, a city in 1914 and recorded a 1916 population at 3,181. The city of Swift Current currently (2011) is the sixth largest in the province, population 15,503 and the eighth largest provincial Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), population 12,973.

Estevan was incorporated as a village in 1899, and later became a town in 1906. On March 1, 1957, Estevan acquired the status of a city, which, in Saskatchewan terms, is any community of 5,000 or more. Estevan census agglomeration 2011 population, 12,973 showed a huge growth of 9.2% up from 2006 and it population of 11,883. The city of Estevan proper showed a population of 11,054 persons up from 10,084.

Lloydminster, the boundary city straddles both Saskatchewan and Alberta. As a Census Agglomeration, Lloydminster is the fifth largest community (population 30,798) compared to other CMA’s of Saskatchewan. The Census Agglomeration of Lloydminster includes both parts of the city, as well as the rural municipality of Wilton No. 472, the Town of Lashburn, Saskatchewan, and the Village of Marshall, Saskatchewan. However, the Saskatchewan portion of the city proper accounted for a population of 12,766 persons. In 1916, the Saskatchewan portion of Lloydminster was 494 persons, up from 1911 (441) and 1906 (389).

The other current cities of Saskatchewan are Melfort (5,576), Humboldt (5,678), Martensville (7,716), Meadow Lake (5,045) , Melville (4,517), and Flin Flon (229 in the SK portion) is also included though the majority of its population is in Manitoba.

Altogether Saskatchewan’s 16 cities amount to a population of 588,823 out of a provincial population of 1,033,381 in 2011. 57% of the population resides in the cities.

Compare this to the 1916 statistic when Saskatchewan’s six cities (Moose Jaw, North Battleford, Regina, Saskatoon, Swift Current and Weyburn) had a combined population of 79,931, an urban population of 176,297 out of a total provincial population of 647,835. The city population amounts for approximately 12% of the population, and the urban population 27%. The population of Saskatchewan in 1906 came to 257,763 with a city population of 20,778 and an urban population of 48,642. This makes the city population about 8% and an urban population of 18%. Saskatchewan became a province in 1905, population comparisons before this time would be based on estimates from the Northwest Territory enumerations.

The shift from rural to urban occurred in the depression years of the dirty thirties when people vacated their farms in vast number seeking economic stability in the cities. The end of World War II saw an increase in vehicles, paved highways, consolidated urban schools, and improved agricultural machinery such as the combine. Farms became larger, the rural population continued to decline, and the population continued to shift towards the cities and towns.

Read More:

BC and Alberta growth lead to rise in west. Saskatchewan sees turnaround – Postmedia News – The National Post Feb 8, 2012 by Jordan Press.

Cities big and small leading Saskatchewan boom: 2011 Census ~ From Martensville to Warman, Saskatoon to Regina, Saskatchewan growing at record rate
The StarPhoenix February 8, 2012

Saskatchewan Population report

Focus on Geography series – Province of Saskatchewan – Statistics Canada 2011 Census

9 Fascinating facts from the 2011 Census ~ When it comes to the census, Saskatchewan is Canada’s comeback kid. Kevin O’Connor CBC News Feb 9, 2012

Population Trends, Saskatchewan Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Alan Anderson. Canadian Plains Research Centre, University of Regina. 2006.

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Related posts:

What can be found at the NEW Saskatchewan Provincial Archives website?

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•Love and Marriage in Saskatchewan- a comprehensive guide

How did pioneers travel to their prairie homesteads?

•How to locate birth, marriage and death certificates in Saskatchewan, Canada

Are there genealogy sites that can compete with Ancestry.com?

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Image:
Engaging Powers of the Paperwhite

The two most engaging powers of an author are to make new things familiar, familiar things new.
William Makepeace Thackeray

All rights reserved. Copyright © Aum Kleem. All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed throgh Getty images. .. Peace and love be with you.
Namaste.

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Are there Genealogy Web Sites other than Ancestry.com?

10 Feb

Are there Genealogy Web sites other than Ancestry.com?

Celestial Blue

As more records enter into the public domain and are not protected by privacy and copyright laws, there are more and more books, records, and information being digitised online by a virtual plethora of web sites. How does one sort through the internet to find the web pages most useful in your ancestral search projects? There is not one way to find the best sources for information but several web sites which will hold up a torch and help to light up the path on your journey.

Ancestry.com is the new name for Rootsweb. Rootsweb has many volunteers manning the World Gen Web which includes the United States Gen Web, Canada Gen Web for instance and all the various states or provinces and their regions as well. Rootsweb volunteers provide regional local information, mailing lists and query – posting boards for internet visitors for free. rootsweb also provides the World Connect program where users can submit their family tree ged com file to share online as well, for free Ancestry.com took over Rootsweb and does charge for select databases, but not those databases or transcription projects put online by volunteers.

As far as other sites to use for genealogical research other than Ancestry.com, it would depend upon your region of ancestry to know if there would be additional sites to use. It is always best to search online for as much information as is available and not just search on one web site.

In Canada for instance the National Archives and Library web site has been making huge improvements and additions, and genealogists have appreciated the census being put online in the form of primary source documents, which have been transcribed on other websites as secondary source documents. It is on this website as well that WWI records can be found as well as Dominion Land Grant Patents, and scrip land records.

For researching ancestry in the United States one would be amiss to not check the Social Security Death Index SSDI, which is searchable now on many and several web sites.

If your genealogical research takes you afield to the British Isles, GENUKI (Genealogy United Kingdom and Ireland) has some excellent resources.

To try to keep a handle on the huge amount of information that is flooding the internet for genealogists and historians, Cyndi’s List has been cataloging the information by subject.

Family Search.org is the web site of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. This denomination provides a large amount of information via microfilm in their LDS libraries and a lot this is coming online as well.

There are too many web sites world wide to include them all here. Start from what you know and work towards the unknown. Local sources may indeed be the best source for birth, marriage and death certificates as well as cemetery photographs or internment records. The regional library or archives would have the newspaper records for obituaries, birth, wedding and anniversary announcements. The genealogy society in your ancestor’s country of origin is devoted to helping professonal genealogists and researchers and can provide resources and information guidelines. Rootsweb, by providing regional genealogy web sites through World Gen Web helps to find regional genealogy internet URLs, local web sites and postal addresses of interest to genealogists. World Gen Web also has established various transcription and assorted genealogical and cemetery projcts depending on the region and resources available. As well Cyndi’s list mentioned above helps in fiding the relevant web site or the “needle in the haystack” in a very organised way.

This brief introduction to online genealogy intends to help researchers discover where to research the internet for reliable sources. Good luck with your genealogical endeavours.

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Related posts:

The Era of Saskatchewan One Room Schoolhouses

Why were Canadian “Last Best West” homesteads created?

•Love and Marriage in Saskatchewan- a comprehensive guide

How did pioneers travel to their prarie homesteads?

•How to locate birth, marriage and death certificates in Saskatchewan, Canada

Are there genealogy sites that can compete with Ancestry.com?

For more information:

Saskatchewan Gen Web: a Rootsweb genealogy regional web site on ancestry.com

All rights reserved. Copyright © Aum Kleem All my images and text are protected under international authors copyright laws and Canadian photography laws and may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, transmitted or manipulated without my written explicit permission. They may be licensed throgh Getty images. .. Peace and love be with you.
Namaste.

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Follow me on Flickr, Word Press, Facebook, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr, Live Journal, and Flickriver

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Aum_Kleem - View my most interesting photos on Flickriver

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